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Malignant Hyperthermia

Taoufik Ladhari, Konrad Szafnicki
Usual therapies against malignant tumors, such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, is severe and when repeated their efficiency may decrease because tumorous cells may become resistant. Contrarily, hyperthermia has been known for some time as an effective auxiliary treatment, which can be applied repeatedly. In some cases of abdominal carcinomatosis, particularly those of digestive origin, HIPEC is considered as an promising therapeutic option. Chemotherapy and hyperthermia are combined via the perfusion of the abdominal cavity with hot fluids containing chemotherapeutic agents, thus, augmenting the influence of appropriate chemotherapeutic agents with heat...
April 2018: 3 Biotech
Abhinav Jain, Shrey Gandhi, Remya Koshy, Vinod Scaria
Incidental findings in genomic data have been studied in great detail in the recent years, especially from population-scale data sets. However, little is known about the frequency of such findings in ethnic groups, specifically the Middle East, which were not previously covered in global sequencing studies. The availability of whole exome and genome data sets for a highly consanguineous Arab population from Qatar motivated us to explore the incidental findings in this population-scale data. The sequence data of 1005 Qatari individuals were systematically analyzed for incidental genetic variants in the 59 genes suggested by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics...
March 20, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Idan Steinberg, Gil Tamir, Israel Gannot
Solid malignant tumors are one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Many times complete removal is not possible and alternative methods such as focused hyperthermia are used. Precise control of the hyperthermia process is imperative for the successful application of such treatment. To that end, this research presents a fast method that enables the estimation of deep tissue heat distribution by capturing and processing the transient temperature at the boundary based on a bio-heat transfer model. The theoretical model is rigorously developed and thoroughly validated by a series of experiments...
March 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
B Petersen, T Busch, C D Meinecke, B Bastian, K Kluba, U X Kaisers, H Rüffert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
Takayuki Amano, Tatsuki Fukami, Takuo Ogiso, Daisuke Hirose, Jeffrey P Jones, Tsuyoshi Taniguchi, Miki Nakajima
Dantrolene is used for malignant hyperthermia during anesthesia, and it sometimes causes severe liver injury as a side effect. Dantrolene is metabolized to acetylaminodantrolene, which is formed via the reduction of dantrolene to aminodantrolene and subsequent acetylation. Formation of hydroxylamine during the metabolic process may be associated with liver injury. We identified the enzymes responsible for dantrolene metabolism in humans to elucidate the mechanism of liver injury. Dantrolene reductase activity was not detected in human liver microsomes, but it was detected in cytosol...
March 6, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 5, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Hasan Norouzi, Karim Khoshgard, Fatemeh Akbarzadeh
Hyperthermia is an anti-cancer treatment in which the temperature of the malignant tumor is increased more than other adjacent normal tissues. Microwave, ultrasound, laser, and radiofrequency sources have been used for hyperthermia of cancerous tissues. In the past decade, near-infrared (NIR) laser for cancer therapy, known as photo-thermal therapy (PTT), was expanded in which the photo-sensitizer agent converts the light photon energy to heat. The heat following PTT can destroy cancer cells. There are some photo-sensitizer agents which have been used for PTT; however, owing to recent advances in nanotechnology, noble metal nanoparticles like gold (Au) nanoparticles (GNPs) have been used successfully in PTT...
February 28, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
D Helf, D Schneiderbanger, C K Markus, S Johannsen, F Schuster
In a 59-year-old woman with a perforating eyeball injury to the right eye, the emergency physician induced a preclinical general anesthesia with propofol, fentanyl and the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine. Anesthesia was maintained using propofol and remifentanil infusion throughout the preoperative period and the subsequent surgical procedure. Postoperatively, isolated rhabdomyolysis with an increase in serum creatine kinase to >20,000 U/l was observed. The diagnosis of malignant hyperthermia (MH) susceptibility could be confirmed in the patient 4 months after the acute event by the in vitro contracture test and detection of the MH causative mutation p...
February 26, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
Hisaki Aiba, Satoshi Yamada, Jun Mizutani, Norio Yamamoto, Hideki Okamoto, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Hiroaki Kimura, Akihiko Takeuchi, Shinji Miwa, Akira Kawai, Kenichi Yoshimura, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya, Otsuka Takanobu
Regional hyperthermia is considered to enhance the antitumor effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this study, we confirmed the efficacy of concomitant radiotherapy, hyperthermia, and chemotherapy (RHC) for neoadjuvant treatment of malignant soft tissue sarcoma (STS). From 1994 to 2013, we performed RHC in 150 patients. This study was limited to 60 patients using the following exclusion criteria: salvage for recurrence or unplanned excision, trunk location, metastasis at initiation, non-STS, and no definitive surgery...
February 26, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Naveen Nathan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Nafi Dilaver, Neda Mazaheri, Reza Maroofian, Jawaher Zeighami, Tahere Seifi, Mina Zamani, Alireza Sedaghat, Gholam Reza Shariati, Hamid Galehdari
Ryanodine receptor 1 ( RYR1 ) is an intracellular calcium receptor primarily expressed in skeletal muscle with a role in excitation contraction. Both dominant and recessive mutations in the RYR1 gene cause a range of RYR1 -related myopathies and/or susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia (MH). Recently, an atypical manifestation of ptosis, variably presenting with ophthalmoplegia, facial paralysis, and scoliosis but without significant muscle weakness, has been reported in 9 cases from 4 families with bialleic variants in RYR1 ...
December 2017: Molecular Syndromology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Anesthesiology
Sebastian Heiderich, Christian Thoben, Nils Dennhardt, Wolfgang Koppert, Terence Krauß, Robert Sümpelmann, Stefan Zimmermann, Werner Klingler
BACKGROUND: Volatile anaesthetics are a potential hazard during occupational exposure, pregnancy or in individuals with existing disposition to malignant hyperthermia. Anaesthetic waste gas concentration in postanaesthesia care units (PACU) has rarely been investigated. OBJECTIVE(S): The current study aims to assess concentrations of volatile anaesthetics in relation to room size, number of patients and ventilator settings in different PACUs. DESIGN: A prospective observational study...
February 9, 2018: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Fernando Calado de Oliveira Camacho, Tânia Marina Lopes Amaral, Joana Irene de Barros Mourão
Schwartz-Jampel syndrome (SJS) is a rare genetic condition that is characterized by several musculoskeletal abnormalities, such as myotonia, joint contractures, and facial dysmorphisms. Patients with this syndrome can present an anesthetic challenge, due to an increased risk of developing malignant hyperthermia (MH) and the possibility of encountering a difficult airway. Several precautions must be taken when general anesthesia is required, such as the avoidance of potential triggers for MH, continuous core temperature, and end-tidal CO2 monitoring, assuring that dantrolene is readily available...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
Hrishikesh Hazarika, Anudeep Saxena, Pradeep Meshram, Ajay Kumar Bhargava
Purpose: Several devices are available to take care of difficult airway, but C-MAC D-Blade has scant evidence of its use in nasotracheal intubation in a difficult airway scenario. Aims and Objectives: We compared the C-MAC D-Blade videolaryngoscope™ , and the standard Macintosh laryngoscope for nasal intubation in patients with difficult airways selected by El-Ganzouri risk index using parameters of time and attempts required for intubation, glottic view in terms of Cormack-Lehane grade, ease of intubation, success rate, use of accessory maneuvers, incidence of complications, and hemodynamic changes...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
Jordi Morales-Dalmau, Clara Vilches, Ignacio de Miguel, Vanesa Sanz, Romain Quidant
Owing to their unique chemical and physical properties, colloidal gold nanoparticles have prompted a wide variety of biocompatible nano-agents for cancer imaging, diagnosis and treatment. In this context, biofunctionalized gold nanorods (AuNRs) are promising candidates for light-induced hyperthermia, to cause local and selective damage in malignant tissue. Yet, the efficacy of AuNR-based hyperthermia is highly dependent on several experimental parameters; in particular, the AuNR morphology strongly affects both physical and biological processes...
January 22, 2018: Nanoscale
Daphne Wy Li, Poh San Lai, Delice W Lee, Rita Yy Yong, Tat Leang Lee
INTRODUCTION: Sporadic clinical episodes of malignant hyperthermia (MH) that develop during general anaesthesia (GA) have been reported in Singapore. However, there is no published local report of a confirmed case of MH susceptibility (MHS) by skeletal muscle contracture tests and/or molecular tests. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report 2 patients from an extended family who developed signs of clinical MH while under GA. The MH episodes were successfully treated with intravenous dantrolene sodium...
December 2017: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
M Schieren, A Böhmer, W Golbeck, J Defosse, F Wappler, H E Marcus
BACKGROUND: Anesthetic procedures may lead to severe and potentially life-threatening complications (e. g. difficult airway, allergic reactions, malignant hyperthermia). Most complications can be avoided in future anesthetic procedures with adequate preparation (e. g. awake intubation, trigger-free anesthesia). In Germany, anesthesia problem cards were introduced two decades ago to identify patients at risk and to increase patient safety by creating a standardized documentation system for anesthesia-related complications...
January 19, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
Takashi Kondo, Toshimichi Yasuda, Keiko Mukaida, Sachiko Otsuki, Rieko Kanzaki, Hirotsugu Miyoshi, Hiroshi Hamada, Ichizo Nishino, Masashi Kawamoto
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic and functional role of a novel RYR1 variant c.251 C > T (p.Thr84Met) identified in a patient with muscle weakness demonstrating MH susceptibility. METHODS: DNA testing of family members was conducted for assessment of pathogenicity of the genetic variant. For functional analysis, Ca2+ measurement using patient-derived myotubes and p.Thr84Met RYR1-transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells was performed to evaluate reactivity to RYR1 activators...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Anesthesia
K Patton, D C Borshoff
Adverse drug reactions are a cause of significant morbidity and mortality to patients and a source of financial burden to the healthcare system. Of the wide spectrum of adverse drug reactions, the most concerning to the anaesthetist remain anaphylaxis and malignant hyperthermia. Although the incidence of anaphylaxis under anaesthesia is difficult to ascertain, it occurs commonly enough that most anaesthetists will manage at least one case in their career. The wide range of drugs given in the peri-operative period and the variable presentation in the anaesthetised patient can delay diagnosis and treatment, and adversely affect outcome...
January 2018: Anaesthesia
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