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toxoplasmosis diagnosis

Michele Trotta, Beatrice Borchi, Lorenzo Zammarchi, Gaetana Sterrantino, Michela Brogi, Seble Tekle Kiros, Chiara Lorini, Guglielmo Bonaccorsi, Maria Grazia Colao, Alessandro Bartoloni
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate immunoglobulin M indirect-fluorescent antibody test (IgM IFAT) for the diagnosis of acute or chronic Toxoplasma infection in pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant women with suspected acute toxoplasmosis referred to the Tuscany Reference Center for Infectious Diseases in Pregnancy during the period 1998-2012 were retrospectively enrolled. All women were tested with a panel of serological tests, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IgG avidity and IgM IFAT...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Claudia Del Grande, Carlo Contini, Elisa Schiavi, Grazia Rutigliano, Martina Maritati, Silva Seraceni, Barbara Pinto, Liliana Dell'Osso, Fabrizio Bruschi
Recent evidence suggests the involvement of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the emergence of psychotic and affective disorders. In this report, we describe the case of a young Brazilian woman affected by recurrent ocular toxoplasmosis and presenting with a manic episode with psychotic features in the context of a diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder (BD), type I. We observed a relationship between ocular manifestations and the clinical course of bipolar illness, confirmed by molecular analyses (nested-PCR), as well as by the high level of T...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Wayne Stark, Annie Rominger, Fred Warkentine, Kerry Caperell
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of empiric head computed tomography (CT) in apparent life threatening event (ALTE). METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of children younger than 12 months presenting to an urban pediatric hospital and its suburban satellite for an ALTE from October 2009 to December 2012. The ALTE cases were identified as having had a diagnosis of ALTE (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision 799...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
O Villard, B Cimon, C L'Ollivier, H Fricker-Hidalgo, N Godineau, S Houze, L Paris, H Pelloux, I Villena, E Candolfi
Toxoplasmosis, a benign infection, is asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic in over 80% of cases, excepting immunocompetent patients suffering from ocular toxoplasmosis, as well as immunocompromised patients with opportunistic or congenital toxoplasmosis. Diagnosis is mainly based on serology testing. We thus compared the performance of the nine most commonly-used commercial automated or semi-automated immunoassays for IgG and IgM T. gondii antibody detection: Advia Centaur®, Architect®, AxSYM®, Elecsys®, Enzygnost®, Liaison®, Platelia®, VIDAS®, and VIDIA® assays...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Cem Ozgonul, Cagri Giray Besirli
Ocular toxoplasmosis, a chorioretinal infection with Toxoplasma gondii, is the most common etiology of posterior uveitis in many countries. Accurate diagnosis depends heavily on the characteristic clinical features of this disease, but atypical presentations, especially in immunocompromised patients, may create diagnostic challenges and lead to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment. Molecular biology techniques to diagnose ocular toxoplasmosis have been available for many years and are now accessible as standard laboratory tests in many countries...
October 11, 2016: Ophthalmic Research
Anuradha Basavaraju
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite presenting as a zoonotic infection distributed worldwide. In HIV-positive individuals, it causes severe opportunistic infections, which is of major public health concern as it results in physical and psychological disabilities. In healthy immunocompetent individuals, it causes asymptomatic chronic persistent infections, but in immunosuppressed patients, there is reactivation of the parasite if the CD4 counts fall below 200 cells/μl. The seroprevalence rates are variable in different geographic areas...
July 2016: Tropical Parasitology
Sumeeta Khurana, Nitya Batra
Toxoplasmosis in organ transplant patients can be a result of donor-transmitted infection, or reactivation of latent infection, or de novo infection. Solid organ transplants including heart, liver, kidney, pancreas and small bowel, and hematogenous stem cell transplants have been implicated in the risk of acquiring infection. In contrast to a benign course in immunocompetent individuals, the spectrum of illness is severe in transplant recipients. Clinical manifestations usually occur within the first 3 months of transplant and may present as encephalitis, pneumonitis, chorioretinitis, meningitis, and disseminated toxoplasmosis with multi-organ involvement...
July 2016: Tropical Parasitology
Sarman Singh
Toxoplasmosis is caused by a coccidian parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. The parasite is highly prevalent both in humans and in warm-blooded animals. Cat family animals are definitive host, and these animals excrete the infective oocysts in their feces. Humans, though not definitive host, get infection by consuming water or food contaminated with cat feces. Rarely, infection can also take place through transfusing the infected blood, through transplantation of infected organs, or transplacentally from infected mother to fetus...
July 2016: Tropical Parasitology
Ashvini K Reddy, Stephanie B Engelhard, Christopher T Shah, Austin J Sim, Jennifer E Thorne
PURPOSE: To guide risk management in uveitis. METHODS: Retrospective review of malpractice verdicts, rulings, and settlements. RESULTS: The WestLaw® database was reviewed for lawsuits related to uveitis in the United States from 1930-2014. Twenty-five cases met inclusion criteria, and 48% of these were infectious. Overall, 64% of outcomes favored the defendant ophthalmologist. The most common diagnoses were viral retinitis (28%), iritis (12%), syphilis (8%), and toxoplasmosis (8%)...
August 11, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Leah T Le, Serena S Spudich
Since the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV has transformed from a fatal disease to a chronic illness that often presents with milder central nervous system (CNS) symptoms laced with related confounders. The immune recovery associated with access to cART has led to a new spectrum of immune-mediated presentations of infection, phenotypically distinct from the conditions observed in advanced disease.HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) entails a categorized continuum of disorders reflecting an array of clinical presentation, outcome, and increasing level of severity: asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI), mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD)...
August 2016: Seminars in Neurology
N Elenga, M T Ggeorger-Sow, T Messiaen, I Lamaury, I Favre, M Nacher, G Beaucaire
The aim of this study was to investigate the mortality rate, risk factors and causes of death among HIV-infected patients in Guadeloupe from 1988 to 2009. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis to describe the survival trends and the Cox proportional hazard model to identify predictors of deaths in HIV-infected patients. Mortality rate and causes of death were compared among patients whose HIV diagnosis was made in two different study periods. There were 672 deaths recorded. The exact cause of death was clearly identified for 202 patients (35%)...
September 18, 2015: West Indian Medical Journal
Magloire Ondounda, Chinenye Ilozue, Caroline Magne
BACKGROUND: Cerebro-meningeal pathology is common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the aetiology is often difficult to ascertain with certainty. OBJECTIVE: To describe the major suspected and identified causes of meningeal or encephalitic syndromes in HIV infection in Libreville, Gabon. METHODS: A descriptive study using clinical records of patients hospitalised in the Department of Medicine in the Military Hospital of Libreville (Gabon) between January 2006 and May 2010...
June 2016: African Health Sciences
W D Roe, S Michael, J Fyfe, E Burrows, S A Hunter, L Howe
CASE HISTORY: A 1-year-old female New Zealand sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri) was intermittently observed in the Otago region of New Zealand over an 11-month period, always dragging her hind flippers. In December 2012 the sea lion was found dead, after a period of several days being observed to be harassed by male sea lions. PATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS: At gross postmortem examination the sea lion was in moderate body condition with signs of recent bite wounds and bruising...
September 2, 2016: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Sarah C Sasson, Sarah Davies, Raymond Chan, Leo Davies, Roger Garsia
BACKGROUND: Patients with thymoma with immunodeficiency (TWI)/Good's syndrome characteristically have evidence of combined immunodeficiency including low or absent B-cells, hypogammaglobulinemia and defects in T-cell mediated immunity. These patients can present with common or opportunistic infections. CASE PRESENTATION: A 54-year-old female was diagnosed with cerebral toxoplasmosis. This occurred on a background of metastatic thymoma previously treated with chemotherapy and myasthenia gravis (MG) treated with mycophenolate mofetil, monthly intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and pyridostigmine...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Gabriela Brito de Oliveira, Maria Almerice Lopes da Silva, Leandro Batista Wanderley, Carolina da Cunha Correia, Eduardo Caetano Brandão Ferreira, Zulma Maria de Medeiros, José Luiz Lima Filho, Fábio Lopes de Melo, Paulo Sérgio Ramos de Araújo, Alfredo Henrique Cecílio Marins Santos
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of space occupying brain lesion in patients with HIV/AIDS in Brazil. In the post-HAART era, it is responsible for high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study consists of a case series of 56 patients diagnosed with cerebral toxoplasmosis whose clinical features, brain imaging and cerebrospinal fluid aspects were analyzed. RESULTS: Cerebral toxoplasmosis led to the diagnosis of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 27 (48...
November 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Aaron Wong, James McKelvie, Carol Slight, Joanne Sims
PURPOSE: To investigate the patterns of uveitis at a tertiary referral center in New Zealand. METHODS: Retrospective data were collected for 1260 patients presenting to uveitis clinics in Auckland, New Zealand, between January 2008 and April 2014. Demographics, disease characteristics, and uveitis subtype were analyzed for all patients. RESULTS: Among 1148 patients, 70.3% had anterior uveitis. The most common diagnosis causing anterior uveitis was HLA B27-associated disease...
August 18, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Masahiko Sumi, Kazumi Norose, Kenji Hikosaka, Hiroko Kaiume, Wataru Takeda, Takehiko Kirihara, Taro Kurihara, Keijiro Sato, Toshimitsu Ueki, Yuki Hiroshima, Hiroshi Kuraishi, Masahide Watanabe, Hikaru Kobayashi
The prognosis of pulmonary toxoplasmosis, including disseminated toxoplasmosis involving the lungs, following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is extremely poor due to the difficulties associated with early diagnosis and the rapidly progressive deterioration of multiorgan function. In our institution, we identified nine cases of toxoplasmosis, representing incidences of 2.2 and 19.6 % among all HSCT recipients and seropositive HSCT recipients, respectively. Of the patients with toxoplasmosis, six had pulmonary toxoplasmosis...
August 16, 2016: International Journal of Hematology
Mohammad Hossein Motazedian, Bahram Kazemi, Bahador Shahriari, Mojgan Bandehpour, Khadijeh Khanaliha
BACKGROUND: The coccidian protozoa Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite of humans and other warm-blooded animals. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is of considerable medical importance for human, especially pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals. The apply of an Escherichia coli recombinant antigen(s) would be significantly useful in developing standardization of the diagnostic tests and reducing their costs. In this study, immunoreactivity of recombinant SAG3 against sera from immunized mice and human anti-T...
July 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Kamal Kumar Sawlani, Shyam Chand Chaudhary, Jitendra Singh, Deep Chandh Raja, Sanjay Mishra, Madhu Mati Goel
Dapsone (4,4'- diaminodiphenylsulfone) is the parent compound of the sulfones, and it has potent antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. It is used in the treatment of leprosy, dermatitis herpetiformis, and prophylactically to prevent Pneumocystis pneumonia and toxoplasmosis in patients unable to tolerate trimethoprim with sulfamethoxazole. We hereby report a case of dapsone toxicity who developed pure red cell aplasia and cholestatic jaundice in a suspected case of dermatitis herpetiformis...
July 2016: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
Jaqueline Dario Capobiango, Thaís Cabral Monica, Fernanda Pinto Ferreira, Regina Mitsuka-Breganó, Italmar Teodorico Navarro, João Luis Garcia, Edna Maria Vissoci Reiche
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the Western blotting method for the detection of IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) (IgG-WB) in the serum of children with suspected congenital toxoplasmosis. METHODS: We accompanied 47 mothers with acquired toxoplasmosis in pregnancy and their children, between June of 2011 and June of 2014. The IgG-WB was done in house and the test was considered positive if the child had antibodies that recognized at least one band on IgG blots different from the mother's or with greater intensity than the corresponding maternal band, during the first three months of life...
August 6, 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
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