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Intestinal Motility

Sayon Basu, Nancy Gavert, Thomas Brabletz, Avri Ben-Ze'ev
Aberrant Wnt/β-catenin signaling is a common event during human colorectal cancer (CRC) development. Previously, we characterized members of the L1 family of cell adhesion receptors as targets of β-catenin-LEF1/TCF transactivation that are expressed at the invasive CRC tissue edge. Overexpression of L1 in CRC cells confers enhanced motility, tumorigenesis and liver metastasis. We identified several downstream targets of L1-mediated signaling that are considered key intestinal stem cell signature genes. Here, we investigated the involvement of ASCL2, a Wnt target gene and key determinant of intestinal stem cell state, in L1-mediated CRC progression...
March 15, 2018: Cancer Letters
Lívia H Morais, Daniela B Hara, Maíra A Bicca, Anicleto Poli, Reinaldo N Takahashi
The factors that trigger the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) are unknown. However, it is suggested that environmental factors, such as exposure to pesticides, play an important role, in addition to genetic predisposition and aging. Early signs of PD can appear in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and in the olfactory system, preceding the onset of motor impairments by many years. The present study assessed the effects of oral rotenone administration (30 mg/kg) in inducing GI and olfactory dysfunctions associated with PD in mice...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
P Marega, E A Liberti, J J S Freitas, K S Kietzer
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility is common in patients with cancer. There are a few studies about the myenteric plexus in the presence of anatomically remote tumors. METHODS: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into a control (CT) or Walker-256 (TW) group. Tumor cells were subcutaneously injected and saline was injected in the CT group. After 14 days, the small and large intestines were removed for histochemical analysis. The macroscopic morphology of the intestines and the fecal excretion were also observed...
March 15, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
N Kaji, S Nakayama, K Horiguchi, S Iino, H Ozaki, M Hori
BACKGROUND: Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) serve as intestinal pacemakers. Postoperative ileus (POI) is a gastrointestinal motility disorder that occurs following abdominal surgery, which is caused by inflammation-induced dysfunction of smooth muscles and enteric neurons. However, the participation of ICC in POI is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the functional changes of ICC in a mouse model of POI. METHODS: Intestinal manipulation (IM) was performed to induce POI...
March 15, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Belay Mekonnen, Assefa Belay Asrie, Zewdu Birhanu Wubneh
Background: Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of preventable death in developing countries and mainly affects children and infants. It has been reported that the leaf of Justicia schimperiana is used as an antidiarrheal agent in Libo Kemekem district, northwest Ethiopia. Method: The 80% methanolic leaf extract of J. schimperiana was evaluated for its activity against castor oil-induced diarrhea, enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility in mice. Results: Significant reduction ( p < 0...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Michael Schörghuber, Sonja Fruhwald
Nutritional management is a cornerstone of therapy for patients who are critically ill. Data show that enteral nutrition is better than parenteral nutrition with regard to the morbidity of critcally ill patients, especially for infectious complications. These findings suggest that feeding patients enterally has other beneficial effects besides delivering nutrients. In the absence of enteral nutrition, the mucosal architecture changes distinctly, leading to an impairment in function of the gastrointestinal barrier...
April 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
V Ortiz, M García-Campos, E Sáez-González, P delPozo, V Garrigues
Opioids have become the most widely prescribed analgesics in Western countries. Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction is a widely known adverse effect, with constipation the most common manifestation. Most of the opioid-related effects occur in the stomach, small intestine, and colon and have been widely studied. However, the effects related to esophageal motility are less known. Recently published retrospective studies have suggested that long-term use of opioids can cause esophageal motility dysfunction, reflecting symptoms similar to motility disorders, such as achalasia and functional esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction...
February 23, 2018: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
Marine Blanchet, Jean Michel Brunel
Bile acids or bile salts, belong to a large family of biological steroid derivatives found predominantly in the bile of mammals and other vertebrates. These amphipathic molecules possess numerous functions, including eliminating cholesterol from the body, driving the flow of bile to eliminate catabolites, emulsifying fat-soluble vitamins to enable their absorption, aiding in motility and in reducing the bacteria flora found in the small intestine and biliary tract. In this review, we investigate progress towards synthetic bile acid derivatives, with special emphasis on how they might be used for various biological applications and the challenges that remain in developing these compounds as potent drugs of the future especially in the field of microbiology (antimicrobial activities) and cancer (anticancer agents)...
March 8, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
François Cossais, Sebastian Leuschner, Martina Barrenschee, Christina Lange, Michael Ebsen, Ilka Vogel, Martina Böttner, Thilo Wedel
BACKGROUND: Diverticular disease (DD) is a common gastrointestinal inflammatory disorder associated with an enteric neuropathy. Although enteric glial cells (EGCs) are essential regulators of intestinal inflammation and motility functions, their contribution to the pathophysiology of DD remains unclear. Therefore, we analyzed the expression of specific EGC markers in patients with DD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of the glial markers S100β, GFAP, Sox10, and Connexin 43 was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR in colonic specimens of patients with DD and in that of controls...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Atsukazu Kuwahara, Yuko Kuwahara, Toshio Inui, Yoshinori Marunaka
The diffuse chemosensory system (DCS) is well developed in the apparatuses of endodermal origin like gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The primary function of the GI tract is the extraction of nutrients from the diet. Therefore, the GI tract must possess an efficient surveillance system that continuously monitors the luminal contents for beneficial or harmful compounds. Recent studies have shown that specialized cells in the intestinal lining can sense changes in the luminal content. The chemosensory cells in the GI tract belong to the DCS which consists of enteroendocrine and related cells...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Gwladys Sevrin, Sébastien Massier, Benoit Chassaing, Allison Agus, Julien Delmas, Jérémy Denizot, Elisabeth Billard, Nicolas Barnich
The pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) is multifactorial and involves genetic susceptibility, environmental triggers and intestinal microbiota. Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) are flagellated bacteria more prevalent in CD patients than in healthy subjects and promote chronic intestinal inflammation. We aim at deciphering the role of flagella and flagellin modulation by intestinal conditions. AIEC flagellum expression is required for optimal adhesion to and invasion of intestinal epithelial cells...
March 1, 2018: Gut Microbes
T R Angeli, G O'Grady, R Vather, I P Bissett, L K Cheng
BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical slow waves are a coordinating mechanism of small intestine motility, but extracellular human studies have been restricted to a limited number of sparse electrode recordings. High-resolution (HR) mapping has offered substantial insights into spatiotemporal intestinal slow wave dynamics, but has been limited to animal studies to date. This study aimed to translate intra-operative HR mapping to define pacemaking and conduction profiles in the human small intestine...
March 1, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Kais Rtibi, Slimen Selmi, Dhekra Grami, Mohamed Amri, Hichem Sebai, Lamjed Marzouki
The phytochemical composition and the effect of the green and ripe Opuntia ficus-indica juice on some gastrointestinal (GI) physiological parameters such as stomach emptying and small-intestinal motility and permeability were determined in rats administered multiple concentrations of the prickly pear juice (5, 10, and 20 mL kg-1 , b.w., p.o.). Other separate groups of rats were received, respectively; sodium chloride (0.9%, b.w., p.o.), clonidine (α-2 -adrenergic agonist, 1 mg kg-1 , b.w., i.p.), yohimbine (α-2 -adrenergic antagonist, 2 mg kg-1 , b...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
C Liang, K-Y Wang, M-R Gong, Q Li, Z Yu, B Xu
BACKGROUND: On the basis of the importance of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in gastrointestinal motility, we hypothesized that the ENS may mediate the therapeutic efficacy of electro-acupuncture (EA) in constipation by regulating the mechanisms underlying the effects of EA on gastrointestinal function. METHODS: Model mice with constipation were generated by gastric instillation of 0-4°C normal saline. Defecation time and stool (form and wet and dry weight) were assessed...
February 28, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Robert W McKee, Naira Aleksanyan, Elizabeth M Garrett, Rita Tamayo
Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is a second messenger that regulates the transition from motile to sessile lifestyles in numerous bacteria and controls virulence factor production in a variety of pathogens. In Clostridium difficile , c-di-GMP negatively regulates flagellum biosynthesis and swimming motility, and promotes the production of type IV pili (TFP), biofilm formation, and surface motility in vitro Flagella have been identified as colonization factors in C. difficile , but the role of TFP in adherence to host cells and in colonization of the mammalian gut is unknown...
February 26, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Hyun Chul Kim, Young-Ok Kim, Sooyeon Park, Bo-Hye Nam, Dong-Gyun Kim, Ji-Min Park, Jung-Hoon Yoon
A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, aerobic and rod-shaped or ovoid bacterial strain, designated MYP2-2T , was isolated from the intestinal tract of a squid (Todarodes pacificus) collected from the East Sea, South Korea, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain MYP2-2T grew optimally at 30-35 °C and in the presence of 2.0 % (w/v) NaCl. A neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain MYP2-2T belonged to the genus Vitellibacter. Strain MYP2-2T exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 95...
February 26, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Catharina S de Jonge, Ruaridh M Gollifer, Aart J Nederveen, David Atkinson, Stuart A Taylor, Jaap Stoker, Alex Menys
OBJECTIVE: Dynamic imaging of small intestinal motility is an increasingly common research method to examine bowel physiology in health and disease. However, limited data exists to guide imaging protocols with respect to quantitative analysis. The purpose of this study is to define the required temporal resolution and scan duration in dynamic MRI for small bowel motility assessment. METHODS: 6 healthy volunteers underwent motility imaging with MR enterography using breath-hold protocol...
February 23, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Young-Ok Kim, In-Suk Park, Sooyeon Park, Bo-Hye Nam, Dong-Gyun Kim, Seok-Gwan Choi, Jin-Woo Bae, Jung-Hoon Yoon
A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, aerobic and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated RA3-3-1T , was isolated from splendid alfonsino (Beryxsplendens) collected from the North Pacific Ocean. Strain RA3-3-1T grew optimally at 25 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in the presence of 1.0-3.0 % (w/v) NaCl. The neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain RA3-3-1T belonged to the genus Bizionia, clustering with the type strain of Bizionia fulviae. Strain RA3-3-1T exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 98...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
K Murray, C Reardon
Inflammatory bowel disease negatively affects the quality of life of millions of patients around the world. Although the precise etiology of the disease remains elusive, aberrant immune system activation is an underlying cause. As such, therapies that selectively inhibit immune cell activation without broad immunosuppression are desired. Inhibition of immune cell activation preventing pro-inflammatory cytokine production through neural stimulation has emerged as one such treatment. These therapeutics are based on the discovery of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, a reflex arc that induces efferent vagal nerve signaling to reduce immune cell activation and consequently mortality during septic shock...
March 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Lee-Anne Chapple, Adam Deane
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastrointestinal dysmotility occurs frequently in the critically ill. Although the causes underlying dysmotility are multifactorial, both pain and its treatment with exogenous opioids are likely causative factors. The purpose of this review is to describe the effects of pain and opioids on gastrointestinal motility; outline the rationale for and evidence supporting the administration of opioid antagonists to improve dysmotility; and describe the potential influence opioids drugs have on the intestinal microbiome and infectious complications...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
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