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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239879/nonparametric-comparison-of-survival-functions-based-on-interval-censored-data-with-unequal-censoring
#1
Yanqin Feng, Ran Duan, Jianguo Sun
Nonparametric comparison of survival functions is one of the most commonly required task in failure time studies such as clinical trials, and for this, many procedures have been developed under various situations. This paper considers a situation that often occurs in practice but has not been discussed much: the comparison based on interval-censored data in the presence of unequal censoring. That is, one observes only interval-censored data, and the distributions of or the mechanisms behind censoring variables may depend on treatments and thus be different for the subjects in different treatment groups...
February 27, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239330/a-statistical-method-for-synthesizing-mediation-analyses-using-the-product-of-coefficient-approach-across-multiple-trials
#2
Shi Huang, David P MacKinnon, Tatiana Perrino, Carlos Gallo, Gracelyn Cruden, C Hendricks Brown
Mediation analysis often requires larger sample sizes than main effect analysis to achieve the same statistical power. Combining results across similar trials may be the only practical option for increasing statistical power for mediation analysis in some situations. In this paper, we propose a method to estimate: 1) marginal means for mediation path a, the relation of the independent variable to the mediator; 2) marginal means for path b, the relation of the mediator to the outcome, across multiple trials; and 3) the between-trial level variance-covariance matrix based on a bivariate normal distribution...
November 2016: Statistical Methods & Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239295/can-a-person-centred-care-intervention-improve-health-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer-a-randomized-controlled-study
#3
Elisabeth Hansson, Eric Carlström, Lars-Eric Olsson, Jan Nyman, Ingalill Koinberg
BACKGROUND: The incidence of head and neck cancer is increasing slightly. Head and neck cancer but also it's necessary and often successful treatment may affect general domains of health-related quality of life and provoke a variety of adverse symptoms and side effects, both during and after treatment. The objective of this study was to compare a person-centred care intervention in terms of health-related quality of life, disease-specific symptoms or problems, with traditional care as a control group for patients with head and neck cancer...
2017: BMC Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239142/computational-analysis-of-intra-ventricular-flow-pattern-under-partial-and-full-support-of-bjut-ii-vad
#4
Qi Zhang, Bin Gao, Yu Chang
BACKGROUND Partial support, as a novel support mode, has been widely applied in clinical practice and widely studied. However, the precise mechanism of partial support of LVAD in the intra-ventricular flow pattern is unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study, a patient-specific left ventricular geometric model was reconstructed based on CT data. The intra-ventricular flow pattern under 3 simulated conditions - "heart failure", "partial support", and "full support" - were simulated by using fluid-structure interaction (FSI)...
February 27, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238481/attitudes-and-counseling-practices-of-pediatricians-regarding-youth-sports-participation-and-concussion-risks
#5
Michael Fishman, Eleanor Taranto, Meryl Perlman, Kyran Quinlan, Holly J Benjamin, Lainie Friedman Ross
OBJECTIVE: To examine attitudes and practices of pediatricians toward sports-related head trauma and youth participation in tackle football and ice hockey. STUDY DESIGN: A respondent-anonymous electronic survey was distributed 3 times to members of the American Academy of Pediatrics Section of Bioethics, Council on Injury, Violence, and Poison Prevention, and Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness. RESULTS: Of 791 eligible pediatricians, 227 (29%) responded...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238456/ethical-issues-in-dialysis-therapy
#6
Vivekanand Jha, Dominique E Martin, Joanne M Bargman, Simon Davies, John Feehally, Fred Finkelstein, David Harris, Madhukar Misra, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Adeera Levin
Treatment for end-stage kidney disease is a major economic challenge and a public health concern worldwide. Renal-replacement therapy poses several practical and ethical dilemmas of global relevance for patients, clinicians, and policy makers. These include how to: promote patients' best interests; increase access to dialysis while maintaining procedural and distributive justice; minimise the influence of financial incentives and competing interests; ensure quality of care in service delivery and access to non-dialytic supportive care when needed; minimise the financial burden on patients and health-care system; and protect the interests of vulnerable groups during crisis situations...
February 23, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238450/synchronized-output-regulation-of-leader-following-heterogeneous-networked-systems-via-repetitive-controllers
#7
Feifan Ji, Yanjun Li, Ji Xiang
In this paper, the synchronized output regulation (SOR) problem of leader-following heterogeneous linear networked systems aiming at tracking periodical signals is investigated. Only the output information of each agent is delivered throughout the communication network. For tracking a general periodic signal consisting many sinusoid functions, the dimension of the internal model compensator embedded in each agent will be too high to be implemented in practice. To cope with this difficulty, a distributed repetitive control method is proposed in this paper...
February 23, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238106/a-critical-assessment-of-early-warning-score-records-in-168-000-patients
#8
Niels Egholm Pedersen, Lars Simon Rasmussen, John Asger Petersen, Thomas Alexander Gerds, Doris Østergaard, Anne Lippert
The national early warning score (NEWS) is recommended to detect deterioration in hospitalised patients. In 2013, a NEWS-based system was introduced in a hospital service with over 250,000 annual admissions, generating large amounts of NEWS data. The quality of such data has not been described. We critically assessed NEWS data recorded over 12 months. This observational study included NEWS records from adult inpatients hospitalized in the Capital Region of Denmark during 2014. Physiological variables and the use of supplementary oxygen (NEWS variables) were recorded...
February 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237634/geographic-information-systems-to-assess-external-validity-in-randomized-trials
#9
Margaret R Savoca, David A Ludwig, Stedman T Jones, K Jason Clodfelter, Joseph B Sloop, Linda Y Bollhalter, Alain G Bertoni
INTRODUCTION: To support claims that RCTs can reduce health disparities (i.e., are translational), it is imperative that methodologies exist to evaluate the tenability of external validity in RCTs when probabilistic sampling of participants is not employed. Typically, attempts at establishing post hoc external validity are limited to a few comparisons across convenience variables, which must be available in both sample and population. A Type 2 diabetes RCT was used as an example of a method that uses a geographic information system to assess external validity in the absence of a priori probabilistic community-wide diabetes risk sampling strategy...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237483/phylogenetic-analysis-reveals-cryptic-species-diversity-within-minute-intestinal-fluke-stellantchasmus-falcatus-onji-and-nishio-1916-trematoda-heterophyidae
#10
Chalobol Wongsawad, Nattawadee Nantarat, Pheravut Wongsawad
OBJECTIVE: To examine the taxonomic boundaries in the Stellantchasmus populations in different hosts and reveal the cryptic speciation of the Stellantchasmus in Thailand based on both morphological and molecular approaches. METHODS: Stellantchasmus falcatus (S. falcatus) s.l. was collected from different hosts throughout Thailand. The worms were examined and measured. The nuclear ITS2 gene and the mitochondrial COI gene were used to investigate the S. falcatus s...
February 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237430/evaluation-of-impact-of-an-external-breast-shield-flexishield-in-electronic-brachytherapy-for-breast-iort-a-phantom-study
#11
Yongbok Kim, Jason Wei-Yeong Huynh, Victor J Gonzalez
PURPOSE: To investigate Axxent (iCAD, Inc., San Jose, CA) electronic brachytherapy balloon deformation and its dosimetric impact because of an external flexible shield (FlexiShield [FS]; iCAD, Inc.). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Prostheses breast tissue phantom overlaid three spherical balloon applicators to simulate three clinical scenarios depending on minimum skin-to-balloon surface spacing (SS): balloon with SS of 2 cm, 1 cm, and balloon with 1 cm SS and touching the chest wall...
February 23, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237196/using-cost-effectiveness-analysis-to-address-health-equity-concerns
#12
Richard Cookson, Andrew J Mirelman, Susan Griffin, Miqdad Asaria, Bryony Dawkins, Ole Frithjof Norheim, Stéphane Verguet, Anthony J Culyer
This articles serves as a guide to using cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) to address health equity concerns. We first introduce the "equity impact plane," a tool for considering trade-offs between improving total health-the objective underpinning conventional CEA-and equity objectives, such as reducing social inequality in health or prioritizing the severely ill. Improving total health may clash with reducing social inequality in health, for example, when effective delivery of services to disadvantaged communities requires additional costs...
February 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236459/k-targeted-strategy-for-isolation-of-phenolic-alkaloids-of-nelumbo-nucifera-gaertn-by-counter-current-chromatography-using-lysine-as-a-ph-regulator
#13
Yanyan Wang, Lihong Zhang, Hui Zhou, Xiuyun Guo, Shihua Wu
Counter-current chromatography (CCC) is an efficient liquid-liquid partition chromatography technique without support matrix. Despite there are many significant advancements in the CCC separation of natural products especially for non-ionic neutral compounds, CCC isolation of ionic compounds including alkaloids is still a challenging process guide by classical partition coefficients (K) or distribution ratio (KC) because their partition coefficient could not be equal to distribution ratio in common ionic conditions...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236202/oxygen-microprofiles-within-the-sediment-water-interface-studied-by-optode-and-its-implication-for-aeration-of-polluted-urban-rivers
#14
Bo Liu, Rui-Ming Han, Wen-Lin Wang, Hong Yao, Feng Zhou
To reveal the detailed vertical oxygen distribution at the sediment-water interface (SWI) and its relation with the oxygen consumption processes during and after aeration of polluted urban rivers, experimental systems constructed with collected sediment and in situ overlying water from a polluted urban river were aerated above or beneath the sediment-water interface 12 h a day for 15 days and left nonaerated for the following 10 days. The results showed that aeration of water or sediment both increased dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the SWI, characterized by shifts in a "decrease-increase-decrease" manner during around 3 h for the aeration of water treatment (AW) and 6 h for the aeration of sediment treatment (AS)...
February 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236015/impact-of-continuous-training-through-distributed-practice-for-acquisition-of-minimally-invasive-surgical-skills
#15
Bruce Negrello Nakata, Worens Cavalini, Eduardo A Bonin, Paolo R Salvalaggio, Marcelo P Loureiro
BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) requires the mastery of manual skills and a specific training is required. Apart from residencies and fellowships in MIS, other learning opportunities utilize massive training, mainly with use of simulators in short courses. A long-term postgraduate course represents an opportunity to learn through training using distributed practice. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess the use of distributed practice for acquisition of basic minimally invasive skills in surgeons who participated in a long-term MIS postgraduate course...
February 24, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236014/the-smartor-a-distributed-sensor-network-to-improve-operating-room-efficiency
#16
Albert Y Huang, Guillaume Joerger, Vid Fikfak, Remi Salmon, Brian J Dunkin, Barbara L Bass, Marc Garbey
BACKGROUND: Despite the significant expense of OR time, best practice achieves only 70% efficiency. Compounding this problem is a lack of real-time data. Most current OR utilization programs require manual data entry. Automated systems require installation and maintenance of expensive tracking hardware throughout the institution. This study developed an inexpensive, automated OR utilization system and analyzed data from multiple operating rooms. STUDY DESIGN: OR activity was deconstructed into four room states...
February 24, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235878/botrytis-fragariae-a-new-species-causing-gray-mold-on-strawberries-shows-high-frequencies-of-specific-and-efflux-based-fungicide-resistance
#17
Sabrina Rupp, Cecilia Plesken, Sibylle Rumsey, Madeline Dowling, Guido Schnabel, Roland W S Weber, Matthias Hahn
Botrytis cinerea causes pre- and postharvest decay of many fruit and vegetable crops. A survey in German strawberry fields revealed Botrytis strains that differed from B. cinerea in diagnostic PCR markers and growth appearance. Phylogenetic analyses showed these strains to belong to an undescribed species in Botrytis clade 2, named Botrytis fragariae sp. nov. Isolates of B. fragariae were detected in strawberry fields throughout Germany, sometimes at similar frequencies as B. cinerea, and in the Southeastern United States...
February 24, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235611/a-survey-on-ivivc-ivivr-development-in-the-pharmaceutical-industry-past-experience-and-current-perspectives
#18
REVIEW
M A Nguyen, T Flanagan, M Brewster, F Kesisoglou, S Beato, J Biewenga, J Crison, R Holm, R Li, E Mannaert, M McAllister, M Mueller-Zsigmondy, U Muenster, K Ojala, S Page, A Parr, S Rossenu, P Timmins, A Van Peer, A Vermeulen, P Langguth
The present work aimed to describe the current status of IVIVC/IVIVR development in the pharmaceutical industry, focusing on the use and perception of specific approaches as well as successful and failed case studies. Two questionnaires have been distributed to 13 EFPIA partners of the Oral Biopharmaceutics Tools Initiative and to the Pharmacokinetics Working Party of the European Medicines Agency in order to capture the perspectives and experiences of industry scientists and agency members, respectively. Responses from ten companies and three European Agencies were received between May 21st 2014 and January 19th 2016...
February 21, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235534/case-reports-should-we-do-away-with-them
#19
Aynur Camkiran Firat, Coskun Araz, Zeynep Kayhan
STUDY OBJECTIVE: There has been a gradual decline in the number of case reports published in leading medical journals in recent years. Since case reports are not highly cited they have an adverse effect on the journal impact factor. On the other hand sharing new experiences, challenges, or discoveries with colleagues is essential for medical community. Should case reports be eliminated from the journals or published only in journals devoted to case reports? DESIGN: Observational study...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230438/the-influence-of-placements-on-adult-nursing-graduates-choice-of-first-post
#20
Mark Wareing, Renate Taylor, Aileen Wilson, Adrienne Sharples
BACKGROUND: This article presents findings from a study that sought to explore the extent to which clinical placements have an impact on nursing students' decisions regarding their first staff nurse post. Within the UK, nursing is facing a recruitment crisis with particular difficulty recruiting to areas such as primary care and care of older people. Transitioning into a new role is challenging in any occupation, but it is a particular problem in nursing where the realities of professional practice often differ from students' perception of the staff nurse role as shaped by their clinical placements...
February 23, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
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