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Intestinal Motility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732069/saccharomyces-boulardii-cncm-i-745-supplementation-reduces-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-in-an-animal-model-of-ibs
#1
Paola Brun, Melania Scarpa, Chiara Marchiori, Gloria Sarasin, Valentina Caputi, Andrea Porzionato, Maria Cecilia Giron, Giorgio Palù, Ignazio Castagliuolo
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the effect of Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 on intestinal neuromuscular anomalies in an IBS-type mouse model of gastrointestinal motor dysfunctions elicited by Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) exposure. METHODS: Mice were inoculated intranasally with HSV-1 (102 PFU) or vehicle at time 0 and 4 weeks later by the intragastric (IG) route (108 PFU). Six weeks after IG inoculum, mice were randomly allocated to receive oral gavage with either S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727940/intestinal-transit-time-and-cortisol-mediated-stress-in-zebrafish
#2
Clayton Brady, Maxwell Denora, Ian Shannon, Karl J Clark, Adam Rich
Intestinal motility, the spontaneous and rhythmic smooth muscle contraction, is a complex process that is regulated by overlapping and redundant regulatory mechanisms. Primary regulators intrinsic to the gastrointestinal tract include interstitial cells of Cajal, enteric neurons, and smooth muscle cells. Extrinsic primary regulators include the autonomic nervous system, immune system, and the endocrine system. Due to this complexity, a reductionist approach may be inappropriate if the ultimate goal is to understand motility regulation in vivo...
July 20, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723981/intestinal-microbiota-in-digestive-diseases
#3
Maria do Carmo Friche Passos, Joaquim Prado Moraes-Filho
BACKGROUND: In recent years, especially after the development of sophisticated metagenomic studies, research on the intestinal microbiota has increased, radically transforming our knowledge about the microbiome and its association with health maintenance and disease development in humans. Increasing evidence has shown that a permanent alteration in microbiota composition or function (dysbiosis) can alter immune responses, metabolism, intestinal permeability, and digestive motility, thereby promoting a proinflammatory state...
July 6, 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722259/l-ornithine-and-l-lysine-stimulate-gastrointestinal-motility-via-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1
#4
Junya Nakato, Yee Yin Ho, Ryo Omae, Takafumi Mizushige, Kunitoshi Uchida, Makoto Tominaga, Minji Kim, Tsuyoshi Goto, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Teruo Kawada, Saori Akiduki, Ryuhei Kanamoto, Kousaku Ohinata
SCOPE: The gastrointestinal (GI) tract senses and responds to intraluminal nutrients and these interactions often affect GI functions. We found that, among basic amino acids, L-ornithine (Orn) and L-lysine (Lys) stimulated but L-arginine (Arg) suppressed GI motility after oral administration (24 mmol/kg) in mice (Orn and Lys, 14.3 and 26.4% promotion; Arg, 7.7% suppression). We investigated the mechanism of the action of Orn and Lys on GI motility. METHODS AND RESULTS: Orn-induced promotion of small intestinal transit was significantly inhibited (P<0...
July 18, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713271/luminally-acting-agents-for-constipation-treatment-a-review-based-on-literatures-and-patents
#5
REVIEW
Hong Yang, Tonghui Ma
Constipation is one of the most frequently reported gastrointestinal (GI) disorders that negatively impacts quality of life and is associated with a significant economic burden to the patients and society. Traditional treatments including lifestyle modification and laxatives are often ineffective in the more severe forms of constipation and over the long term. New medications targeting at intestinal chloride channels and colonic serotonin receptors have been demonstrated effective in recent years. Emerging agents focusing on improving intestinal secretion and/or colonic motility have been shown effective in animal models and even in clinical trials...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711628/enteric-glia-regulate-gastrointestinal-motility-but-are-not-required-for-maintenance-of-the-epithelium-in-mice
#6
Meenakshi Rao, Daniella Rastelli, Lauren Dong, Sophia Chiu, Wanda Setlik, Michael D Gershon, Gabriel Corfas
BACKGROUND & AIMS: When the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter is used to express cellular toxins that eliminate glia in mice, intestinal epithelial permeability and proliferation increase; this led to the concept that glia are required for maintenance of the gastrointestinal epithelium. Many enteric glia, however, particularly in the mucosa, do not express GFAP. In contrast, virtually all enteric glia express proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1). We investigated whether elimination of PLP1-expressing cells compromises epithelial maintenance or gastrointestinal motility...
July 12, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710145/a-systematic-review-of-the-effects-of-polyols-on-gastrointestinal-health-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
Adrienne Lenhart, William D Chey
Polyols are sugar alcohols found in certain fruits, vegetables, and sugar-free sweeteners. They make up a component of the diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols, which is gaining popularity in the treatment of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effects of polyols on the gastrointestinal tract in healthy men and women and in patients with IBS. Utilizing PubMed, Ovid, and Embase databases, we conducted a search on individual polyols and each of these terms: fermentation, absorption, motility, permeability, and gastrointestinal symptoms...
July 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709220/three-dimensional-mechanisms-of-macro-to-micro-scale-transport-and-absorption-enhancement-by-gut-villi-motions
#8
Yanxing Wang, James G Brasseur
We evaluate the potential for physiological control of intestinal absorption by the generation of "micromixing layers" (MMLs) induced by coordinated motions of mucosal villi coupled with lumen-scale "macro" eddying motions generated by gut motility. To this end, we apply a three-dimensional (3D) multigrid lattice-Boltzmann model of a lid-driven macroscale cavity flow with microscale fingerlike protuberances at the lower surface. Integrated with a previous 2D study of leaflike villi, we generalize to 3D the 2D mechanisms found there to enhance nutrient absorption by controlled villi motility...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702378/thioredoxin-a-is-essential-for-motility-and-contributes-to-host-infection-of-listeria-monocytogenes-via-redox-interactions
#9
Changyong Cheng, Zhimei Dong, Xiao Han, Hang Wang, Li Jiang, Jing Sun, Yongchun Yang, Tiantian Ma, Chunyan Shao, Xiaodu Wang, Zhongwei Chen, Weihuan Fang, Nancy E Freitag, Huarong Huang, Houhui Song
Microbes employ the thioredoxin system to defend against oxidative stress and ensure correct disulfide bonding to maintain protein function. Listeria monocytogenes has been shown to encode a putative thioredoxin, TrxA, but its biological roles and underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we showed that expression of L. monocytogenes TrxA is significantly induced in bacteria treated with the thiol-specific oxidizing agent, diamide. Deletion of trxA markedly compromised tolerance of the pathogen to diamide, and mainly impaired early stages of infection in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698051/effects-of-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-on-small-intestinal-int-407-cells
#10
A Illes, B Opper, D Reglodi, M Kerenyi, P Czetany, A Boronkai, E Schafer, G Toth, E Fabian, G Horvath
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an endogenous neuropeptide having a widespread distribution both in the nervous system and peripheral organs including the gastrointestinal tract. It has been shown to exert actions on intestinal functions, mainly affecting glandular secretion and motility. PACAP has several different effects on cell survival depending on the cell type and the applied stimulus. Its influences on small intestinal epithelial cells are not yet elucidated, therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of PACAP on intestinal epithelial cells having high turnover (INT 407) against different harmful stimuli, such as oxidative stress, in vitro hypoxia and gamma radiation...
July 4, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695708/targeting-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-and-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-simultaneously-to-modulate-colonic-motility-and-visceral-sensation-in-the-mouse-a-pharmacological-intervention-with-n-arachidonoyl-serotonin-aa-5-ht
#11
M Bashashati, J Fichna, F Piscitelli, R Capasso, A A Izzo, A Sibaev, J-P Timmermans, N Cenac, N Vergnolle, V Di Marzo, M Storr
BACKGROUND: Endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) inhibits intestinal motility and visceral pain, but it may also be proalgesic through transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1). AEA is degraded by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). This study explored whether dual inhibition of FAAH and TRPV1 reduces diarrhea and abdominal pain. METHODS: Immunostaining was performed on myenteric plexus of the mouse colon. The effects of the dual FAAH/TRPV1 inhibitor AA-5-HT on electrically induced contractility, excitatory junction potential (EJP) and fast (f) and slow (s) inhibitory junction potentials (IJP) in the mouse colon, colonic propulsion and visceromotor response (VMR) to rectal distension were studied...
July 11, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689885/reduction-of-hydrogen-sulfide-synthesis-enzymes-cystathionine-%C3%AE-synthase-and-cystathionine-%C3%AE-lyase-in-the-colon-of-patients-with-hirschsprungs-s-disease
#12
Christian Tomuschat, Anne Marie O'Donnell, David Coyle, Prem Puri
PURPOSE: Hirschsprung's associated enterocolitis (HAEC) is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in Hirschsprung's Disease (HSCR). The pathogenesis of HAEC is poorly understood. In recent years, there is increasing evidence that a compromised intestinal barrier function plays a major role in the pathogenesis of HAEC. Hydrogen sulfide, synthesized from L-cysteine by two key enzymes, cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lysase (CSE) is reported to play a key role in regulating gastrointestinal motility and promoting resolution of inflammation...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681569/diagnostic-use-of-endoscopic-full-thickness-wall-resection-eftr-a-novel-minimally-invasive-technique-for-colonic-tissue-sampling-in-patients-with-severe-gastrointestinal-motility-disorders
#13
P V Valli, D Pohl, M Fried, R Caduff, P Bauerfeind
BACKGROUND: Complex gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders such as chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) or Hirschsprung's disease (HD) are challenging to diagnose and treat appropriately. Thorough assessment of patient history, radiographic exams, endoscopy, and motility measurements aid in diagnostic workup, yet underlying histology is the cornerstone to enable a more distinct diagnosis of neuromuscular GI disorders. Traditionally, surgical procedures have been performed to obtain specimen suitable for accurate histologic analysis...
July 6, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676349/immunoregulatory-effect-of-mast-cells-influenced-by-microbes-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#14
Francesco Girolamo, Coppola Cristiana Coppola, Domenico Ribatti
When related to central nervous system (CNS) health and disease, brain mast cells (MCs) can be a source of either beneficial or deleterious signals acting on neural cells. We review the current state of knowledge about molecular interactions between MCs and glia in neurodegenerative diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy. We also discuss the influence on MC actions evoked by the host microbiota, which has a profound effect on the host immune system, inducing important consequences in neurodegenerative disorders...
July 1, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671528/bombella-apis-sp-nov-an-acetic-acid-bacterium-isolated-from-the-midgut-of-a-honey-bee
#15
Ji-Hyun Yun, June-Young Lee, Dong-Wook Hyun, Mi-Ja Jung, Jin-Woo Bae
As part of a study to investigate the microbial diversity in the intestine of Apis mellifera, we isolated strain MRM1T from the midgut. MRM1T was a Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile, non-spore forming and rod-shaped bacteria. Creamy beige-coloured colonies were circular with entire margins in Lactobacilli MRS agar. The strain grew at 25-37 °C (optimum, 30-37 °C) and at a pH range of 4.0 to 9.0 (optimum pH, 7.0-8.5). The strain tolerated 0-1 % (w/v) NaCl (optimal growth occurred in the absence of NaCl)...
July 3, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664138/naringenin-inhibits-pacemaking-activity-in-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-from-murine-small-intestine
#16
Hyun Jung Kim, Byung Joo Kim
BACKGROUND: Naringenin (NRG) is a common dietary polyphenolic constituent of fruits. NRG has diverse pharmacological activities, and is used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases including gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are pacemaker cells of the GI tract. In this study, the authors investigated the effects of NRG on ICCs and on GI motility in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: ICCs were dissociated from mouse small intestines by enzymatic digestion...
June 2017: Integrative medicine research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660314/nicotine-chewing-gum-for-the-prevention-of-postoperative-ileus-after-colorectal-surgery-a-multicenter-double-blind-randomised-controlled-pilot-study
#17
Daniël P V Lambrichts, Geesien S A Boersema, Buket Tas, Zhouqiao Wu, Wietske W Vrijland, Gert-Jan Kleinrensink, Johannes Jeekel, Johan F Lange, Anand G Menon
PURPOSE: When postoperative ileus is not resolved after 5 days or recurs after resolution, prolonged POI (PPOI) is diagnosed. PPOI increases discomfort, morbidity and hospitalisation length, and is mainly caused by an inflammatory response following intestinal manipulation. This response can be weakened by targeting the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, with nicotine as essential regulator. Chewing gum, already known to stimulate gastrointestinal motility itself, combined with nicotine is hypothesised to improve gastrointestinal recovery and prevent PPOI...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659731/modulatory-effect-of-intestinal-polyamines-and-trace-amines-on-the-spontaneous-phasic-contractions-of-the-isolated-ileum-and-colon-rings-of-mice
#18
Manuel Sánchez, Lorena Suárez, María Teresa Andrés, Blanca Henar Flórez, Javier Bordallo, Sabino Riestra, Begoña Cantabrana
Background: Gastrointestinal motility modulatory factors include substances of the intestinal content, such as polyamines and trace amines (TAs), the focus of this study. Methods: The amines of food, intestinal content and from faecal bacteria of Swiss mice were determined by HPLC and functionally characterised in isolated distal ileum and medial colon rings. Results: Mouse food and intestinal content contain polyamines (spermidine>putrescine>spermine) and TAs (isoamylamine>cadaverine). Intestinal bacteria mainly produce putrescine and cadaverine...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656177/giardia-colonizes-and-encysts-in-high-density-foci-in-the-murine-small-intestine
#19
N R Barash, C Nosala, J K Pham, S G McInally, S Gourguechon, B McCarthy-Sinclair, S C Dawson
Giardia lamblia is a highly prevalent yet understudied protistan parasite causing significant diarrheal disease worldwide. Hosts ingest Giardia cysts from contaminated sources. In the gastrointestinal tract, cysts excyst to become motile trophozoites, colonizing and attaching to the gut epithelium. Trophozoites later differentiate into infectious cysts that are excreted and contaminate the environment. Due to the limited accessibility of the gut, the temporospatial dynamics of giardiasis in the host are largely inferred from laboratory culture and thus may not mirror Giardia physiology in the host...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653858/transplantation-of-a-human-tissue-engineered-bowel-in-an-athymic-rat-model
#20
Elie Zakhem, Riccardo Tamburrini, Giuseppe Orlando, Kenneth L Koch, Khalil N Bitar
Intestinal failure is a serious clinical condition characterized by loss of motility, absorptive function, and malnutrition. Current treatments do not provide the optimal solution for patients due to the numerous resulting complications. A bioengineered bowel that contains the necessary cellular components provides a viable option for patients. In this study, human tissue-engineered bowel (hTEB) was developed using a technique, whereby human-sourced smooth muscle cells were aligned and neoinnervated using human-sourced neural progenitor cells, resulting in the formation of intrinsically innervated smooth muscle sheets...
June 27, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
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