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Intestinal Motility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932986/role-of-quercetin-in-modulating-chloride-transport-in-the-intestine
#1
Bo Yu, Yu Jiang, Lingling Jin, Tonghui Ma, Hong Yang
Epithelial chloride channels provide the pathways for fluid secretion in the intestine. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) are the main chloride channels in the luminal membrane of enterocytes. These transmembrane proteins play important roles in many physiological processes. In this study, we have identified a flavonoid quercetin as a modulator of CaCC chloride channel activity. Fluorescence quenching assay showed that quercetin activated Cl(-) transport in a dose-dependent manner, with EC50 ~37 μM...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929465/using-multi-fluorinated-bile-acids-and-in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-measure-bile-acid-transport
#2
Jessica Felton, Kunrong Cheng, Anan Said, Aaron C Shang, Su Xu, Diana Vivian, Melissa Metry, James E Polli, Jean-Pierre Raufman
Along with their traditional role as detergents that facilitate fat absorption, emerging literature indicates that bile acids are potent signaling molecules that affect multiple organs; they modulate gut motility and hormone production, and alter vascular tone, glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and energy utilization. Changes in fecal bile acids may alter the gut microbiome and promote colon pathology including cholerrheic diarrhea and colon cancer. Key regulators of fecal bile acid composition are the small intestinal Apical Sodium-dependent Bile Acid Transporter (ASBT) and fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19)...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928109/na-ca-2-exchanger-contributes-to-stool-transport-in-mice-with-experimental-diarrhea
#3
Kazuhiro Nishiyama, Kohta Tanioka, Yasu-Taka Azuma, Satomi Hayashi, Yasuyuki Fujimoto, Natsuho Yoshida, Satomi Kita, Sho Suzuki, Hidemitsu Nakajima, Takahiro Iwamoto, Tadayoshi Takeuchi
The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) is a bidirectional transporter that is controlled by membrane potential and transmembrane gradients of Na(+) and Ca(2+). To reveal the functional role of NCX on gastrointestinal motility, we have previously used NCX1 and NCX2 heterozygote knockout mice (HET). We found that NCX1 and NCX2 play important roles in the motility of the gastric fundus, ileum and distal colon. Therefore, we believed that NCX1 and NCX2 play an important role in transport of intestinal contents. Here, we investigated the role of NCX in a mouse model of drug-induced diarrhea...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919824/melatonin-s-role-as-a-co-adjuvant-treatment-in-colonic-diseases-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Eduardo Esteban-Zubero, Laura López-Pingarrón, Moisés Alejandro Alatorre-Jiménez, Purificación Ochoa-Moneo, Celia Buisac-Ramón, Miguel Rivas-Jiménez, Silvia Castán-Ruiz, Ángel Antoñanzas-Lombarte, Dun-Xian Tan, José Joaquín García, Russel J Reiter
Melatonin is produced in the pineal gland as well as many other organs, including the enterochromaffin cells of the digestive mucosa. Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant that resists oxidative stress due to its capacity to directly scavenge reactive species, to modulate the antioxidant defense system by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and to stimulate the innate immune response through its direct and indirect actions. In addition, the dysregulation of the circadian system is observed to be related with alterations in colonic motility and cell disruptions due to the modifications of clock genes expression...
December 2, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916787/comprehensive-mirna-expression-profiles-in-the-ilea-of-lawsonia-intracellularis-infected-pigs
#5
Hongyi Li, Mao Zhang, Enqin Zheng
To analyze the miRNA expression profiles in Lawsoniaintracellularis-infected porcine intestines, infected pigs were first identified using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). Then, RNA from infected intestines and control tissues were isolated and subjected to microarray analysis and RT-PCR. Results showed that a total of 83 miRNAs were differentially expressed between the infected samples and controls, out of which 53 were upregulated and 30 were downregulated. Validation using RT-PCR showed a high degree of confidence for the obtained data...
December 4, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915009/exploring-gastrointestinal-variables-affecting-drug-and-formulation-behavior-methodologies-challenges-and-opportunities
#6
REVIEW
Bart Hens, Maura Corsetti, Robin Spiller, Luca Marciani, Tim Vanuytsel, Jan Tack, Arjang Talattof, Gordon L Amidon, Mirko Koziolek, Werner Weitschies, Clive G Wilson, Roelof J Bennink, Joachim Brouwers, Patrick Augustijns
Various gastrointestinal (GI) factors affect drug and formulation behavior after oral administration, including GI transfer, motility, pH and GI fluid volume and composition. An in-depth understanding of these physiological and anatomical variables is critical for a continued progress in oral drug development. In this review, different methodologies (invasive versus non-invasive) to explore the impact of physiological variables on formulation behavior in the human GI tract are presented, revealing their strengths and limitations...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914942/is-there-a-role-for-ghrelin-in-central-dopaminergic-systems-focus-on-nigrostriatal-and-mesocorticolimbic-pathways
#7
REVIEW
Alicia Stievenard, Mathieu Méquinion, Zane B Andrews, Alain Destée, Marie-Christine Chartier-Harlin, Odile Viltart, Christel C Vanbesien-Mailliot
The gastro-intestinal peptide ghrelin has been assigned many functions. These include appetite regulation, energy metabolism, glucose homeostasis, intestinal motility, anxiety, memory or neuroprotection. In the last decade, this pleiotropic peptide has been proposed as a therapeutic agent in gastroparesis for diabetes and in cachexia for cancer. Ghrelin and its receptor, which is expressed throughout the brain, play an important role in motivation and reward. Ghrelin finely modulates the mesencephalic dopaminergic signaling and is thus currently studied in pathological conditions including dopamine-related disorders...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911803/genomic-sequencing-based-mutational-enrichment-analysis-identifies-motility-genes-in-a-genetically-intractable-gut-microbe
#8
Sena Bae, Olaf Mueller, Sandi Wong, John F Rawls, Raphael H Valdivia
A major roadblock to understanding how microbes in the gastrointestinal tract colonize and influence the physiology of their hosts is our inability to genetically manipulate new bacterial species and experimentally assess the function of their genes. We describe the application of population-based genomic sequencing after chemical mutagenesis to map bacterial genes responsible for motility in Exiguobacterium acetylicum, a representative intestinal Firmicutes bacterium that is intractable to molecular genetic manipulation...
December 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902697/a-novel-zebrafish-ret-heterozygous-model-of-hirschsprung-disease-identifies-a-functional-role-for-mapk10-as-a-modifier-of-enteric-nervous-system-phenotype-severity
#9
Tiffany A Heanue, Werend Boesmans, Donald M Bell, Koichi Kawakami, Pieter Vanden Berghe, Vassilis Pachnis
Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is characterized by absence of enteric neurons from the distal colon and severe intestinal dysmotility. To understand the pathophysiology and genetics of HSCR we developed a unique zebrafish model that allows combined genetic, developmental and in vivo physiological studies. We show that ret mutant zebrafish exhibit cellular, physiological and genetic features of HSCR, including absence of intestinal neurons, reduced peristalsis, and varying phenotype expressivity in the heterozygous state...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895411/reoperation-in-an-adult-female-with-right-sided-hirschsprung-s-disease-complicated-by-refractory-hypertension-and-cough
#10
Zhi-Jian Wei, Lei Huang, A-Man Xu
Hirschsprung's disease (HD) is an intestinal malformation caused by the innate absence of ganglion cells in the neural plexus of the colorectal wall, and is most common in male infants. It is rare in adult, and is usually left-sided. Herein we reported based on the CARE guidelines a case of a 47-year-old adult female suffering from "right-sided" HD complicated by refractory hypertension and cough. The patient with a history of cesarean section and with digestive unfitness (abdominal pain, distention, and constipation) only since 20 years old had recurrence of HD after initial surgery due to the incomplete removal of the HD-affected bowel based on a diagnosis of "chronic ileus", leading to the relapse of the digestive symptoms and the emergence of some intractable circulatory and respiratory complications which could be hardly controlled by conservative treatment...
November 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891756/motility-patterns-in-mouse-colon-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-induced-by-anticancer-chemotherapy
#11
REVIEW
N J Spencer
Colon cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in humans. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), a major chemotherapy treatment, has been used for decades to fight numerous types of cancers, including breast, colon, and head and neck carcinomas. Unfortunately, a large proportion of patients treated with 5-FU develop toxicities that include diarrhea, mucositis, neutropenia, and vomiting. While the side effects of 5-FU are well known, the mechanisms underlying the induction of these unpleasant symptoms are poorly understood...
December 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891695/downregulation-of-neuronal-vasoactive-intestinal-polypeptide-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-chronic-constipation
#12
F Giancola, F Torresan, R Repossi, F Bianco, R Latorre, A Ioannou, M Guarino, U Volta, P Clavenzani, M Mazzoni, R Chiocchetti, F Bazzoli, R A Travagli, C Sternini, R De Giorgio
BACKGROUND: Chronic constipation (CC) is a common and severe gastrointestinal complaint in Parkinson's disease (PD), but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. This study evaluated functionally distinct submucosal neurons in relation to colonic motility and anorectal function in PD patients with constipation (PD/CC) vs both CC and controls. METHODS: Twenty-nine PD/CC and 10 Rome III-defined CC patients were enrolled. Twenty asymptomatic age-sex matched subjects served as controls...
November 27, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890710/in-vivo-and-vitro-characterization-of-the-effects-of-kisspeptin-13-endogenous-ligands-for-gpr54-on-mouse-gastrointestinal-motility
#13
Jinhong Jiang, Weidong Jin, Yali Peng, Zhen He, Lijuan Wei, Shu Li, Xiaoli Wang, Min Chang, Rui Wang
Kisspeptin (KP), the endogenous ligand of GPR54, is a mammalian amidated neurohormone, which belongs to the RF-amide peptide family. However, in contrast with the related members of the RF-amide family, little information is available regarding its role in the gastrointestinal motility. With regard to the recent data suggesting KP play an important role in food intake, and while gastrointestinal motility are closely related to it. Thus, in the present work, effects of central administration of KP-13, one of the endogenous active isoforms, on gastrointestinal motility were investigated...
November 25, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889929/twenty-eight-years-of-intestinal-transplantation-in-paris-experience-of-the-oldest-european-centre
#14
F Lacaille, S Irtan, L Dupic, C Talbotec, F Lesage, V Colomb, N Salvi, F Moulin, F Sauvat, Y Aigrain, Y Revillon, O Goulet, C Chardot
AIM: Our aim is to describe our achievements in pediatric intestinal transplantation (ITx) and define areas for improvement. METHODS: After a period (1987-90) of 9 isolated small bowel transplants (SBTx) where only one patient survived with her graft, 110 ITx were performed on 101 children from 1994 to 2014: 60 SBTx, 45 liver-small bowel, 4 multivisceral (3 with kidneys), 1 modified multivisceral. Indications were short bowel syndrome (36), motility disorders (30), congenital enteropathies (34) and others (1)...
November 27, 2016: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882697/biomechanical-properties-of-an-implanted-engineered-tubular-gut-sphincter-complex
#15
Elie Zakhem, Mostafa El Bahrawy, Giuseppe Orlando, Khalil N Bitar
Neuromuscular diseases of the gut alter the normal motility patterns. Although surgical intervention remains the standard treatment, preservation of the sphincter attached to the rest of the gut is challenging. The present study aimed to evaluate a bioengineered gut-sphincter complex following its subcutaneous implantation for 4 weeks in rats. Engineered innervated human smooth muscle sheets and innervated human sphincters with a predefined alignment were placed around tubular scaffolds to create a gut-sphincter complex...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881401/alterations-of-colonic-function-in-the-winnie-mouse-model-of-spontaneous-chronic-colitis
#16
Ainsley M Robinson, Ahmed A Rahman, Simona Elisa Carbone, Sarron Randall-Demllo, Rhiannon Filippone, Joel Charles Bornstein, Rajaraman Eri, Kulmira Nurgali
The Winnie mouse, carrying a missense mutation in Muc2, is a model for chronic intestinal inflammation demonstrating symptoms closely resembling inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Alterations to the immune environment, morphological structure and innervation of Winnie mouse colon have been identified; however analyses of intestinal transit and colonic functions have not been conducted. In this study, we investigated in vivo intestinal transit in radiographic studies and in vitro motility of the isolated colon in organ bath experiments...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876927/anticestodal-properties-of-hibiscus-rosa-sinensis-l-malvaceae-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study-against-hymenolepis-diminuta-rudolphi-1819-a-zoonotic-tapeworm
#17
Purobi Nath, Arun K Yadav
The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo anticestodal effects of methanol extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae) leaf against Hymenolepis diminuta (Rudolphi, 1819), a zoonotic tapeworm. Under the in vitro study, H. diminuta worms were exposed to 10, 20 and 40 mg/ml concentrations of methanol leaf extract and the effects were judged on the basis of physical motility/mortality of worms. On the other hand, in the case of in vivo study, H. diminuta infected rats were treated individually with 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg doses of leaf extract for 5 days...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875260/the-presence-and-role-of-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-the-proximal-intestine-of-shorthorn-sculpin-myoxocephalus-scorpius
#18
Jeroen Brijs, Grant W Hennig, Anna-Maria Kellermann, Michael Axelsson, Catharina Olsson
Rhythmic contractions of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract can occur in the absence of neuronal or hormonal stimulation due to the generation of spontaneous electrical activity by interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) that are electrically coupled to smooth muscle cells. The myogenically-driven component of gastrointestinal motility patterns in fish likely also involves ICC, however, little is known of their presence, distribution and function in any fish species. In the present study, we combined immunohistochemistry and in vivo recordings of intestinal motility to investigate the involvement of ICC in the motility of the proximal intestine in adult shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius)...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874323/flotation-of-toxocara-canis-eggs-in-commercial-bleach-and-effects-of-bleach-treatment-times-on-larval-development-in-these-eggs
#19
Alexa C Rosypal, Alice Houk-Miles, Anne M Zajac, David S Lindsay
Toxocara canis is a common intestinal nematode of young dogs. Puppies contaminate the environment with large numbers of eggs that can embryonate and become infective in less than a month. Embryonated eggs are infectious for humans and other paratenic hosts. Most T. canis infections in humans are asymptomatic, however, migration of T. canis larvae in the eye and in the central nervous system can result in vision loss, blindness, and even death. The eggs of T. canis are highly resistant to harsh environmental conditions and routinely used chemical disinfectants...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873059/the-effect-of-daikenchuto-on-postoperative-intestinal-motility-in-patients-with-right-side-colon-cancer
#20
Takeshi Yamada, Satoshi Matsumoto, Michihiro Koizumi Akihisa Matsuda, Seiichi Shinji, Yasuyuki Yokoyama, Goro Takahashi, Takuma Iwai, Kouki Takeda, Keiichiro Ohta, Eiji Uchida
PURPOSE: Daikenchuto (DKT) has a stimulant effect on intestinal motility and reportedly has a positive effect on postoperative intestinal motility in patients with sigmoid colon cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of DKT in patients with right-side colon cancer. METHODS: This retrospective study included 88 patients with right-side colon cancer. We orally administered 7.5 g of DKT in the DKT group and did not administer any DKT to patients in the no-DKT group...
November 21, 2016: Surgery Today
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