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tear osmolarity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111837/conjunctival-tear-layer-temperature-evaporation-hyperosmolarity-inflammation-hyperemia-tissue-damage-and-symptoms-a-review-of-an-amplifying-cascade
#1
Charles W McMonnies
PURPOSE: This review examines the evidence for and significance of pre-conjunctival tear temperature being higher than central pre-corneal temperature with associated more rapid evaporation of warmer pre-conjunctival tears in normal eyes but especially in hyperemic dry eye disease. METHODS: PubMed searches using the terms "evaporative dry eye," "conjunctival tear evaporation," "tear evaporation," and "dry eye conjunctival hyperemia" indicated 157, 49, 309, and 96 potentially relevant papers, respectively...
November 7, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055359/update-in-current-diagnostics-and-therapeutics-of-dry-eye-disease
#2
REVIEW
Praneetha Thulasi, Ali Reza Djalilian
Dry eye disease (DED) represents a heterogeneous group of conditions with tear film insufficiency and signs and/or symptoms of ocular surface irritation. The clinical manifestations of DED can be highly variable; hence the diagnosis is often based on a combination of symptoms, signs, and clinical tests, given that any one of these alone would miss a significant number of patients. Similarly, the treatment must often be tailored to each patient by targeting the specific mechanisms involved in his or her disease...
November 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036609/computed-flow-and-fluorescence-over-the-ocular-surface
#3
Longfei Li, R J Braun, W D Henshaw, P E King-Smith
Fluorescein is perhaps the most commonly used substance to visualize tear film thickness and dynamics; better understanding of this process aids understanding of dry eye syndrome which afflicts millions of people. We study a mathematical model for tear film flow, evaporation, solutal transport and fluorescence over the exposed ocular surface during the interblink. Transport of the fluorescein ion by fluid flow in the tear film affects the intensity of fluorescence via changes in concentration and tear film thickness...
September 27, 2017: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023989/impact-of-contact-lens-material-and-design-on-the-ocular-surface
#4
Javier Ruiz-Alcocer, Daniel Monsálvez-Romín, Santiago García-Lázaro, César Albarrán-Diego, José Luis Hernández-Verdejo, David Madrid-Costa
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the impact on the ocular surface of a daily disposable hydrogel contact lens with high water content compared with two silicone hydrogel daily disposable lenses of lower water content. METHODS: The hydrogel lens assessed was made from nesofilcon A and the silicone hydrogel lenses were made of delefilcon A and stenfilcon A. Contact lens thickness was measured to assess material stability during daily wear, and ocular surface parameters such as tear film osmolarity, tear meniscus area and central corneal thickness were also assessed...
October 11, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985814/tear-osmolarity-and-subjective-dry-eye-symptoms-in-migraine-sufferers
#5
Melody Wong, Mary-Magdalene Dodd, Paul Masiowski, Vikas Sharma
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested an association between dry eye and migraine. In a busy ophthalmologist clinic, quick identification of dry eye in migraine sufferers may improve their quality of life. Tear osmolarity is an objective and reliable tool for diagnosing dry eye. It has not been investigated in any population with migraine. Using tear osmolarity and questionnaires, we aimed to explore the relationship between dry eye and clinical symptoms in patients with migraine...
October 2017: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964684/comparison-of-the-influence-of-corneo-scleral-and-scleral-lenses-on-ocular-surface-and-tear-film-metrics-in-a-presbyopic-population
#6
Edouard Lafosse, Daniel Monsálvez Romín, José-Juan Esteve-Taboada, James S Wolffsohn, Cristian Talens-Estarelles, Santiago García-Lázaro
PURPOSE: To assess and compare the effect of the corneo-scleral lenses (C-ScL) and scleral lenses (ScL) on tear film parameters and central corneal thickness (CCT) in healthy presbyopic subjects. METHODS: Thirty subjects wore two contact lenses (CLs), randomly assigned, of neutral power, but of different diameters, 12.7mm (C-ScL) and 18mm (ScL) and being equal in the others parameters: material (HS100) and centre thickness (0.29mm). At baseline, 20min after insertion and at 8h, the tear meniscus area (TMA) and CCT was measured (with optical coherence tomography) as well as tear osmolarity...
September 27, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958415/estimating-basal-tear-osmolarity-in-normal-and-dry-eye-subjects
#7
Catherine Willshire, Roger J Buckley, Anthony J Bron
PURPOSE: Tear osmolarity (tOsm) is used as a measure of severity in dry eye disease (DED) and has been proposed as an index of body hydration. In DED the level of tear hyperosmolarity is compared with that of a control population. It is proposed here that a better index of body hydration and a more valid reference point in DED can be acquired by measuring the tOsm after a period of evaporative suppression. METHOD: 8 normal and DED subjects were recruited, their tOsm measured in uncontrolled environmental 'clinic conditions'...
September 22, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951004/the-potential-influence-of-schirmer-strip-variables-on-dry-eye-disease-characterisation-and-on-tear-collection-and-analysis
#8
Nery García-Porta, Aisling Mann, Virginia Sáez-Martínez, Val Franklin, James S Wolffsohn, Brian Tighe
PURPOSE: The use of the Schirmer strips (SS) as a tool in the characterisation of dry eye disease, depends upon the quantitative assessment of tear production and constituents. The aim of this study was to ascertain the extent to which the properties of commercially available SS can vary and the way in which this baseline information may relate to their comparability in clinical use. METHODS: Five SS were analysed: Clement Clarke®, TearFlo®, Bio Schirmer®, Omni Schirmer® and JingMing®...
September 23, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939265/exploring-the-links-between-contact-lens-comfort-osmolarity-and-lid-wiper-staining
#9
Ulrike Stahl, Isabelle Jalbert
PURPOSE: Contact lens discomfort remains poorly understood, not least due to lack of associations between clinical signs and symptoms. This study aimed to explore the relationships between osmolarity, comfort and lid wiper epitheliopathy in contact lens wear. METHODS: Twenty subjects participated in a randomized, cross-over study where comfilcon A and lotrafilcon A lenses were each worn for 10days separated by a 7days washout period. Tear and contact lens osmolarity, ocular symptoms including comfort, tear stability and production, and lid wiper epitheliopathy were measured...
September 19, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937831/impact-of-smoking-on-the-ocular-surface-tear-function-and-tear-osmolarity
#10
Serdar Aktaş, Mehmet Tetikoğlu, Ahmet Koçak, Metin Kocacan, Hatice Aktaş, Hacı Murat Sağdık, Fatih Özcura
PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effects of cigarette smoking on the ocular surface, tear function, and tear osmolarity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 50 smokers with at least 5 years of heavy smoking (defined as 1 pack/day) and 51 nonsmoking, healthy individuals were enrolled. Tear osmolarity was measured with an osmometer (TearLab(™) Osmolarity System). Ocular surface examinations involved corneal fluorescein staining, measurement of the tear film breakup time (TBUT), the Schirmer 1 test, measurement of corneal sensitivity with a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer, and conjunctival impression cytology...
September 22, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886085/meibomian-gland-features-in-a-norwegian-cohort-of-patients-with-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren%C3%A2-s-syndrome
#11
Xiangjun Chen, Øygunn Aass Utheim, Jiaxin Xiao, Muhammed Yasin Adil, Aleksandar Stojanovic, Behzod Tashbayev, Janicke Liaaen Jensen, Tor Paaske Utheim
PURPOSE: To assess the tear film and meibomian gland (MG) features in a Norwegian cohort of patients with primary Sjögren´s syndrome (pSS) and in age- and gender-matched control subjects. METHODS: Thirty-four female patients with pSS (age 52.9±11.9 years) and 32 female control subjects (age 49.0±11.5 years) were recruited. After completion of Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire and McMonnies Dry Eye Questionaire, participants underwent measurements of tear osmolarity, tear break-up time (TBUT), ocular surface and corneal staining, Schirmer I test, corneal sensitivity, MG expressibility evaluations, and lid margin morphology examination using slitlamp microscopy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884335/association-between-objective-signs-and-subjective-symptoms-of-dry-eye-disease-in-patients-with-systemic-sclerosis
#12
Aniko Rentka, Annamaria Nagy, Jolan Harsfalvi, Gabriella Szucs, Zoltan Szekanecz, Rudolf Gesztelyi, Peter Szodoray, Adam Kemeny-Beke
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between clinical signs and symptoms of dry eye disease (DED) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). This cross-sectional observational study included 19 SSc patients and 19 normal subjects with no ocular symptoms or ocular surface disorders. Clinical parameters included tear film break-up time (tBUT), Schirmer I, lissamine green (LG) dye, and tear film osmolarity tests, tear production, and tear secretion flow. For assessment of the dry eye symptoms, the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire was administered to all patients...
November 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883442/interdisciplinary-comprehensive-oral-and-ocular-evaluation-of-patients-with-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#13
Behzod Tashbayev, Shermin Rusthen, Alix Young, Bente Brokstad Herlofson, Lene Hystad Hove, Preet Bano Singh, Morten Rykke, Lara Adnan Aqrawi, Xiangjun Chen, Øygunn Aass Utheim, Tor Paaske Utheim, Øyvind Palm, Janicke Liaaen Jensen
A comprehensive evaluation of oral and ocular symptoms and findings in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) patients may provide valuable information for management. Medical history was obtained from female pSS patients, and sex- and age-matched non-SS patients with sicca symptoms (non-SS sicca controls) as well as healthy subjects without sicca complaints (healthy controls). Oral (Summated Xerostomia Inventory, SXI) and ocular (McMonnies Dry Eye questionnaire, MDEIS, and Ocular Surface Disease Index, OSDI) subjective complaints were recorded...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876961/vitamin-d-replacement-improves-tear-osmolarity-in-patients-with-vitamin-d-deficiency
#14
Muhammed Kizilgul, Seyfullah Kan, Ozgur Ozcelik, Selvihan Beysel, Mahmut Apaydin, Bekir Ucan, Erman Cakal
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is a common health problem worldwide. Many parts of the human eye, including the epithelium of the cornea, lens, ciliary body, and retinal pigment epithelium, as well as the corneal endothelium, ganglion cell layer, and retinal photoreceptors, contain vitamin D receptor (VDR). Dry eye is also a common health problem. An adequate tear film is required for maintaining health and function of the eye. Tear hyperosmolarity is considered to be the cause of ocular surface inflammation, symptoms, and tissue damage...
September 6, 2017: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872518/tear-osmolarity-and-correlation-with-ocular-surface-parameters-in-patients-with-dry-eye
#15
Priya M Mathews, Sezen Karakus, Devika Agrawal, Holly B Hindman, Pradeep Y Ramulu, Esen K Akpek
PURPOSE: To analyze the distribution of tear film osmolarity in patients with dry eye and its association with other ocular surface parameters. METHODS: Tear osmolarity and other quantitative dry eye parameters were obtained from patients with 1) clinically significant dry eye (significant symptoms and ocular surface staining, n = 131), 2) symptoms-only dry eye (significant symptoms but no significant ocular surface staining, n = 52), and 3) controls (no significant symptoms or staining, n = 42)...
August 31, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853743/evaluation-and-review-of-body-fluids-saliva-sweat-and-tear-compared-to-biochemical-hydration-assessment-markers-within-blood-and-urine
#16
REVIEW
M Villiger, R Stoop, T Vetsch, E Hohenauer, M Pini, P Clarys, F Pereira, R Clijsen
Evaluating and testing hydration status is increasingly requested by rehabilitation, sport, military and performance-related activities. Besides commonly used biochemical hydration assessment markers within blood and urine, which have their advantages and limitations in collection and evaluating hydration status, there are other potential markers present within saliva, sweat or tear. This literature review focuses on body fluids saliva, sweat and tear compared to blood and urine regarding practicality and hydration status influenced by fluid restriction and/or physical activity...
August 30, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812943/tear-osmolarity-is-sensitive-to-exercise-induced-fluid-loss-but-is-not-associated-with-common-hydration-measures-in-a-field-setting
#17
Justin J Holland, Michelle Ray, Christopher Irwin, Tina L Skinner, Michael Leveritt, Ben Desbrow
This investigation (i) examined changes in tear osmolarity in response to fluid loss that occurs with exercise in a field setting, and (ii) compared tear osmolarity with common field and laboratory hydration measures.  Sixty-three participants [age 27.8 ± 8.4 years, body mass 72.15 ± 10.61 kg] completed a self-paced 10 km run outside on a predetermined course. Body mass, tear fluid, venous blood and urine samples were collected immediately before and after exercise.  Significant (p < 0.001) reductions in body mass (1...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811095/can-the-optimum-artificial-tear-treatment-for-dry-eye-disease-be-predicted-from-presenting-signs-and-symptoms
#18
Laika Essa, Deborah Laughton, James S Wolffsohn
PURPOSE: To assess dry eye treatment with four preservative-free dry eye artificial tear treatments to facilitate evidence-based prescribing. METHODS: A randomised, single masked crossover trial of Clinitas Soothe, Hyabak, Tears Again and TheraTears artificial tears was conducted on 50 symptomatic dry eye patients, aged 60.8±14.2years. At baseline and after trialling each treatment for 4 weeks, signs and symptoms were assessed using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), non-invasive tear break-up time, fluorescein tear break-up time, tear meniscus height (TMH), Phenol Red test, lid-parallel conjunctival folds (LIPCOF), ocular surface staining, and lipid layer grading and osmolarity (baseline visit only)...
August 12, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782653/a-maximal-incremental-effort-alters-tear-osmolarity-depending-on-the-fitness-level-in-military-helicopter-pilots
#19
Jesús Vera Vilchez, Raimundo Jimenez, Iker Madinabeitia, Nerijus Masiulis, David Cárdenas
PURPOSE: Fitness level modulates the physiological responses to exercise for a variety of indices. While intense bouts of exercise have been demonstrated to increase tear osmolarity (Tosm), it is not known if fitness level can affect the Tosm response to acute exercise. This study aims to compare the effect of a maximal incremental test on Tosm between trained and untrained military helicopter pilots. METHODS: Nineteen military helicopter pilots (ten trained and nine untrained) performed a maximal incremental test on a treadmill...
August 4, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771380/antioxidant-and-osmoprotecting-activity-of-taurine-in-dry-eye-models
#20
Claudio Bucolo, Annamaria Fidilio, Chiara Bianca Maria Platania, Federica Geraci, Francesca Lazzara, Filippo Drago
PURPOSE: To assess the protective effects of ophthalmic formulations based on taurine (TAU) and sodium hyaluronate (SH) in ocular surface. METHODS: Rabbit corneal epithelial cells [Statens Seruminstitut Rabbit Cornea (SIRC)] were subjected to oxidative stress (1 mM H2O2) and treated with the following formulations: 0.2% SH, 0.4% SH, 0.4% SH +0.5% TAU. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated by commercial kit. Dry eye was induced by atropine sulfate and topical treatment was carried out with the following formulations: 0...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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