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Spaced training

Armando H Norman, Andrew J Russell, Claudia Merli
The UK's Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) is the largest pay-for-performance scheme in the world. This ethnographic study explored how QOF's monetary logic influences the approach to healthcare in UK general practice. From August 2013 to April 2014, we researched two UK general practice surgeries and one general practice training programme. These environments provided the opportunity for studying various spaces such as QOF meetings, consultation rooms, QOF recoding sessions, and the collection of computer-screen images depicting how patients' biomarkers are evaluated and costed through software systems...
October 11, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
William Joseph MacInnes
Cuing a location in space produces a short-lived advantage in reaction time to targets at that location. This early advantage, however, switches to a reaction time cost and has been termed inhibition of return (IOR). IOR behaves differently for different response modalities, suggesting that it may not be a unified effect. This letter presents new data from two experiments testing the gradient of IOR with random, continuous cue-target Euclidean distance and cue-target onset asynchrony. This data were then used to train multiple diffusion models of saccadic and manual reaction time for these cuing experiments...
October 20, 2016: Neural Computation
Yasheng Chen, Rajat Dhar, Laura Heitsch, Andria Ford, Israel Fernandez-Cadenas, Caty Carrera, Joan Montaner, Weili Lin, Dinggang Shen, Hongyu An, Jin-Moo Lee
Although cerebral edema is a major cause of death and deterioration following hemispheric stroke, there remains no validated biomarker that captures the full spectrum of this critical complication. We recently demonstrated that reduction in intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume (∆ CSF) on serial computed tomography (CT) scans provides an accurate measure of cerebral edema severity, which may aid in early triaging of stroke patients for craniectomy. However, application of such a volumetric approach would be too cumbersome to perform manually on serial scans in a real-world setting...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Elizabeth E Hibberd, Kevin G Laudner, Kristen L Kucera, David J Berkoff, Bing Yu, Joseph B Myers
BACKGROUND: Subacromial space distance and forward head and shoulder posture are common characteristics resulting from swim training. These alterations can cause abnormal scapular kinematics and positioning, potentially increasing compression of structures in the subacromial space and increasing the risk for the development of swimmer's shoulder. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of the swim training season on subacromial space distance and forward head and forward shoulder posture as well as to determine the relationship between these variables...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Henry Zakumumpa, Modupe Oladunni Taiwo, Alex Muganzi, Freddie Ssengooba
BACKGROUND: Human resources for health (HRH) constraints are a major barrier to the sustainability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. Many prior approaches to HRH constraints have taken a top-down trend of generalized global strategies and policy guidelines. The objective of the study was to examine the human resources for health strategies adopted by front-line providers in Uganda to sustain ART delivery beyond the initial ART scale-up phase between 2004 and 2009...
October 19, 2016: Human Resources for Health
Timothy B Lannin, Fredrik I Thege, Brian J Kirby
Advances in rare cell capture technology have made possible the interrogation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) captured from whole patient blood. However, locating captured cells in the device by manual counting bottlenecks data processing by being tedious (hours per sample) and compromises the results by being inconsistent and prone to user bias. Some recent work has been done to automate the cell location and classification process to address these problems, employing image processing and machine learning (ML) algorithms to locate and classify cells in fluorescent microscope images...
October 2016: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Ashley Galati, Alyson Hock, Ramesh S Bhatt
Configural information (spacing between features) contributes to face-processing expertise in adulthood. We examined whether infants can be "trained" to process this information. In Experiment 1, 3.5-month-olds failed to discriminate changes in the spacing between facial features. However, in Experiments 2 and 3, infants processed the same information after being primed with faces in which the spacing was repeatedly altered. Experiment 4 found that priming was not effective with inverted faces or with faces depicting changes in features but not relations among features, indicating that the priming exhibited in Experiments 2 and 3 was specific to upright faces depicting spacing changes...
November 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Talayesa Buntinx-Krieg, Jeffrey Greenwald
We report a case of a 39-year-old healthy male presenting with an eruption consisting of evenly spaced, well-circumscribed, round, petechial macules over a discrete region on his back. A detailed history revealed that the man participated in a high-intensity combination workout routine and post-exercise massage. He reported using a regulation-sized dimpled softball in order to massage the musculature of his back. A diagnosis of traumatic petechiae was established. A growing fitness culture encouraging high-intensity training and post-exercise massage coupled with the high costs of professional masseuse services has led to the increased use of self-massage techniques using both traditional and non-traditional massage equipment...
September 12, 2016: Curēus
Andreas Holzinger
Machine learning (ML) is the fastest growing field in computer science, and health informatics is among the greatest challenges. The goal of ML is to develop algorithms which can learn and improve over time and can be used for predictions. Most ML researchers concentrate on automatic machine learning (aML), where great advances have been made, for example, in speech recognition, recommender systems, or autonomous vehicles. Automatic approaches greatly benefit from big data with many training sets. However, in the health domain, sometimes we are confronted with a small number of data sets or rare events, where aML-approaches suffer of insufficient training samples...
June 2016: Brain Informatics
Shanshan Wang, Jianbo Liu, Xi Peng, Pei Dong, Qiegen Liu, Dong Liang
Compressed sensing magnetic resonance imaging (CSMRI) employs image sparsity to reconstruct MR images from incoherently undersampled K-space data. Existing CSMRI approaches have exploited analysis transform, synthesis dictionary, and their variants to trigger image sparsity. Nevertheless, the accuracy, efficiency, or acceleration rate of existing CSMRI methods can still be improved due to either lack of adaptability, high complexity of the training, or insufficient sparsity promotion. To properly balance the three factors, this paper proposes a two-layer tight frame sparsifying (TRIMS) model for CSMRI by sparsifying the image with a product of a fixed tight frame and an adaptively learned tight frame...
2016: BioMed Research International
Liga Blyholder, Elizabeth Chumanov, Kathleen Carr, Bryan Heiderscheit
BACKGROUND: With a recent increase in running popularity, more women choose to run during and after pregnancy. Little research has examined exercise behaviors and postpartum health conditions of runners. HYPOTHESIS: Antenatal and postpartum exercise is beneficial in reducing certain postpartum health conditions. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 5. METHODS: A self-administered, online survey was developed that consisted of questions regarding antenatal and postpartum exercise behaviors, maternal history, and postpartum health conditions...
October 14, 2016: Sports Health
Guillaume Zahnd, Kostas Kapellas, Martijn van Hattem, Anouk van Dijk, André Sérusclat, Philippe Moulin, Aad van der Lugt, Michael Skilton, Maciej Orkisz
The aim of this study was to introduce and evaluate a contour segmentation method to extract the interfaces of the intima-media complex in carotid B-mode ultrasound images. The method was applied to assess the temporal variation of intima-media thickness during the cardiac cycle. The main methodological contribution of the proposed approach is the introduction of an augmented dimension to process 2-D images in a 3-D space. The third dimension, which is added to the two spatial dimensions of the image, corresponds to the tentative local thickness of the intima-media complex...
October 12, 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Georgia Halkett, Moira O'Connor, Sanchia Aranda, Michael Jefford, Susan Merchant, Debra York, Lisa Miller, Penelope Schofield
INTRODUCTION: Patients sometimes present for radiation therapy with high levels of anxiety. Communication skills training may assist radiation therapists to conduct more effective consultations with patients prior to treatment planning and treatment commencement. The overall aim of our research is to examine the effectiveness of a preparatory programme 'RT Prepare' delivered by radiation therapists to reduce patient psychological distress. The purpose of this manuscript was to describe the communication skills workshops developed for radiation therapists and evaluate participants' feedback...
April 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
Lewis J Rowden, Paul E Rose
Banteng (Bos javanicus) are an example of a species of conservation concern without current "best practice" guidance, as they have been the focus of little applied husbandry research. Despite their elevated conservation status, and established, increasing global captive population, zoos do not yet have information on optimal husbandry. To help address this problem, a husbandry survey was distributed to all global holders of banteng. Questions focused on herd demographic structure, exhibit features (including mixed-species exhibition), dietary provision, and behavioral management...
October 13, 2016: Zoo Biology
Daniel Kaiser, Nikolaas N Oosterhof, Marius V Peelen
: The human visual system can only represent a small subset of the many objects present in cluttered scenes at any given time, such that objects compete for representation. Despite these processing limitations, the detection of object categories in cluttered natural scenes is remarkably rapid. How does the brain efficiently select goal-relevant objects from cluttered scenes? In the present study, we used multivariate decoding of magneto-encephalography (MEG) data to track the neural representation of within-scene objects as a function of top-down attentional set...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Abdu Subaihi, Laila Almanqur, Howbeer Muhamadali, Najla Almasoud, David I Ellis, Drupad K Trivedi, Katherine A Hollywood, Yun Xu, Royston Goodacre
There has been an increasing demand for rapid and sensitive techniques for the identification and quantification of pharmaceutical compounds in human biofluids during the last few decades and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is one of a number of physicochemical techniques with the potential to meet these demands. In this study we have developed a SERS-based analytical approach for the assessment of human biofluids in combination with chemometrics. This novel approach has enabled the detection and quantification of the β-blocker propranolol spiked into human serum, plasma and urine at physiologically relevant concentrations...
October 12, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Ronni Hayon
Transgender and gender-nonconforming individuals experience significant health disparities. They are more likely to use drugs and alcohol, smoke, be diagnosed with HIV infection or other sexually transmitted infections, and experience depression or attempt suicide. Many also experience discrimination within the health care system. Office-level strategies to create a safe and affirming space for gender-expansive patients include posting of a nondiscrimination statement, use of intake forms that ask about current gender identity and birth-assigned sex, provision of gender-neutral restrooms, and staff training in use of appropriate language...
October 2016: FP Essentials
Neeraj Nagpal
Physicians and Internists in India have tended to brush under the carpet legal issues affecting their profession. Of concern to all Physicians is the judgment in a recent case where the NCDRC has stated that if MD Medicine Physicians write Physician & Cardiologist on their letterhead it is Quackery. What is MD Medicine degree holder in India qualified and trained to treat ? These are issues which need debate and that can only be initiated once we recognize that there is a problem. Either an MD Medicine is a cardiologist or he is not...
February 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
A Shea, L De Risio, H Carruthers, A Ekiri, E Beltran
To describe the development of clinical signs (CS) and outcome of L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA), owners of 119 Staffordshire bull terriers positive for the known L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase autosomal-recessive mutations were requested to complete a questionnaire regarding their pet's CS. Questionnaires were returned for 27 dogs, all with neurological abnormalities-not all questions were answered in all cases. The mean age of CS onset was 12 months (range 2.5-60). Gait dysfunction was reported in 26/26 dogs, with stiffness of all four limbs the most common (24/26) and earliest recognised abnormality...
October 11, 2016: Veterinary Record
Sana Sheikh, Rahat Najam Qureshi, Asif Raza Khowaja, Rehana Salam, Marianne Vidler, Diane Sawchuck, Peter von Dadelszen, Shujat Zaidi, Zulfiqar Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality ratio is 276 per 100,000 live births in Pakistan. Eclampsia is responsible for one in every ten maternal deaths despite the fact that management of this disease is inexpensive and has been available for decades. Many studies have shown that health care providers in low and middle-income countries have limited training to manage patients with eclampsia. Hence, we aimed to explore the knowledge of different cadres of health care providers regarding aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia and current management practices...
September 30, 2016: Reproductive Health
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