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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782328/post-stroke-visual-neglect-affects-goal-directed-locomotion-in-different-perceptuo-cognitive-conditions-and-on-a-wide-visual-spectrum
#1
Tatiana Ogourtsova, Philippe S Archambault, Anouk Lamontagne
BACKGROUND: Unilateral spatial neglect (USN), a highly prevalent and disabling post-stroke deficit, has been shown to affect the recovery of locomotion. However, our current understanding of USN role in goal-directed locomotion control, and this, in different cognitive/perceptual conditions tapping into daily life demands, is limited. OBJECTIVES: To examine goal-directed locomotion abilities in individuals with and without post-stroke USN vs. healthy controls. METHODS: Participants (n = 45, n = 15 per group) performed goal-directed locomotion trials to actual, remembered and shifting targets located 7 m away at 0° and 15° right/left while immersed in a 3-D virtual environment...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779878/a-role-for-mouse-primary-visual-cortex-in-motion-perception
#2
Tiago Marques, Mathew T Summers, Gabriela Fioreze, Marina Fridman, Rodrigo F Dias, Marla B Feller, Leopoldo Petreanu
Visual motion is an ethologically important stimulus throughout the animal kingdom. In primates, motion perception relies on specific higher-order cortical regions. Although mouse primary visual cortex (V1) and higher-order visual areas show direction-selective (DS) responses, their role in motion perception remains unknown. Here, we tested whether V1 is involved in motion perception in mice. We developed a head-fixed discrimination task in which mice must report their perceived direction of motion from random dot kinematograms (RDKs)...
May 12, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779875/three-dimensional-representation-of-motor-space-in-the-mouse-superior-colliculus
#3
Jonathan J Wilson, Nicolas Alexandre, Caterina Trentin, Marco Tripodi
From the act of exploring an environment to that of grasping a cup of tea, animals must put in register their motor acts with their surrounding space. In the motor domain, this is likely to be defined by a register of three-dimensional (3D) displacement vectors, whose recruitment allows motion in the direction of a target. One such spatially targeted action is seen in the head reorientation behavior of mice, yet the neural mechanisms underlying these 3D behaviors remain unknown. Here, by developing a head-mounted inertial sensor for studying 3D head rotations and combining it with electrophysiological recordings, we show that neurons in the mouse superior colliculus are either individually or conjunctively tuned to the three Eulerian components of head rotation...
May 15, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779177/computational-identification-of-structural-factors-affecting-the-mutagenic-potential-of-aromatic-amines-study-design-and-experimental-validation
#4
Svetoslav H Slavov, Iva Stoyanova-Slavova, William Mattes, Richard D Beger, Beat J Brüschweiler
A grid-based, alignment-independent 3D-SDAR (three-dimensional spectral data-activity relationship) approach based on simulated 13 C and 15 N NMR chemical shifts augmented with through-space interatomic distances was used to model the mutagenicity of 554 primary and 419 secondary aromatic amines. A robust modeling strategy supported by extensive validation including randomized training/hold-out test set pairs, validation sets, "blind" external test sets as well as experimental validation was applied to avoid over-parameterization and build Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD 2004) compliant models...
May 19, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777133/selective-improvements-in-balancing-associated-with-offline-periods-of-spaced-training
#5
Antonino Casabona, Maria Stella Valle, Carlo Cavallaro, Gabriele Castorina, Matteo Cioni
Benefits from post-training memory processing have been observed in learning many procedural skills. Here, we show that appropriate offline periods produce a performance gain during learning to stand on a multiaxial balance board. The tilt angle and the area of sway motion of the board were much more reduced in participants performing a training spaced by an interval of one day with respect to participants executing the same amount of practice over a concentrated period. In particular, offline memory encoding was specifically associated with the motion along the anterior-posterior direction, the spatio-temporal dynamics, and the frequency contents of the board sway...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774494/peer-respites-a-qualitative-assessment-of-consumer-experience
#6
Elizabeth Siantz, Benjamin Henwood, Nicole McGovern, Joelle Greene, Todd Gilmer
This qualitative study explored the experiences of persons staying at two peer respites through interviews with 27 respite guests near the end of their stay and at 2-6 months following their stay. Trained peer interviewers conducted baseline and follow-up interviews. Peer respites can be beneficial spaces within the mental health system for guests to temporarily escape stressful situations while building relationships with other persons with mental illness, though some respondents were uncomfortable receiving services from peers, and several guests did not want to leave after their stay...
May 17, 2018: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773912/development-and-evaluation-of-a-novel-system-for-inducing-orthostatic-challenge-by-tilt-tests-and-lower-body-negative-pressure
#7
Łukasz Dziuda, Mariusz Krej, Maciej Śmietanowski, Aleksander Sobotnicki, Mariusz Sobiech, Piotr Kwaśny, Anna Brzozowska, Paulina Baran, Krzysztof Kowalczuk, Franciszek W Skibniewski
Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) is a method derived from space medicine, which in recent years has been increasingly used by clinicians to assess the efficiency of the cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms. LBNP with combined tilt testing is considered as an effective form of training to prevent orthostatic intolerance. We have developed a prototype system comprising a tilt table and LBNP chamber, and tested it in the context of the feasibility of the device for assessing the pilots' efficiency. The table allows for controlled tilting in the range from -45 to +80° at the maximum change rate of 45°/s...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771664/guided-policy-exploration-for-markov-decision-processes-using-an-uncertainty-based-value-of-information-criterion
#8
Isaac J Sledge, Matthew S Emigh, Jose C Principe
Reinforcement learning in environments with many action-state pairs is challenging. The issue is the number of episodes needed to thoroughly search the policy space. Most conventional heuristics address this search problem in a stochastic manner. This can leave large portions of the policy space unvisited during the early training stages. In this paper, we propose an uncertainty-based, information-theoretic approach for performing guided stochastic searches that more effectively cover the policy space. Our approach is based on the value of information, a criterion that provides the optimal tradeoff between expected costs and the granularity of the search process...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771528/host-cell-prediction-of-exosomes-using-morphological-features-on-solid-surfaces-analyzed-by-machine-learning
#9
Kazuki Ito, Yuta Ogawa, Keiji Yokota, Sachiko Matsumura, Tamiko Minamisawa, Kanako Suga, Kiyotaka Shiba, Yasuo Kimura, Ayumi Hirano-Iwata, Yuzuru Takamura, Toshio Ogino
Exosomes are extracellular nanovesicles released from any cells and found in any body-fluid. Because exosomes exhibit information of their host cells (secreting cells), their analysis is expected to be a powerful tool for early diagnosis of cancers. To predict the host cells, we extracted multi-dimensional feature data about size, shape, and deformation of exosomes immobilized on solid surfaces by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The key idea is combination of support vector machine (SVM) learning for individual exosome particles and their interpretation by principal component analysis (PCA)...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771224/discipline-specific-competency-based-curricula-for-leadership-learning-in-medical-specialty-training
#10
Sandra Turner, Ming-Ka Chan, Judy McKimm, Graham Dickson, Timothy Shaw
Purpose Doctors play a central role in leading improvements to healthcare systems. Leadership knowledge and skills are not inherent, however, and need to be learned. General frameworks for medical leadership guide curriculum development in this area. Explicit discipline-linked competency sets and programmes provide context for learning and likely enhance specialty trainees' capability for leadership at all levels. The aim of this review was to summarise the scholarly literature available around medical specialty-specific competency-based curricula for leadership in the post-graduate training space...
May 8, 2018: Leadership in Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770560/how-nurses-restore-and-maintain-mobility-in-hospitalised-older-people-an-integrative-literature-review
#11
Stephanie Constantin, Sherry Dahlke
AIM: The aim of this integrative review of the literature was to evaluate and summarise current research about how nurses maintain and improve hospitalised older peoples' mobility levels. BACKGROUND: Older persons make up the majority of healthcare recipients, and they are at risk to experience significant decline in their mobility once hospitalised. This can result in longer hospitalisations or nursing home admissions. Currently, it is not well understood how nurses maintain and restore mobility of hospitalised older persons...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Older People Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765298/real-time-tracking-of-selective-auditory-attention-from-m-eeg-a-bayesian-filtering-approach
#12
Sina Miran, Sahar Akram, Alireza Sheikhattar, Jonathan Z Simon, Tao Zhang, Behtash Babadi
Humans are able to identify and track a target speaker amid a cacophony of acoustic interference, an ability which is often referred to as the cocktail party phenomenon. Results from several decades of studying this phenomenon have culminated in recent years in various promising attempts to decode the attentional state of a listener in a competing-speaker environment from non-invasive neuroimaging recordings such as magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG). To this end, most existing approaches compute correlation-based measures by either regressing the features of each speech stream to the M/EEG channels (the decoding approach) or vice versa (the encoding approach)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764540/-2018-national-consensus-on-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-training-in-china
#13
Lixiang Wang, Qingyi Meng, Tao Yu
To promote the technical training and scientific popularization of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in China, the Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Specialized Committee of Chinese Research Hospital Association combined with the Science Popularization Branch of the Chinese Medical Association wrote "2018 National consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in China". The formation was based on the general outline about "2016 National consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation in China", and to implement the important strategies included the "three pre" policy, prevention, precognition, and pre-warning, before the cardiac arrest (CA); the "three modernization" methods, standardized, diversified and individualized, during the CA; and the "three life" strategies, the rebirth, the extra and the extended, after the CA; and also combined with the concrete National conditions and clinical practice of China area...
May 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762023/reinforced-adversarial-neural-computer-for-de-novo-molecular-design
#14
Evgeny Putin, Arip Asadulaev, Yan Ivanenkov, Vladimir Aladinskiy, Benjamin Sánchez-Lengeling, Alán Aspuru-Guzik, Alex Zhavoronkov
In silico modeling is a crucial milestone in modern drug design & development. Although computer-aided approaches in this field are well-studied, the application of deep learning methods in this research area is at the beginning. In this work, we present an original deep neural network (DNN) architecture named RANC (Reinforced Adversarial Neural Computer) for the de novo design of novel small-molecule organic structures based on generative adversarial network (GAN) paradigm and reinforcement learning (RL)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761989/-super-resolution-reconstruction-for-lung-four-dimensional-computed-tomography-images-using-multi-model-gaussian-process-regression
#15
Shiting Fang, Tao Zhong, Jin Chen, Yu Zhang
Lung four dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) can lead to accurate radiotherapy. However, for the safety of patients, the scan spacing of 4D-CT cannot be too small so that the inter-slice resolution of lung 4D-CT is low, and thus the coronal and sagittal images need to be interpolated to obtain high-resolution images. This paper presents a super-resolution reconstruction technique based on multi-model Gaussian process regression. We use the high-resolution transversal images and the corresponding low-resolution images as the training sets...
December 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761273/a-randomised-trial-of-observational-learning-from-2d-and-3d-models-in-robotically-assisted-surgery
#16
David J Harris, Samuel J Vine, Mark R Wilson, John S McGrath, Marie-Eve LeBel, Gavin Buckingham
BACKGROUND: Advances in 3D technology mean that both robotic surgical devices and surgical simulators can now incorporate stereoscopic viewing capabilities. While depth information may benefit robotic surgical performance, it is unclear whether 3D viewing also aids skill acquisition when learning from observing others. As observational learning plays a major role in surgical skills training, this study aimed to evaluate whether 3D viewing provides learning benefits in a robotically assisted surgical task...
May 14, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760988/intra-class-variability-in-diffuse-reflectance-spectroscopy-application-to-porcine-adipose-tissue
#17
Félix Fanjul-Vélez, Laura Arévalo-Díaz, José L Arce-Diego
Optical diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) has great potential in the study, diagnosis, and discrimination of biological tissues. Discrimination is based on massive measurements that conform training sets. These sets are then used to classify tissues according to the biomedical application. Classification accuracy depends strongly on the training dataset, which typically comes from different samples of the same class, and from different points of the same sample. The variability of these measurements is not usually considered and is assumed to be purely random, although it could greatly influence the results...
May 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760655/neural-codes-for-one-s-own-position-and-direction-in-a-real-world-vista-environment
#18
Valentina Sulpizio, Maddalena Boccia, Cecilia Guariglia, Gaspare Galati
Humans, like animals, rely on an accurate knowledge of one's spatial position and facing direction to keep orientated in the surrounding space. Although previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated that scene-selective regions (the parahippocampal place area or PPA, the occipital place area or OPA and the retrosplenial complex or RSC), and the hippocampus (HC) are implicated in coding position and facing direction within small-(room-sized) and large-scale navigational environments, little is known about how these regions represent these spatial quantities in a large open-field environment...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758767/neural-network-approach-to-time-dependent-dividing-surfaces-in-classical-reaction-dynamics
#19
Philippe Schraft, Andrej Junginger, Matthias Feldmaier, Robin Bardakcioglu, Jörg Main, Günter Wunner, Rigoberto Hernandez
In a dynamical system, the transition between reactants and products is typically mediated by an energy barrier whose properties determine the corresponding pathways and rates. The latter is the flux through a dividing surface (DS) between the two corresponding regions, and it is exact only if it is free of recrossings. For time-independent barriers, the DS can be attached to the top of the corresponding saddle point of the potential energy surface, and in time-dependent systems, the DS is a moving object. The precise determination of these direct reaction rates, e...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758069/strengthening-primary-eye-care-in-south-africa-an-assessment-of-services-and-prospective-evaluation-of-a-health-systems-support-package
#20
Rivka R Lilian, Jean Railton, Erik Schaftenaar, Moyahabo Mabitsi, Cornelis J Grobbelaar, N Sellina Khosa, Babra H Maluleke, Helen E Struthers, James A McIntyre, Remco P H Peters
Visual impairment is a significant public health concern, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where eye care is predominantly provided at the primary healthcare (PHC) level, known as primary eye care. This study aimed to perform an evaluation of primary eye care services in three districts of South Africa and to assess whether an ophthalmic health system strengthening (HSS) package could improve these services. Baseline surveys were conducted in Cape Winelands District, Johannesburg Health District and Mopani District at 14, 25 and 36 PHC facilities, respectively...
2018: PloS One
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