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Intestinal Motility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766276/anti-ganglionic-achr-antibodies-in-japanese-patients-with-motility-disorders
#1
Akihiro Mukaino, Hitomi Minami, Hajime Isomoto, Hitomi Hamamoto, Eikichi Ihara, Yasuhiro Maeda, Osamu Higuchi, Tohru Okanishi, Yohei Kokudo, Kazushi Deguchi, Fumisato Sasaki, Toshihito Ueki, Ken-Ya Murata, Takeshi Yoshida, Mistuyo Kinjo, Yoshihiro Ogawa, Akio Ido, Hidenori Matsuo, Kazuhiko Nakao, Shunya Nakane
BACKGROUND: The existence of several autoantibodies suggests an autoimmune basis for gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility. Whether GI motility disorders are features of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) or are related to circulating anti-ganglionic acetylcholine receptor (gAChR) antibodies (Abs) is not known. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between autonomic dysfunction, anti-gAChR Abs, and clinical features in patients with GI motility disorders including achalasia and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765511/immunohistochemical-analysis-of-rhamm-expression-in-normal-and-neoplastic-human-tissues-a-cell-cycle-protein-with-distinctive-expression-in-mitotic-cells-and-testicular-germ-cells
#2
Yao-Tseng Chen, Zhengming Chen, Yi-Chieh Nancy Du
Expression of Receptor for Hyaluronic Acid Mediated Motility (RHAMM) increases cellular motility and RHAMM overexpression promotes invasive phenotype and metastasis of cancer cells. RHAMM has been suggested as a biomarker for poor prognosis in several tumor types, including lung, breast, colorectal, gastric, pancreatic ductal, and ovarian cancers. RNA studies showed restricted RHAMM expression in normal tissues, but its protein expression data in tissues were limited. In light of its potential as a prognostic marker and a therapeutic target, we performed immunohistochemical analysis to systematically characterize RHAMM expression in normal and neoplastic human tissues...
April 20, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761252/testing-and-treating-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-reduces-symptoms-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#3
Shirley Cohen-Mekelburg, Zaid Tafesh, Elliot Coburn, Russell Weg, Neena Malik, Colleen Webb, Hoda Hammad, Ellen Scherl, Brian P Bosworth
BACKGROUND: Common mechanisms against small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), including an intact ileocecal valve, gastric acid secretion, intestinal motility, and an intact immune system, are compromised in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and therefore, a relatively high incidence of SIBO has been reported in this population. AIMS: We aimed to determine whether an improvement in IBD clinical activity scores is seen after testing and treating SIBO. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 147 patients with inflammatory bowel disease who were referred for SIBO breath testing from 1/2012 to 5/2016 was performed...
May 14, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760544/ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-porcine-intestine-viability-assessment
#4
Runar J Strand-Amundsen, Henrik M Reims, Finn P Reinholt, Tom E Ruud, Runkuan Yang, Jan O Høgetveit, Tor I Tønnessen
AIM: To investigate viability assessment of segmental small bowel ischemia/reperfusion in a porcine model. METHODS: In 15 pigs, five or six 30-cm segments of jejunum were simultaneously made ischemic by clamping the mesenteric arteries and veins for 1 to 16 h. Reperfusion was initiated after different intervals of ischemia (1-8 h) and subsequently monitored for 5-15 h. The intestinal segments were regularly photographed and assessed visually and by palpation. Intraluminal lactate and glycerol concentrations were measured by microdialysis, and samples were collected for light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy...
May 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756986/-dietetic-treatment-with-fructose-in-a-5-year-old-girl-with-recurrent-d-lactic-acidosis
#5
Lourdes Travieso Suárez, Pilar Quijada Fraile, Consuelo Pedrón Giner
D-lactic acidosis is an infrequent complication, mainly reported in patients with short bowel syndrome. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of encephalopathy with elevated serum D-lactic acid, usually associating metabolic acidosis. The presence of D-lactate-producing bacteria is necessary for the development of this complication. Other factors, such as the ingestion of large amounts of carbohydrates or reduced intestinal motility, contribute to D-lactic acidosis. We report a case of recurrent D-lactic acidosis in a 5-year-old girl with short bowel syndrome, due to a midgut volvulus...
March 1, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756476/ginger-extract-and-6-gingerol-inhibit-contraction-of-rat-entire-small-intestine
#6
Usana Chatturong, Tanwarat Kajsongkram, Sakara Tunsophon, Rachanee Chanasong, Krongkarn Chootip
This study aims to investigate the effect of oral administration and the direct action of ginger extract or [6]-gingerol on small intestinal contractility. The direct effect of 10 minutes preincubation of ginger ethanolic extract (10, 100 and 300 μg/mL) or [6]-gingerol (1, 30, and 100 μM) on 0.01 to 30 μM ACh-induced contractions of all parts of the small intestine isolated from normal rats was investigated using the organ bath technique. For in vivo study, the rats were orally administered with extract (10, 20, and 100 mg/kg/d) or [6]-gingerol (2 mg/kg/d) for 7 days, followed by determining the contractile responses to ACh of rat isolated duodenum, jejunum, and ileum and their histology were assessed...
January 2018: Journal of evidence-based integrative medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746341/screening-endoscopy-contributes-to-relevant-modifications-of-therapeutic-regimen-in-children-with-intestinal-failure
#7
Andreas Busch, Ekkehard Sturm
OBJECTIVE: The role of endoscopy in the diagnostic work-up of children with intestinal failure (IF) is not well defined. It is unclear whether endoscopies should be performed as a screening procedure or only upon manifestation of symptoms. The aim of this study is to evaluate, whether performing screening endoscopy contributes to clinical management in children with IF. METHODS: Comparative retrospective case-series study in children with IF (mean age 70,4 months ± 58,4 months) presenting for diagnostic work-up in a single intestinal rehabilitation center...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742784/-contra-is-postoperative-epidural-analgesia-the-gold-standard
#8
Hans Jürgen Gerbershagen
As strategy for postoperative pain therapy, epidural analgesia (EDA) is superior to systemic opiate analgesia after abdominal and thoracic surgery. In addition, EDA may significantly reduce the incidence of complications in some large operations, such as, e.g. cardiac (myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation) and pulmonary complications (pneumonia, atelectasis), and even reduce mortality. Intestinal motility can also be improved. However, these positive effects do not appear in all interventions and not to the same degree...
April 2018: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741535/amanita-muscaria-fly-agaric-from-a-shamanistic-hallucinogen-to-the-search-for-acetylcholine
#9
M R Lee, E Dukan, I Milne
The mushroom Amanita muscaria (fly agaric) is widely distributed throughout continental Europe and the UK. Its common name suggests that it had been used to kill flies, until superseded by arsenic. The bioactive compounds occurring in the mushroom remained a mystery for long periods of time, but eventually four hallucinogens were isolated from the fungus: muscarine, muscimol, muscazone and ibotenic acid. The shamans of Eastern Siberia used the mushroom as an inebriant and a hallucinogen. In 1912, Henry Dale suggested that muscarine (or a closely related substance) was the transmitter at the parasympathetic nerve endings, where it would produce lacrimation, salivation, sweating, bronchoconstriction and increased intestinal motility...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741131/on-the-distribution-and-metabolism-of-fusarium-toxins-along-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-endotoxaemic-pigs
#10
Erik Bannert, Tanja Tesch, Jeannette Kluess, Janine Winkler, Jana Frahm, Susanne Kersten, Stefan Kahlert, Lydia Renner, Hermann-Josef Rothkötter, Sven Dänicke
The aim of this study was to investigate the potential modulatory effect of E. coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on residues of deoxynivalenol (DON), de-epoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1), zearalenone (ZEN) and its metabolites α-zearalenol (α-ZEL), β-zearalenol (β-ZEL), zearalanone (ZAN), α-zearalanol (α-ZAL) and β-zearalanol (β-ZAL) after pre- or post-hepatic administration along the gastrointestinal axis. Fifteen barrows were exposed to a naturally mycotoxin contaminated diet (4.59 mg DON/kg feed and 0.22 mg ZEN/kg feed) and equipped with jugular (ju) and portal (po) catheters...
June 2018: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740008/virulence-inhibitory-activity-of-the-degradation-product-3-hydroxybutyrate-explains-the-protective-effect-of-poly-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-against-the-major-aquaculture-pathogen-vibrio-campbellii
#11
Tom Defoirdt, Nguyen Thi Mai Anh, Peter De Schryver
The bacterial storage compound poly-β-hydroxybutyrate, a polymer of the short-chain fatty acid 3-hydroxybutyrate, has been reported to protect various aquatic animals from bacterial disease. In order to obtain a better mechanistic insight, we aimed to (1) investigate whether 3-hydroxybutyrate is released from poly-β-hydroxybutyrate within sterile brine shrimp larvae, (2) determine the impact of 3-hydroxybutyrate on the virulence of Vibrio campbellii to brine shrimp larvae and on its cell density in the shrimp, and (3) determine the impact of this compound on virulence factor production in the pathogen...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735765/characterization-of-flagellar-and-toxin-phase-variation-in-clostridiodes-difficile-ribotype-012-isolates
#12
Brandon R Anjuwon-Foster, Natalia Maldonado-Vazquez, Rita Tamayo
Clostridiodes difficile causes diarrheal diseases mediated in part by the secreted toxins TcdA and TcdB. C. difficile produces flagella that also contribute to motility and bacterial adherence to intestinal cells during infection. Flagellum and toxin gene expression are linked via the flagellar alternative sigma factor, SigD. Recently, we identified a "flagellar switch" upstream of the early flagellar biosynthesis operon that mediates phase variation of both flagellum and toxin production in C. difficile strain R20291...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735028/adult-intestinal-transplantation
#13
REVIEW
Cal S Matsumoto, Sukanya Subramanian, Thomas M Fishbein
Adult intestinal transplantation differs significantly from pediatric intestinal transplantation. While indications have remained largely consistent since 2000, indications for adults have expanded over the last two decades to include motility disorders and desmoid tumors. Graft type in adult recipients depends on the distinct anatomic characteristics of the adult recipient. Colonic inclusion, while initially speculated to portend unfavorable outcomes due to complex host-bacterial interactions has increased over the past two decades with superior graft survival and improved patient quality of life...
June 2018: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723849/the-mechanism-of-action-of-zingerone-in-the-pacemaker-potentials-of-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-isolated-from-murine-small-intestine
#14
Jung Nam Kim, Hyun Jung Kim, Iksung Kim, Yun Tai Kim, Byung Joo Kim
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Zingerone, a major component found in ginger root, is clinically effective for the treatment of various diseases. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are the pacemaker cells responsible for slow waves in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We investigated the effects of zingerone on the pacemaker potentials of ICCs to assess its mechanisms of action and its potential as a treatment for GI tract motility disorder. METHODS: We isolated ICCs from small intestines, and the whole-cell patch-clamp configuration was used to record the pacemaker potentials in cultured ICCs...
April 28, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718926/bioengineered-intestinal-muscularis-complexes-with-long-term-spontaneous-and-periodic-contractions
#15
Qianqian Wang, Ke Wang, R Sergio Solorzano-Vargas, Po-Yu Lin, Christopher M Walthers, Anne-Laure Thomas, Martín G Martín, James C Y Dunn
Although critical for studies of gut motility and intestinal regeneration, the in vitro culture of intestinal muscularis with peristaltic function remains a significant challenge. Periodic contractions of intestinal muscularis result from the coordinated activity of smooth muscle cells (SMC), the enteric nervous system (ENS), and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). Reproducing this activity requires the preservation of all these cells in one system. Here we report the first serum-free culture methodology that consistently maintains spontaneous and periodic contractions of murine and human intestinal muscularis cells for months...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717525/a-single-center-audit-of-the-indications-and-clinical-impact-of-prolonged-ambulatory-small-intestinal-manometry
#16
D Ang, J Pannemans, T Vanuytsel, J Tack
BACKGROUND: Small bowel manometry is a diagnostic test available only in a few specialized referral centers. Its exact place in the management of refractory symptoms is controversial. METHODS: The records of all patients who underwent 24-hour ambulatory duodenojejunal manometry over a 6-year period were retrospectively reviewed. We studied the clinical indications for small bowel manometry, and reviewed the impact of manometric findings on the clinical outcome. One hundred and forty-six studies were performed in 137 patients (46M, 91F) with a mean age of 44...
May 1, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716863/analysis-of-the-main-constituents-of-changshu-tablet-and-its-spasmolysis-effect-against-contraction-induced-by-acetylcholine-in-the-rat-isolated-intestinal-smooth-muscle
#17
Ying An, Guangming Song, Dailin Liu, Tianyi Mao, Yanmin Zhao, Wenli Xie
The Changshu tablet (CST), one kind of Chinese patent medicine with astringent to the intestine and relieving diarrhea, was made by the root of Rose odorata Sweet var. gigantean (Coll.et Hemsl.) Rehd.et Wils. Although CST has a long history of clinical application, but the research of its chemical composition is less. So the objective of this study was to investigate the main constituents and preliminarily research its effect of the contraction of isolated intestine in vitro. The contents of total polyphenols (126...
May 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716590/in-vitro-effects-of-aqueous-extract-from-maytenus-senegalensis-lam-exell-stem-bark-on-egg-hatching-larval-migration-and-adult-worms-of-haemonchus-contortus
#18
Calvin Bogning Zangueu, Abiodoun Pascal Olounlade, Marlyse Ossokomack, Yolande Noelle Nangue Djouatsa, Goue Géorcelin Alowanou, Anatole Guy Blaise Azebaze, Eulogio José Llorent-Martínez, Maria Luisa Fernández de Córdova, Alain Bertrand Dongmo, Mawulé Sylvie Hounzangbe-Adote
BACKGROUND: Maytenus senegalensis is a common shrub which is scattered in tropical Africa. Different parts of this plant have been reported to be useful in traditional medicine against gastrointestinal disorders and intestinal worms. This study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous stem bark extract of M. senegalensis using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA) and adult worms' motility inhibition assay (AMIA). RESULTS: On EHA, the extract concentrations tested resulted in a significant (p < 0...
May 2, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713027/evaluation-of-chronic-diarrhea-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-diarrhea-in-adults-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine
#19
REVIEW
Lawrence R Schiller
Chronic diarrhea is a common clinical problem, affecting roughly 5% of the population in any given year. Evaluation and management of these patients can be difficult due to the extensive differential diagnosis of this symptom. Many patients with chronic diarrhea have structural problems, such as inflammatory bowel disease or celiac disease, that can be readily identified. Others do not, and often are given a diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D). When based on generally accepted clinical criteria, a diagnosis of IBS-D identifies a group of patients who are unlikely to have disorders producing anatomical changes in the gut...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709304/galanin-decreases-spontaneous-resting-contractions-and-potentiates-acetyl-choline-induced-contractions-of-goldfish-gut
#20
Elsie Tachie Mensah, Ayelen Melisa Blanco, Andrew Donini, Suraj Unniappan
Galanin (GAL) is a 29 amino acid peptide, first identified from the porcine intestine and widely distributed within the brain and peripheral tissues. Among GAL biological functions, its role as a potent appetite-stimulating peptide is probably the most studied. With galanin's established role in the modulation of food intake in fish, this study aims to evaluate the effects of GAL on the intestinal motility of the goldfish, Carassius auratus, using an organ bath system. Our results found that application of GAL to the organ bath causes a significant concentration-dependent decrease in the amplitude of spontaneous contractions of goldfish gut...
April 24, 2018: Neuropeptides
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