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tear osmolarity

Dilay Ozek, Özlem Evren Kemer, Ferda Artüz
PURPOSE: To evaluate the results of tear functions in acne rosacea. METHODS: This prospective study includes 64 eyes of 32 acne rosacea patients without blepharitis and meibomian gland dysfunction and 90 eyes of 45 patients as control group. Tear functions of all were evaluated with ocular surface disease index (OSDI) questionnaire, and measurements of tear osmolarity were performed by using TearLab, Schirmer I tests without anesthesia and fluorescein tear break-up time (TBUT)...
March 13, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Erlend Christoffer Sommer Landsend, Hilde Røgeberg Pedersen, Øygunn Aass Utheim, Jiaxin Xiao, Muhammed Yasin Adil, Behzod Tashbayev, Neil Lagali, Darlene Ann Dartt, Rigmor C Baraas, Tor Paaske Utheim
AIMS: To investigate the aetiology and characteristics of dry eye disease (DED) in a Nordic cohort of patients with congenital aniridia. METHODS: Thirty-four Norwegian and one Danish subject with congenital aniridia and 21 healthy controls were examined. All subjects underwent an extensive dry eye examination, including evaluation of meibomian glands (MGs) by meibography, measurement of tear production and tear film osmolarity and grading of vital staining of the ocular surface...
March 8, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Aaron B C Wong, Michael T M Wang, Kevin Liu, Zak J Prime, Helen V Danesh-Meyer, Jennifer P Craig
PURPOSE: To assess tear film parameters, ocular surface characteristics, and dry eye symptomology in patients receiving topical anti-glaucoma medications. METHODS: Thirty-three patients with a diagnosis of open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension, receiving unilateral topical anti-glaucoma medication for at least 6 months, were recruited in a cross-sectional, investigator-masked, paired-eye comparison study. Tear film parameters, ocular surface characteristics, and dry eye symptomology of treated and fellow eyes were evaluated and compared...
March 3, 2018: Ocular Surface
C Willshire, A J Bron, E A Gaffney, E Ian Pearce
The osmolarities of various bodily fluids, including tears, saliva and urine, have been used as indices of plasma osmolality, a measure of body hydration, while tear osmolarity is used routinely in dry eye diagnosis, the degree of tear hyperosmolarity providing an index of disease severity. Systemic dehydration, due to inadequate water intake or excessive water loss is common in the elderly population, has a high morbidity and may cause loss of life. Its diagnosis is often overlooked and there is a need to develop a simple, bedside test to detect dehydration in this population...
February 21, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Eirini Nitoda, Anastasios Lavaris, Konstantinos Laios, Sophia Androudi, Chris D Kalogeropoulos, Michael Tsatsos, Christos Damaskos, Nikolaos Garmpis, Marilita M Moschos
BACKGROUND/AIM: Acute allergic rhinoconjuctivitis is the most common form of ocular allergies. The pathogenetic mechanisms are based on an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity reaction. On the other hand, tear osmolarity has been suggested to be an index of ocular surface damage and inflammation. These data were the motive to investigate the levels of tear osmolarity in subjects with acute allergic rhinoconjuctivitis, before and after administration of artificial tears. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-five subjects with acute allergic rhinoconjuctivitis were randomly divided into three groups, based on the type of artificial tears that they received: Group A (Thera tears), Group B (Wet therapy) and Group C (Tears Naturale free)...
March 2018: In Vivo
Ho Chul Yi, Yoon Pyo Lee, Young Joo Shin
PURPOSE: To investigate relationships between local tear osmolarity and tear film characteristics and dry eye disease (DED) symptoms. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study. METHODS: Nasal and temporal tear osmolarity were measured in subjects with DED. The difference between nasal and temporal tears (OSM difference) was then calculated. Ocular symptoms were evaluated and tear break-up time (TBUT), corneal fluorescein staining score (CFSS), eyelid hyperemia, and tear production were measured...
February 19, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Etty Bitton, Vanessa Crncich, Noemie Brunet
BACKGROUND: Refrigerated eye-drops have been advocated in cases of ocular allergies to provide a soothing effect upon instillation. This notion continues to be promoted by practitioners for artificial tears (AT) in the management of dry eye (DE) with little support in the literature. To further substantiate claims of a soothing effect of cold eye-drops, the aim of this study was to determine if refrigeration of an AT enhanced the subjective comfort upon instillation. METHODS: Participants with mild to moderate DE participated in an open label contralateral study of two weeks duration...
February 18, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Eilidh Martin, Katherine M Oliver, E Ian Pearce, Alan Tomlinson, Peter Simmons, Suzanne Hagan
PURPOSE: Three tear supplements were compared for their effects on the signs, symptoms and inflammatory status of subjects with dry eye disease. Assessments were made before and after both 2 and 4 weeks of treatment. METHODS: In this masked, randomized, 3-way crossover trial, eighteen dry eye subjects were recruited. At each visit, symptoms, tear evaporation rate, stability and osmolarity were measured and tear samples were analyzed for 7 inflammatory markers, using multiplex immunoassays...
February 13, 2018: Cytokine
Alicia Ruiz-Pomeda, Belén Pérez-Sánchez, Francisco L Prieto-Garrido, Ramón Gutiérrez-Ortega, César Villa-Collar
OBJECTIVES: To assess the relative clinical success of MiSight contact lenses (CLs) (study group) and distance single-vision (SV) spectacles (control group) in children in terms of adverse events (AEs), discontinuations, and tear film osmolarity over a 2-year period. METHODS: Seventy-four subjects aged 8 to 12 with myopia of -0.75 to -4.00 D and astigmatism less than 1.00 D were randomly assigned to MiSight CLs or SV groups. Subjects were monitored at 6-month intervals over the course of 24 months and advised to report to the clinic immediately should AEs occur...
February 12, 2018: Eye & Contact Lens
Alper Yazıcı, Esin Sarı, Erkan Ayhan, Gözde Şahin, Nesime Setge Tıskaoğlu, Taha Gürbüzer, Hüseyin Kurt, Sıtkı Samet Ermiş
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) on tear film parameters and dry eye disease. METHODS: Fifty-seven patients using low-dose aspirin regularly for antiaggregant purposes as well as 49 controls, who required antiaggregant treatment but who had not yet started, were included in the study. Tear osmolarity, tear break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer and Oxford grading of ocular surface staining were performed on all patients and dry eye symptomatology was assessed using the ocular surface disease index questionnaire (OSDI)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Meeta Pathak, Phoi Phoi Diep, Xiaoran Lai, Lorentz Brinch, Ellen Ruud, Liv Drolsum
Patients treated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) often develop ocular complications. To investigate the ocular findings in young long-term survivors after allo-SCT without TBI, we examined 96 patients more than 5 years after transplantation. All patients were under 30 years of age at transplantation. The mean follow-up time was 16.8 years (range 6.0-26.1 years). The study was a part of the Norwegian Allo Survivorship Study investigating health impairments in young survivors after allo-SCT...
January 30, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Vatinee Y Bunya, Karen B Fernandez, Gui-Shuang Ying, Mina Massaro-Giordano, Ilaria Macchi, Michael E Sulewski, Kristin M Hammersmith, Parveen K Nagra, Christopher J Rapuano, Stephen E Orlin
OBJECTIVE: To survey ophthalmologists about current practice patterns regarding the evaluation of dry eye patients and referrals for a Sjogren syndrome (SS) workup. METHODS: An online survey was sent to ophthalmologists affiliated with the Scheie Eye Institute or Wills Eye Hospital using REDCap in August 2015. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. RESULTS: Four hundred seventy-four survey invitations were sent out and 101 (21%) ophthalmologists completed the survey...
January 15, 2018: Eye & Contact Lens
Giuseppe Giannaccare, Luca Vigo, Marco Pellegrini, Stefano Sebastiani, Francesco Carones
PURPOSE: To analyze diagnostic performance of an ocular surface workup based on automated noninvasive measurements in the diagnosis of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). METHODS: Two hundred ninety-eight eyes of 149 patients with MGD and 54 eyes of 27 control patients were analyzed. Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), noninvasive breakup time (BUT), lipid layer thickness, meibomian gland loss, and tear osmolarity were calculated. The correlations among variables in the MGD group were analyzed...
January 3, 2018: Cornea
Sevil Karaman Erdur, Rukiye Aydin, Ali Balevi, Mustafa Ozsutcu, Mehmet Selim Kocabora
PURPOSE: To evaluate tear osmolarity and tear film parameters in patients with vitiligo. METHODS: A total of 25 eyes of 25 patients with vitiligo with periocular involvement (group 1), 30 eyes of 30 patients with vitiligo without periocular involvement (group 2), and 20 eyes of 20 controls (group 3) were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, Schirmer I test, tear film breakup time, scoring of ocular surface fluorescein staining using a modified Oxford scale, and tear osmolarity...
January 3, 2018: Cornea
Laura Soriano-Romaní, Jesús Álvarez-Trabado, Antonio López-García, Irene Molina-Martínez, Rocío Herrero-Vanrell, Yolanda Diebold
Peptide delivery to and through ocular sites is a growing field of research interest. However, several barriers restrict the permeation and bioavailability of these molecules to target tissues. The main pharmacological barriers of topical administration are the tear film, rapid drainage of the tear film, and poor corneal permeation. If the administered molecule is a peptide, instability and enzymatic degradation can be significant. Novel approaches such as the design and development of nanocarriers to overcome these drawbacks have been investigated with promising results...
December 12, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
Cansu Yuksel Elgin, Guzin Iskeleli, Ovgu Aydin
PURPOSE: To investigate changes in tear and ocular surface of patients with keratoconus using rigid gas permeable contact lenses (RGPCL) and compare them against keratoconus patients who were not using lenses as well as a control group of healthy subjects. METHODS: 24 keratoconus patients using RGPCL (Group 1) 22 patients who were not using lenses (Group 3) and 21 healthy subjects (Group 3) were included in the study. Subjective complaints about the subjects' eyes have been investigated using the ocular-surface disease index (OSDI)...
December 6, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
Eun Hye Kim, Eun-Song Lee, Dong Yun Lee, Young-Pil Kim
Despite high relevance of tear osmolarity and eye abnormality, numerous methods for detecting tear osmolarity rely upon expensive osmometers. We report a reliable method for simply determining sodium ion-based osmolarity in artificial tears using sequential DNAzymes. When sodium ion-specific DNAzyme and peroxidase-like DNAzyme were used as a sensing and detecting probe, respectively, the concentration of Na⁺ in artificial tears could be measured by absorbance or fluorescence intensity, which was highly correlated with osmolarity over the diagnostic range ( R ² > 0...
December 7, 2017: Sensors
Ramachandram Badugu, Bennie H Jeng, E Albert Reece, Joseph R Lakowicz
Dry eye disease (DED) affects millions of individuals in the United States and worldwide, and the incidence is increasing with an aging population. There is widespread agreement that the measurement of total tear osmolarity is the most reliable test, but this procedure provides only the total ionic strength and does not provide the concentration of each ionic species in tears. Here, we describe an approach to determine the individual ion concentrations in tears using modern silicone hydrogel (SiHG) contact lenses...
February 1, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Manuel J Amador-Patarroyo, Emilio Jalil-Florencia, Oscar Otero-Marquez, Nicolás Molano-Gonzalez, Ruben D Mantilla, Adriana Rojas-Villarraga, Juan-Manuel Anaya, Carmen Barraquer-Coll
PURPOSE: To correlate rheumatologic with ophthalmic and laboratory findings in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to identify what effect these have on development of ocular disease. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 172 eyes of 86 patients with RA. Patients were examined by a group of rheumatologists. Sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected. All patients underwent complete ophthalmologic examination including corneal topography and endothelial cell count...
February 2018: Cornea
Charles W McMonnies
PURPOSE: This review examines the evidence for and significance of pre-conjunctival tear temperature being higher than central pre-corneal temperature with associated more rapid evaporation of warmer pre-conjunctival tears in normal eyes but especially in hyperemic dry eye disease. METHODS: PubMed searches using the terms "evaporative dry eye," "conjunctival tear evaporation," "tear evaporation," and "dry eye conjunctival hyperemia" indicated 157, 49, 309, and 96 potentially relevant papers, respectively...
November 7, 2017: Current Eye Research
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