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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645048/phytolith-carbon-sequestration-in-global-terrestrial-biomes
#1
Zhaoliang Song, Hongyan Liu, Caroline A E Strömberg, Xiaomin Yang, Xiaodong Zhang
Terrestrial biogeochemical carbon (C) sequestration is coupled with the biogeochemical silicon (Si) cycle through mechanisms such as phytolith C sequestration, but the size and distribution of the phytolith C sink remain unclear. Here, we estimate phytolith C sequestration in global terrestrial biomes. We used biome data including productivity, phytolith and silica contents, and the phytolith stability factor to preliminarily determine the size and distribution of the phytolith C sink in global terrestrial biomes...
June 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644776/eye-injuries-in-high-school-and-collegiate-athletes
#2
Barry P Boden, Lauren A Pierpoint, Rebecca G Boden, R Dawn Comstock, Zachary Y Kerr
BACKGROUND: Although eye injuries constitute a small percentage of high school and college sports injuries, they have the potential to be permanently debilitating. HYPOTHESIS: Eye injury rates will vary by sport, sex, and between the high school and college age groups. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: Data from eye injury reports in high school and college athletes were obtained from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System, High School Reporting Information Online (HS RIO) database over a 10-year span (2005-2006 through 2014-2015 school years) and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance Program (ISP) over an 11-year span (2004-2005 through 2014-2015 school years)...
June 1, 2017: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644579/pairing-field-methods-to-improve-inference-in-wildlife-surveys-while-accommodating-detection-covariance
#3
John Clare, Shawn T McKinney, John E DePue, Cynthia S Loftin
It is common to use multiple field sampling methods when implementing wildlife surveys to compare method efficacy or cost-efficiency, integrate distinct pieces of information provided by separate methods, or evaluate method-specific biases and misclassification error. Existing models that combine information from multiple field methods or sampling devices permit rigorous comparison of method-specific detection parameters, enable estimation of additional parameters such as false-positive detection probability, and improve occurrence or abundance estimates, but with the assumption that the separate sampling methods produce detections independently of one another...
June 23, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643212/the-role-of-primary-health-care-in-hepatitis-b-testing-and-management-a-case-study
#4
Jacqueline A Richmond, Joe Sasadeusz, Meredith Temple-Smith
Hepatitis B is a complex disease requiring lifelong management. Infection is linked to birth in high prevalence regions including Africa and Asia. Best practice guidelines identify who to test for hepatitis B, however, a significant proportion of Australians with hepatitis B have not been diagnosed, and are subsequently at risk of serious morbidity and mortality. This study sought to address the gap between current and optimal hepatitis B testing in a primary care clinic with a likely high population of undiagnosed hepatitis B...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642804/defining-an-optimal-cut-point-value-in-roc-analysis-an-alternative-approach
#5
Ilker Unal
ROC curve analysis is often applied to measure the diagnostic accuracy of a biomarker. The analysis results in two gains: diagnostic accuracy of the biomarker and the optimal cut-point value. There are many methods proposed in the literature to obtain the optimal cut-point value. In this study, a new approach, alternative to these methods, is proposed. The proposed approach is based on the value of the area under the ROC curve. This method defines the optimal cut-point value as the value whose sensitivity and specificity are the closest to the value of the area under the ROC curve and the absolute value of the difference between the sensitivity and specificity values is minimum...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642728/theory-the-final-frontier-a-corpus-based-analysis-of-the-role-of-theory-in-psychological-articles
#6
Sieghard Beller, Andrea Bender
Contemporary psychology regards itself as an empirical science, at least in most of its subfields. Theory building and development are often considered critical to the sciences, but the extent to which psychology can be cast in this way is under debate. According to those advocating a strong role of theory, studies should be designed to test hypotheses derived from theories (theory-driven) and ideally should yield findings that stimulate hypothesis formation and theory building (theory-generating). The alternative position values empirical findings over theories as the lasting legacy of science...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642676/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-protein-and-exercise
#7
REVIEW
Ralf Jäger, Chad M Kerksick, Bill I Campbell, Paul J Cribb, Shawn D Wells, Tim M Skwiat, Martin Purpura, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Arny A Ferrando, Shawn M Arent, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Jeffrey R Stout, Paul J Arciero, Michael J Ormsbee, Lem W Taylor, Colin D Wilborn, Doug S Kalman, Richard B Kreider, Darryn S Willoughby, Jay R Hoffman, Jamie L Krzykowski, Jose Antonio
The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review related to the intake of protein for healthy, exercising individuals. Based on the current available literature, the position of the Society is as follows:An acute exercise stimulus, particularly resistance exercise, and protein ingestion both stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and are synergistic when protein consumption occurs before or after resistance exercise.For building muscle mass and for maintaining muscle mass through a positive muscle protein balance, an overall daily protein intake in the range of 1...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642248/evaluation-of-a-community-based-safe-firearm-and-ammunition-storage-intervention
#8
Joseph A Simonetti, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar, Cassie King, Elizabeth Bennett, Frederick P Rivara
BACKGROUND: Safe firearm storage practices are associated with a lower risk of unintentional and self-inflicted firearm injuries among household members, though many firearms remain unlocked and/or loaded. OBJECTIVES: Conduct a preliminary evaluation of a community-based firearm safety intervention and assess participants' preferences for firearm locking devices and their comfort with potential firearm safety counsellors. DESIGN/METHODS: Baseline event and follow-up surveys among adult participants to assess changes in firearm storage practices, including whether all household firearms were stored locked, all were unloaded, all ammunition was locked, and a composite measure assessing whether all firearms were locked and unloaded and all ammunition was stored locked...
June 22, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641352/-do-general-surgeons-feel-adequately-prepared-for-the-complex-questions-associated-with-the-handling-of-multi-resistant-pathogens-results-of-the-mr2-survey
#9
Matthias May, Philipp J Spachmann, Steffen Lebentrau, Harald Schumacher, Christian Gilfrich, Hans-Martin Fritsche, Malte Vetterlein, Sabine Brookman-May, Martin Schostak, Florian M Wagenlehner, Maximilian Burger, Alexander Novotny, Robert Obermaier
Background At the present time, there is no evidence available as to the knowledge of general surgeons regarding multi-resistant pathogens (MRP) and the rational use of antibiotic medication (antibiotic stewardship/ABS) compared with physicians from other disciplines. Methods As part of the MR2 survey (Multiinstitutional Reconnaissance of practice with MultiResistant bacteria - a survey focussing on German hospitals), a questionnaire comprising 4 + 35 items was distributed to urologists, internists, gynaecologists and general surgeons in 18 hospitals...
June 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641272/aggregation-analysis-for-competitive-multiagent-systems-with-saddle-points-via-switching-strategies
#10
Liying Zhu, Zhengrong Xiang
This paper addresses the aggregation issues of competitive multiagent systems (CMASs) consisting of competitive agents with multimodes and saddle points. In such CMASs, due to existing mutual competitions, every agent is equipped with finite multimodes, and every mode in any agent is described as a second-order linear time-invariant (LTI) control system. When the origin is the same saddle point of all modes of agents, to investigate aggregation of the CMASs with switching strategies, we first use switched LTI systems with saddle points to formulate such CMASs...
June 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641135/variation-in-prevention-of-child-maltreatment-by-dutch-child-healthcare-professionals
#11
Simeon J A Visscher, Henk F van Stel
Child maltreatment (CM) is a common condition with a large impact on the victim and society. In the Netherlands, the preventive child healthcare (CHC) aims to protect children against such threats. However, several studies indicate that the efficacy in this area may be suboptimal for many CHC professionals. Therefore, this study aims to map the practice variation in the primary and secondary prevention of CM, by CHC physicians and nurses. This mixed-methods study used interviews to identify relevant topics and develop an online questionnaire...
June 19, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638617/clinical-pharmacists-in-primary-care-provider-satisfaction-and-perceived-impact-on-quality-of-care-provided
#12
Havan Truong, Miranda E Kroehl, Carmen Lewis, Robin Pettigrew, Marialice Bennett, Joseph J Saseen, Katy E Trinkley
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate primary care provider satisfaction and perceived impact of clinical pharmacy services on the disease state management in primary care. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey with 24 items and 4 domains was distributed anonymously to pharmacy residency program directors across the United States who were requested to forward the survey to their primary care provider colleagues. Primary care providers were asked to complete the survey...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638512/an-early-assessment-of-the-acgme-cler-program-a-national-survey-of-designated-institutional-officials
#13
Timothy R Long, Julie A Doherty, Katrin R Frimannsdottir, Steven H Rose
BACKGROUND: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Clinical Learning Environment Review (CLER) is an innovative element of the ACGME's new accreditation system. To date, little information has been collected regarding the value of CLER. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to collect information on designated institutional officials' (DIOs') perspectives about the initial CLER visits conducted at their institutions. METHODS: The authors created and distributed a survey to DIOs about their initial CLER visits...
June 2017: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638507/the-impact-of-using-mean-versus-mode-when-assessing-resident-competency
#14
Patrick B Barlow, Kate DuChene Thoma, Kristi J Ferguson
BACKGROUND: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Milestone Project was implemented in 2014 to standardize assessments and progression of residents. While it is recommended that milestones not be used as tools for direct assessments of resident competency, many programs have used or adapted milestone tools for this purpose. OBJECTIVE: We sought to explore use of the most frequent milestone level at which a resident was evaluated (ie, the mode), and compared this to the standard practice of using the arithmetic mean for summarizing performance...
June 2017: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638276/gastric-juice-based-real-time-pcr-for-tailored-helicobacter-pylori-treatment-a-practical-approach
#15
Xianhui Peng, Zhiqiang Song, Lihua He, Sanren Lin, Yanan Gong, Lu Sun, Fei Zhao, Yixin Gu, Yuanhai You, Liya Zhou, Jianzhong Zhang
A gastric juice-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was established to identify Helicobacter pylori infection, clarithromycin susceptibility and human CYP2C19 genotypes and to guide the choice of proton pump inhibitor (PPI), clarithromycin and amoxicillin treatment for tailored H. pylori eradication therapy. From January 2013 to November 2014, 178 consecutive dyspeptic patients were enrolled for collection of gastric biopsy samples and gastric juice by endoscopy at the Peking University Third Hospital; 105 and 73 H...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637234/a-baseline-assessment-by-healthcare-professionals-of-dutch-pharmacotherapeutic-care-for-the-elderly-with-polypharmacy
#16
Lutien Bakker, Peter F Kemper, Cordula Wagner, Gepke O Delwel, Martine C de Bruijne
Polypharmacy is common in the elderly population and is associated with an increased risk of adverse drug events. To diminish this risk, the guideline 'Polypharmacy in the Elderly' has been developed in 2012. This study examines, to what extent Dutch pharmacotherapeutic practice amongst elderly with polypharmacy mirrors the best practice described in this guideline and which barriers threaten it. An observational study was conducted in 2013/14 using a questionnaire distributed amongst Dutch healthcare professionals and elderly patients with polypharmacy...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636854/cluster-randomized-crossover-trial-of-head-positioning-in-acute-stroke
#17
Craig S Anderson, Hisatomi Arima, Pablo Lavados, Laurent Billot, Maree L Hackett, Verónica V Olavarría, Paula Muñoz Venturelli, Alejandro Brunser, Bin Peng, Liying Cui, Lily Song, Kris Rogers, Sandy Middleton, Joyce Y Lim, Denise Forshaw, C Elizabeth Lightbody, Mark Woodward, Octavio Pontes-Neto, H Asita De Silva, Ruey-Tay Lin, Tsong-Hai Lee, Jeyaraj D Pandian, Gillian E Mead, Thompson Robinson, Caroline Watkins
BACKGROUND: The role of supine positioning after acute stroke in improving cerebral blood flow and the countervailing risk of aspiration pneumonia have led to variation in head positioning in clinical practice. We wanted to determine whether outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke could be improved by positioning the patient to be lying flat (i.e., fully supine with the back horizontal and the face upwards) during treatment to increase cerebral perfusion. METHODS: In a pragmatic, cluster-randomized, crossover trial conducted in nine countries, we assigned 11,093 patients with acute stroke (85% of the strokes were ischemic) to receive care in either a lying-flat position or a sitting-up position with the head elevated to at least 30 degrees, according to the randomization assignment of the hospital to which they were admitted; the designated position was initiated soon after hospital admission and was maintained for 24 hours...
June 22, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636053/evidence-of-bad-recycling-practices-bfrs-in-children-s-toys-and-food-contact-articles
#18
A Guzzonato, F Puype, S J Harrad
Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been used intentionally in a wide range of plastics, but are now found in an even wider range of such materials (including children's toys and food contact articles) as a result of recycling practices that mix BFR-containing waste plastics with "virgin" materials. In this study Br was quantified in toy and food contact samples on the assumption that its concentration can be used as a metric for BFR contamination. Subsequently, compound specific determination of BFRs was performed to evaluate the validity of the aforementioned assumption, crucial to render rapid, inexpensive, in situ Br determination in non-laboratory environments (such as waste handling facilities) a viable option for sorting wastes according to their BFR content...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635565/prostate-cancer-stem-cells-from-theory-to-practice
#19
Jan Adamowicz, Katayoon Pakravan, Babak Bakhshinejad, Tomasz Drewa, Sadegh Babashah
None of the generally accepted theories on prostate cancer development can fully explain many distinguishing features of the disease, such as intratumoral heterogeneity, metastatic growth, drug resistance and tumor relapse. Prostate stem cells are a heterogeneous and small subpopulation of self-renewing cells which can actively proliferate in response to changes in the androgen level and give rise to all the cell lineages that build the prostate epithelium. According to the cancer stem cell hypothesis, prostate cancer could be a stem cell disease...
February 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635536/women-s-experiences-with-vaginal-examinations-during-labor-in-the-netherlands
#20
Hannah W de Klerk, Elise Boere, Rik H van Lunsen, Jannet J H Bakker
INTRODUCTION: Vaginal digital examination (VE) is a routine medical procedure during labor to assess the start and progression of labor. This study explores women's experiences with VE's during labor in the Netherlands. METHODS: An exploratory anonymous online survey was distributed among Dutch women who underwent a trial of labor and gave birth to a living term child in the previous six months. Unadjusted odds ratios are calculated to establish associations between women's characteristics and reporting a negative experience with VE's...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
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