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Leslie K Allison, Tim Kiemel, John J Jeka
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Multisensory reweighting (MSR) deficits in older adults contribute to fall risk. Sensory-challenge balance exercises may have value for addressing the MSR deficits in fall-prone older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of sensory-challenge balance exercises on MSR and clinical balance measures in fall-prone older adults. METHODS: We used a quasi-experimental, repeated-measures, within-subjects design. Older adults with a history of falls underwent an 8-week baseline (control) period...
April 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Brandon Jf Gheller, Phillip Joy, Daphne Lordly
PURPOSE: In Canada, dietitians serve a sex-diverse population despite the profession being predominately female (>95%). It is unknown why there are so few male dietitians. The objective of the present study was to explore the experience of the male dietitian, as a minority, in female-dominated dietetics. METHODS: Two semi-structured interviews were conducted, approximately 6 weeks apart, with Nova Scotian male dietitians. The interviews prompted participants to reflect on their experience of being a male dietitian...
March 15, 2018: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
F Mushtaq, C O'Driscoll, Fct Smith, D Wilkins, N Kapur, R Lawton
Background Confidential reporting systems play a key role in capturing information about adverse surgical events. However, the value of these systems is limited if the reports that are generated are not subjected to systematic analysis. The aim of this study was to provide the first systematic analysis of data from a novel surgical confidential reporting system to delineate contributory factors in surgical incidents and document lessons that can be learned. Methods One-hundred and forty-five patient safety incidents submitted to the UK Confidential Reporting System for Surgery over a 10-year period were analysed using an adapted version of the empirically-grounded Yorkshire Contributory Factors Framework...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
Niklas Wilming, Peter König, Seth König, Elizabeth A Buffalo
Grid cells in the entorhinal cortex allow for the precise decoding of position in space. Along with potentially playing an important role in navigation, grid cells have recently been hypothesized to make a general contribution to mental operations. A prerequisite for this hypothesis is that grid cell activity does not critically depend on physical movement. Here, we show that movement of covert attention, without any physical movement, also elicits spatial receptive fields with a triangular tiling of space...
March 14, 2018: ELife
Kevin A Day, Kristan A Leech, Ryan T Roemmich, Amy J Bastian
Acquiring new movements requires the capacity of the nervous system to remember previously experienced motor patterns. The phenomenon of faster re-learning after initial learning is termed 'savings'. Here we studied how savings of a novel walking pattern develops over several days of practice, and how this process can be accelerated. We introduced participants to a split-belt treadmill adaptation paradigm for 30 minutes for 5 consecutive days. After 5 training days, participants were able to produce near-perfect performance when switching between split and tied-belt environments...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Mustafa M Almuqbel, Gareth Leeper, Ross Keenan, David N Plamer, Tracy R Melzer
OBJECTIVES: To highlight specific instances when radial k-space acquisitions in magnetic resonance imaging result in image artifacts and how to ameliorate such artifacts. METHODS: We acquired axial T2  weighted MR images on (1) the American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom and (2) a sedated sheep with rectilinear and multi-blade radial k-space filling acquisitions. Images were acquired on four (2 × 1.5T and 2 × 3T) different MRI scanners. For the radial k-space acquisitions, we acquired images with and without motion correction...
March 14, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Takudzwa J Mtisi, Charles Maponga, Tsitsi G Monera-Penduka, Tinashe Mudzviti, Dexter Chagwena, Faithful Makita-Chingombe, Robin DiFranchesco, Gene D Morse
Background: A growing number of drug development studies that include pharmacokinetic evaluations are conducted in regions lacking a specialised pharmacology laboratory. This necessitated the development of an International Pharmacology Specialty Laboratory (IPSL) in Zimbabwe. Objectives: The aim of this article is to describe the development of an IPSL in Zimbabwe. Methods: The IPSL was developed collaboratively by the University of Zimbabwe and the University at Buffalo Center for Integrated Global Biomedical Sciences...
2018: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
Yawen Huang, Ling Shao, Alejandro F Frangi
Multi-modality medical imaging is increasingly used for comprehensive assessment of complex diseases in either diagnostic examinations or as part of medical research trials. Different imaging modalities provide complementary information about living tissues. However, multi-modal examinations are not always possible due to adversary factors, such as patient discomfort, increased cost, prolonged scanning time, and scanner unavailability. In additionally, in large imaging studies, incomplete records are not uncommon owing to image artifacts, data corruption or data loss, which compromise the potential of multi-modal acquisitions...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Ya Zhuo, Aria Mansouri Tehrani, Jakoah Brgoch
A machine-learning model is developed that can accurately predict the band gap of inorganic solids based only on composition. This method uses support vector classification to first separate metals from non-metals, followed by quantitatively predicting the band gap of the non-metals using support vector regression. The superb accuracy of the regression model is obtained by using a training set is composed entirely of experimentally measured band gaps and utilizing only compositional descriptors. In fact, because of the unique training set of experimental data, the machine learning predicted band gaps are significantly closer to the experimentally reported values than DFT (PBE-level) calculated band gaps...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Rafael Gómez-Bombarelli, Jennifer N Wei, David Duvenaud, José Miguel Hernández-Lobato, Benjamín Sánchez-Lengeling, Dennis Sheberla, Jorge Aguilera-Iparraguirre, Timothy D Hirzel, Ryan P Adams, Alán Aspuru-Guzik
We report a method to convert discrete representations of molecules to and from a multidimensional continuous representation. This model allows us to generate new molecules for efficient exploration and optimization through open-ended spaces of chemical compounds. A deep neural network was trained on hundreds of thousands of existing chemical structures to construct three coupled functions: an encoder, a decoder, and a predictor. The encoder converts the discrete representation of a molecule into a real-valued continuous vector, and the decoder converts these continuous vectors back to discrete molecular representations...
February 28, 2018: ACS Central Science
Cecilia Bartholdson, Bert Molewijk, Kim Lützén, Klas Blomgren, Pernilla Pergert
BACKGROUND: In previous research on ethics case reflection (ECR) sessions about specific cases, healthcare professionals in childhood cancer care were clarifying their perspectives on the ethical issue to resolve their main concern of consolidating care. When perspectives were clarified, consequences in the team included 'increased understanding', 'group strengthening' and 'decision grounding'. Additional analysis of the data was needed on conditions that could contribute to the quality of ECR sessions...
March 2018: Nursing Ethics
Young Ho Shin, Jihyeung Kim, Goo Hyun Baek
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to present a new radiograph of peritrapezial view and examine whether this view could supply clear and reliable radiographs of the joints around trapezium. METHODS: The radiographs of peritrapezial and Robert views were taken on both hands of the 30 healthy volunteers (15 men and 15 women). The four peritrapezial joints were evaluated by two trained hand surgeons to find out whether these views could clearly show the joint spaces around the trapezium...
January 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
Jessica Lee, Amanda S Russo, Ryan G Parsons
Classical fear conditioning is perhaps the premier model system used to study the neurobiological basis of memory formation. Prior work has resulted in a good understanding of both the molecular mechanisms and neural circuits supporting this form of learning. However, much of what is known about these mechanisms comes from studies in which fear memory is acquired using a single, isolated training session. Given that we cannot divorce the acquisition of new information from the backdrop on which it occurs, studies are needed to determine how the acquisition of fear memory is affected by other learning events...
March 7, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Xiaofeng Xie, Zhu Liang Yu, Zhenghui Gu, Jun Zhang, Ling Cen, Yuanqing Li
In off-line training of motor imagery-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), to enhance the generalization performance of the learned classifier, the local information contained in test data could be used to improve the performance of motor imagery as well. Further considering that the covariance matrices of electroencephalogram (EEG) signal lie on Riemannian manifold, in this paper, we construct a Riemannian graph to incorporate the information of training and test data into processing. The adjacency and weight in Riemannian graph are determined by the geodesic distance of Riemannian manifold...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Maureen Kroning
Nurse educators must equip students with beginning skills of assessment, communication, and awareness of spiritual care. Barriers to spiritual care-lack of time or of space, inadequate training-reduce nurses' provision of spiritual care. Nursing students observe patient needs for spiritual care, but often are not skilled or comfortable offering spiritual care. This article relays observations of 28 senior nursing students about spirituality and spiritual care with implications for teaching.
April 2018: Journal of Christian Nursing: a Quarterly Publication of Nurses Christian Fellowship
Niels Martin, Jose L Pascual, Dennis Crowe, Christine Toevs, Maurizio F Cereda, Mark Mikkelsen, Lewis J Kaplan
The US has witnessed a vast increase in animals in therapeutic roles. These roles include Service as defined by the American Disabilities Act (ADA) as well as other animal types that are not covered under the ADA provisions. Such animal roles are designated as Therapy animals and Emotional Support animals (ESA). Understanding the legal and regulatory requirements that govern how each animal type accesses healthcare facilities is essential in planning for their presence. Since only Service animals are required to be given access to facilities, individual institutions must plan for how to accommodate their presence throughout different phases of care...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Yang Meng, Xiaofei Wang, Beiyu Wang, Tingkui Wu, Hao Liu
RATIONALE: Cervical open-door laminoplasty can enlarge the volume of the cervical vertebral canal and thus has become an effective and safe treatment for multilevel cervical disc herniation and cervical stenosis. Some post-surgery complications exist, such as reduction of cervical alignment and local kyphosis. However, aggravation of cervical disc herniation at the surgical level during short-term follow-up has not been discussed. Additionally, spontaneous disappearance of herniated disc pulposus is a common phenomenon in the lumbar region but is relatively rare in the cervical region...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Mary Bourke, Catherine Houghton
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore health care professionals' (HCP) and patients' perceptions of the potential use of a Transition Readiness Scale (TRS) in cystic fibrosis care. This included an examination of barriers and facilitators to its implementation along with the identification of key items to include in a TRS. BACKGROUND: Due to increasing life expectancy and improved quality of life, more adolescents with cystic fibrosis are transitioning from paediatric to adult health care...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Janneke de Winter, Manouk de Hooge, Marleen van de Sande, Henriëtte de Jong, Lonneke van Hoeven, Anoek de Koning, Inger Jorid Berg, Roberta Ramonda, Dominique Baeten, Désirée van der Heijde, Angelique Weel, Robert Landewé
OBJECTIVE: To compare MRI of the sacroiliac joints (MRI-SI) of healthy, symptomless individuals and those with known mechanical strain acting upon SI joints to axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and chronic back pain (CBP) patients. METHODS: Three trained, calibrated and blinded readers randomly scored MRI-SI of 172 subjects: 47 healthy individuals without current/past back pain; 47 axSpA patients from the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort (with a previously confirmed positive MRI-SI); 47 CBP controls (irrespective of MRI-SI results) from the SPACE cohort; 7 women with postpartum back pain; and 24 frequent runners...
March 7, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Ai Tanaka, Tadatoshi Ogura
The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is an endangered semi-arboreal folivore with a specialized diet of bamboo leaves. Zoos worldwide maintain red pandas under a variety of housing environments and husbandry procedures that may affect the reproductive success and longevity of captive red pandas. The aims of the present study were to investigate how red pandas are kept in Japan and to obtain useful insights to increase their longevity by comparing the results from a questionnaire sent to Japanese zoos and those from a previous survey conducted in other countries...
March 7, 2018: Zoo Biology
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