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toxoplasmosis diagnosis

Fernanda Maria Silveira Souto, Bárbara Vilela Giampietro, Julia Thiemi Takiuti, Lucia Maria Arruda Campos, Carlos Eduardo Hirata, Joyce Hisae Yamamoto
AIMS: To analyse the clinical features, systemic associations, treatment and visual outcomes of uveitis in children from a referral centre in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Clinical records of patients under 16 years old who attended the Uveitis Service, Hospital das Clinicas, Faculdadede Medicina, Universidade de São PauloFMUSP, between April and September 2017, were reviewed retrospectively. Patients with incomplete medical records, previous ocular trauma, or less than six6 months of follow-up were excluded...
June 15, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Guillaume Roux, Emmanuelle Varlet-Marie, Patrick Bastien, Yvon Sterkers
The molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis lacks standardization due to the use of numerous methods with variable performance. This diversity of methods also impairs robust performance comparisons between laboratories. The harmonization of practices by diffusion of technical guidelines is a useful way to improve these performances. The knowledge of methods and practices used for this molecular diagnosis is an essential step to provide guidelines for Toxoplasma-PCR. In the present study, we aimed (i) to describe the methods and practices of Toxoplasma-PCR used by clinical microbiology laboratories in France and (ii) to propose technical guidelines to improve molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis...
June 7, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Reshika Dhakal, Kiran Gajurel, Jose G Montoya
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Unlike in orthotopic heart transplant (OHT) setting where toxoplasma prophylaxis is a standard practice in pretransplant toxoplasma seronegative recipients who have received donor hearts from seropositive donors (D+/R-), there is no consensus regarding prophylaxis in non-OHT recipients. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of toxoplasma disease in non-OHT recipients is less than 1% but its true burden is underestimated. Among 31 cases of toxoplasma disease reported from 2004 through 2017, renal and liver transplant recipients comprised of 90% of cases...
June 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Zhenchao Zhang, Yuhua Li, Qing Xie, Pengju Li, Xiaoxu Nan, Lingmin Kong, Dapeng Zeng, Zhifang Ding, Shuai Wang
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) rhoptry proteins (TgROPs) have been considered main targets and indicator molecules for immune diagnosis and prophylaxis since they initially present during the process of invasion. In this study, the effect of intramuscularly injecting the genetic vaccine pVAX-ROP22 was evaluated, made by inserting the TgROP22 sequence into the eukaryotic expression vector of pVAX I, into BALB/c mice. The levels of IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a in pVAX-ROP22 vaccinated animals were integrally increased...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Vicente Soriano, José M Ramos, Pablo Barreiro, Jose V Fernandez-Montero
The first cases of AIDS in Spain were reported in 1982. Since then over 85,000 persons with AIDS have been cumulated, with 60,000 deaths. Current estimates for people living with HIV are of 145,000, of whom 20% are unaware of it. This explains the still high rate of late HIV presenters. Although the HIV epidemic in Spain was originally driven mostly by injection drug users, since the year 2000 men having sex with men (MSM) account for most new incident HIV cases. Currently, MSM represent over 80% of new yearly HIV diagnoses...
May 30, 2018: Viruses
Adel Ebrahimzadeh, Mehdi Khoshsima Shahraki, Azad Mohammadi
Schizophrenia is a persistent neuropsychiatric syndrome of uncertain source. Toxoplasmosis is the most prevalent parasitic protozoan infecting one-third of the worldwide human population. Infectious agents such as toxoplasma are the probable cause of schizophrenia. This study was aimed to evaluate the association between schizophrenia and toxoplasmosis using SAG1 and B1 Target gene. During February to December 2016, 92 patients with schizophrenia are imported in our study. All cases were assessed by serological (IgG and IgM antibodies) and molecular examinations...
June 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Fernando De la Garza-Salazar, Carlos Alejandro Cortéz-Hernández, Horacio Decanini-Arcaute, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz
Toxoplasma gondii infects up to one-third of the world's population, making it the protozoan that most infects people worldwide. Among the forms of presentation of toxoplasmosis, hepatitis is probably the least frequent with only a few case reports in the world's medical literature. Despite the fact that the first diagnostic test is the serology using the ELISA technique because its sensitivity is close to 100% in our case, it was reported negative. The biopsy gave the definitive diagnosis, and we were able to start treatment immediately...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
C R Naheen, S Tarafder, S Khan
Toxoplasmosis is a well-documented cause of bad obstetric history (BOH) and a major reason of congenitally acquired infection. This observational study was conducted to detect the rate of seropositivity of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and observe their risk factors associated with disease transmission attending the antenatal clinic of the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2015 to August 2016. The study subjects included 150 pregnant women of different gestational ages...
April 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Bahman Rahimi-Esboei, Mohammad Zarei, Mehdi Mohebali, Hossein Keshavarz Valian, Saeedeh Shojaee, Raziyeh Mahmoudzadeh, Mirataollah Salabati
This prospective study was aimed to detect acute and chronic ocular toxoplasmosis by comparison of anti- Toxoplasma gondii IgM and IgG antibody levels and IgG avidity test. One hundred and seventeen patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) who referred to the Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran were included in this study. Of the patients, 77 cases were positive for anti- T. gondii IgG, and 8 cases were positive for anti- T. gondii IgM. IgG avidity test revealed 11, 4, and 102 cases were low, intermediate, and high, respectively, and 6...
April 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Susmita Saxena, Sanjeev Kumar, Jitin Kharbanda
A 16-year-old male patient reported with swelling of the right submandibular region for 3 months. The patient was asymptomatic and gave a history of fever lasting for 2 days before observing the swelling. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed nonspecific lymphadenitis, and since there was no apparent cause detected in the oral cavity or any systemic condition noted, the enlarged lymph node was surgically excised and submitted for histopathologic examination. The inflammatory condition and large numbers of macrophages appeared nonspecific while granuloma formation was not seen...
January 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Caroline Andrews, Jodie Gerdin, Jon Patterson, Elizabeth L Buckles, Scott D Fitzgerald
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is classified as a select agent and is capable of causing mortality in humans and a number of veterinary species. Herein, we describe 3 cases of EEE in puppies in Michigan and New York. Two puppies were euthanized following an acute history of seizures and obtundation. A littermate of one of these puppies died 2 wk earlier following a history of anorexia and fever. All 3 puppies lacked significant gross anatomic lesions at autopsy and tested negative for rabies virus...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Nathan S Fox, Ana Monteagudo, Jeffrey A Kuller, Sabrina Craigo, Mary E Norton
Ventriculomegaly is defined as dilation of the fetal cerebral ventricles and is a relatively common finding on prenatal ultrasound. The purpose of this document is to review the diagnosis, evaluation, and management of mild fetal ventriculomegaly. When enlargement of the lateral ventricles (≥10 mm) is identified, a thorough evaluation should be performed, including detailed sonographic evaluation of fetal anatomy, amniocentesis for karyotype and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA), and a workup for fetal infection...
April 26, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Juan Gabriel Costa, María Julia Vilariño
A key element in any diagnostic technique is the antigen (Ag), a biomarker, but this is usually a protein that has a function to the parasite. Some biological aspects of the Ags and of the Toxoplasma gondii can influence the effectiveness of the diagnosis, as well as the antibody isotype and the characteristics of the assay. A large number of papers have assessed different proteins to distinguish the phases of infection, but the 'indices of effectiveness' differ among reports. This work presents for the first time a summary of all the Ags that have been evaluated, with standardized measurements of sensitivity and specificity...
April 26, 2018: Biomarkers in Medicine
Adam D Roche, Dominic Rowley, Francesca M Brett, Seamus Looby
Cerebral toxoplasmosis is one of the most common causes of focal brain lesions in immunocompromised patients, such as those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Differentiating toxoplasmosis from other central nervous system (CNS) lesions provides a significant clinical challenge. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain is key to prompt diagnosis and treatment of cerebral toxoplasmosis. Several specific signs on MRI of brain have been described in recent literature including the "concentric target sign" and "eccentric target sign...
2018: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Yosr Boudaouara, Karim Aoun, Rania Maatoug, Olfa Souissi, Aïda Bouratbine, Rym Ben Abdallah
Congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) results from transplacental passage of Toxoplasma gondii to the fetus during acute maternal infection. Our study aims to report clinical and biological patterns of 35 cases of CT diagnosed at the department of the Parasitology of the Pasteur Institute of Tunis and to access the performance of prenatal and early postnatal diagnosis techniques. Serological screening of maternal infection was performed by Immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG detection and IgG avidity determination. Prenatal diagnosis was based on both Toxoplasma DNA detection in the amniotic fluid and monthly ultrasound examinations...
June 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Liliana Carral, Federico Kaufer, Lais Pardini, Ricardo Durlach, Gastón Moré, María C Venturini, Cristina Freuler
Congenital toxoplasmosis diagnosis in the newborn is a very important issue due to the need for early treatment to prevent future sequels. Aim To compare available methods at the institution for the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. Material and Methods In this study we have evaluated the different diagnostic tests used in 67 congenital exposed newborns, including serological tests, PCR, parasite isolation and molecular characterization. Results The ISAGA IgM and IgA tests showed sensitivity (Se) of 87 and 91%, respectively, and specificity (Sp) of 100%...
2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Andrés F Henao-Martínez, Carlos Franco-Paredes, Alan G Palestine, Jose G Montoya
We report a family who acquired acute toxoplasmosis after a trip to Central America. One member developed severe clinical manifestations including bilateral chorioretinitis, hepatitis, and myocarditis requiring therapy. Symptomatic acute toxoplasmosis is unusual and possesses a diagnostic challenge. We discuss the clinical and epidemiological implications, laboratory diagnosis, and treatment plan.
April 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Dieta Brandsma, Jacoline E C Bromberg
Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) has been designated an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining disease since 1983 and accounts for up to 15% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. The majority of HIV patients are Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related. The most likely etiology is ineffective immunoregulation of EBV, inducing oncogenic protein expression, and subsequent loss of apoptosis and increased proliferation of lymphocytes. PCNSL generally presents with supratentorial, single or multiple, contrast-enhancing lesions...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Christina M Marra
Central nervous system infection by Toxoplasma gondii, or Toxoplasma encephalitis, is the most common cause of brain mass lesions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. It usually presents as one or more brain abscesses, but it can also cause a diffuse encephalitis or ventriculitis. Individuals who are Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G-seropositive, who have peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell concentrations below 200/μL, are not on antiretroviral therapy, and are not taking trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to prevent Pneumocystis pneumonia, are at particular risk for Toxoplasma encephalitis...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Cam Loveridge-Easther, Anne-Marie Yardley, Brenda Breidenstein
Congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) is a parasitic disease that causes serious fetal and neonatal harm or death. In countries that do not have antenatal screening programs, the initiation of CT treatment relies on a postnatal diagnosis. Until recently, diagnosis was based on clinical signs and immunoglobulin seropositivity, which is fraught with difficulty. In these cases, diagnosis was often delayed or treatment, which carries risk, started empirically. We highlight the use of polymerase chain reaction to diagnose a case of congenital toxoplasmosis, allowing early treatment and justifying the treatment burden...
March 28, 2018: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
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