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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754014/efficacy-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-autoimmune-epilepsy-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Pablo Cabezudo-García, Natalia Mena-Vázquez, Macarena Villagrán-García, Pedro J Serrano-Castro
OBJECTIVE: Review the evidence of the efficacy of AEDs (antiepileptic drugs) in autoimmune epilepsy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Literature research on Medline and Embase was carried out through January 2018. We included MeSH terms, free text and terms related to "autoimmune epilepsy", "autoimmune encephalitis", "limbic encephalitis", "autoimmune seizures", "antiepileptic drug", "seizure treatment", and "epilepsy treatment"...
May 7, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609960/autoimmune-encephalitis-and-psychiatric-disorders
#2
REVIEW
J Honnorat, L O Plazat
Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) refers to a rare, newly described, group of diseases associated with specific circulating autoantibodies directed against neuronal proteins used as biomarkers of the disease. Characterization of the associated autoantibodies present in the patients' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or sera can differentiate the various AE subgroups, which have specific clinical presentations and prognoses, and is therefore essential for proposing appropriate treatments. As psychiatric symptoms may predominate at the onset or over the course of these diseases, the diagnosis is frequently delayed...
March 30, 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426675/the-use-of-cerebral-imaging-for-investigating-delirium-aetiology
#3
Zina Hijazi, Peter Lange, Rosie Watson, Andrea B Maier
BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the frequency and patterns of use of cerebral imaging in delirium and to describe pathological changes associated with delirium using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: This retrospective observational study included patients with delirium admitted to a tertiary hospital (The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Australia) between January 2015 and August 2016. Data on cerebral imaging was collected and positive imaging findings were defined as: Acute or subacute infarct, haemorrhage, abscess, neoplasm, vasculitis, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, encephalitis, acute demyelination, or fat embolism...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401338/a-tertiary-care-center-s-experience-with-novel-molecular-meningitis-encephalitis-diagnostics-and-implementation-with-antimicrobial-stewardship
#4
David Chang, Jason F Okulicz, Lindsey E Nielsen, Brian K White
Background: Novel molecular techniques, such as the Biofire FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) panel, are increasingly used to improve pathogen detection and time to detection (TtD). The Brooke Army Medical Center antibiotic stewardship program evaluated the impact of the ME panel on empiric antimicrobial usage. Methods: Negative ME panels were analyzed for days of therapy (DOT). The ME panel became available at Brooke Army Medical Center on January 1, 2016 and a retrospective chart review was performed on all hospitalized patients tested by ME panel through April 30, 2016...
January 1, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387135/vaccines-for-the-elderly-current-use-and-future-challenges
#5
REVIEW
Birgit Weinberger
Age-related changes of the immune system contribute to increased incidence and severity of infections in the elderly. Vaccination is the most effective measure to prevent infections and vaccination recommendations in most countries include specific guidelines for the elderly. Vaccination against influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae is usually recommended for persons with underlying diseases and for the elderly with heterogeneous age limits between ≥ 50 years and ≥ 65 years. Some countries also recommend vaccination against herpes zoster...
2018: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232422/atypical-disseminated-herpes-zoster-management-guidelines-in-immunocompromised-patients
#6
Daniel J Lewis, Megan J Schlichte, Harry Dao
Reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes dermatomal herpes zoster (HZ) and more rarely severe disseminated HZ including diffuse rash, encephalitis, hepatitis, and pneumonitis. An atypical form of VZV infection, disseminated HZ has been described primarily in immunocompromised hosts. We report 2 cases of atypical disseminated HZ in immunocompromised patients presenting with diffuse, nondermatomal, vesicular eruptions. We also provide a review of the literature and summarize the current guidelines for the treatment and prophylaxis of HZ in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, solid organ transplantation (SOT), and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)...
November 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146286/-genital-herpes-and-pregnancy-epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-prevention-and-screening-guidelines-for-clinical-practice-from-the-french-college-of-gynecologists-and-obstetrician-cngof
#7
O Picone
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the consequences of genital herpes infections in pregnant women. METHODS: The PubMed database and the recommendations from the French and foreign obstetrical societies or colleges have been consulted. RESULTS: The symptomatology of herpes genital rash is often atypical (NP2) and not different during pregnancy (Professional consensus). It is most often due to HSV2 (NP2). Seventy percent of pregnant patients have a history of infection with Herpes simplex virus, without reference to genital or labial localization, and this is in most cases type 1 (NP2)...
December 2017: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123419/encephalitis-treatment-a-case-report-with-long-term-follow-up-of-ebv-pcr-in-cerebrospinal-fluid
#8
Fnu Zarlasht, Mashal Salehi, Mohammad Abu-Hishmeh, Muzammil Khan
Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been found to cause infectious mononucleosis multiple times, but has been associated rarely with EBV encephalitis. Also, whenever it is diagnosed, it is always treated symptomatically. Case report: A case of confirmed EBV encephalitis is presented, which was treated with antiviral therapy resulting in complete clearance of the virus in cerebrospinal fluid and minimal neurologic symptoms after hospital discharge. Conclusion: The Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines state that intravenous acyclovir is not recommended for EBV-related encephalitis...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110776/psychiatric-syndromes-other-than-dementia
#9
Karl Bechter, Florian Deisenhammer
There is wide variability in how psychiatry guidelines and textbooks address the question of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diagnostics in the screening of psychiatric disorders. A United States-based textbook confirms that there is no consensus about which laboratory investigation should be routinely performed in psychiatric patients, but with respect to CSF diagnostics, the differences are even more striking. A survey among European experts showed a wide variety of opinions regarding clinical use and criteria in various countries of Europe and worldwide: some psychiatrists, mostly university hospital-based, recommended performing CSF diagnostics in every patient first experiencing severe mental illness (SMI), but especially in patients from the schizophrenia spectrum, whereas others almost never perform CSF examinations themselves and usually refer patients to neurology departments if necessary...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030767/diagnostics-of-autoimmune-encephalitis-associated-with-antibodies-against-neuronal-surface-antigens
#10
REVIEW
Luigi Zuliani, Marco Zoccarato, Matteo Gastaldi, Raffaele Iorio, Amelia Evoli, Tiziana Biagioli, Silvia Casagrande, Elena Bazzigaluppi, Raffaella Fazio, Claudia Giannotta, Eduardo Nobile-Orazio, Francesca Andreetta, Ornella Simoncini, Gianna Costa, Sara Mariotto, Sergio Ferrari, Elisabetta Galloni, Michela Marcon, Diego Franciotta, Bruno Giometto
This document presents the guidelines for testing antibodies against neuronal surface antigens that have been developed following a consensus process built on questionnaire-based surveys, internet contacts, and discussions at workshops of the sponsoring Italian Association of Neuroimmunology (AINI) congresses. Essential clinical information on autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies against neuronal surface antigens, indications and limits of testing for such antibodies, instructions for result interpretation, and an agreed laboratory protocol (Appendix A) are reported for the communicative community of neurologists and clinical pathologists...
October 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969235/super-refractory-status-epilepticus-a-therapeutic-challenge-in-paediatrics
#11
Shrikiran Aroor, Kanaparthi Shravan, Suneel C Mundkur, C Jayakrishnan, Sai Sripad Rao
A status epilepticus which persists for 24 hours or more after starting treatment with anaesthesia or has recurred inspite of general anaesthesia is known as Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus (SRSE). It includes cases where status epilepticus recurs on reduction or withdrawal of anaesthesia. SRSE, though infrequently seen, constitutes a medical emergency due to the associated high morbidity and mortality. No clear cut guidelines are available till date for the management of SRSE. Most of the published literature was case reports and expert opinion...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919008/immunoadsorption-in-neurological-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Satoru Oji, Kyoichi Nomura
In recent years, immunoadsorption has been increasingly recognized as an alternative to therapeutic plasma exchange and used for the treatment of neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, myasthenia gravis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, and multiple sclerosis, as well as autoimmune encephalitis. Unlike therapeutic plasma exchange, which requires fluid replacement with a blood solution such as fresh frozen plasma or albumin, immunoadsorption is a blood purification technique that enables the selective removal of humoral factors from separated plasma through a high-affinity adsorbent with tryptophan or phenylalanine...
August 26, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914199/clinical-applications-of-intravenous-immunoglobulins-in-child-neurology
#13
Maria Gogou, Efimia Papadopoulou-Alataki, Martha Spilioti, Sofia Alataki, Athanasios Evangeliou
BACKGROUND: While there are guidelines for the use of intravenous immunoglobulins in children with Guillain-Barre syndrome and myasthenia gravis based on high-level evidence studies, data are scarce for the majority of neurologic disorders in this age group. Neuronal antibodies are detected in children with seizures of autoimmune etiology. Intravenous immunoglobulins with their broad immunomodulatory mechanism of action could be ideally effective in different forms of immunedysregulated intractable epilepsies such as autoimmune epilepsy and autoimmune Rasmussen encephalitis...
November 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883984/the-changing-epidemiology-of-japanese-encephalitis-and-new-data-the-implications-for-new-recommendations-for-japanese-encephalitis-vaccine
#14
REVIEW
Bradley Connor, William B Bunn
The epidemiology of Japanese Encephalitis and risk to the traveler has changed and continues to evolve. The spread of Japanese Encephalitis virus into new environments, changes in agricultural practice and animal vectors, climate change, peri-urban growth, changes in international travel to Asia, personal risk factors, mosquito vector free transmission, interactions with other flaviviruses and better information on infections without encephalitis and other factors make Japanese Encephalitis an underappreciated risk...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882172/meta-analyses-of-the-proportion-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus-infection-in-vectors-and-vertebrate-hosts
#15
Ana R S Oliveira, Lee W Cohnstaedt, Erin Strathe, Luciana Etcheverry Hernández, D Scott McVey, José Piaggio, Natalia Cernicchiaro
BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a zoonosis in Southeast Asia vectored by mosquitoes infected with the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Japanese encephalitis is considered an emerging exotic infectious disease with potential for introduction in currently JEV-free countries. Pigs and ardeid birds are reservoir hosts and play a major role on the transmission dynamics of the disease. The objective of the study was to quantitatively summarize the proportion of JEV infection in vectors and vertebrate hosts from data pertaining to observational studies obtained in a systematic review of the literature on vector and host competence for JEV, using meta-analyses...
September 7, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853520/-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-encephalitis-the-israeli-pediatric-multi-center-experience
#16
Keren Politi, Dafna Marom, Shay Ashkenazi, Gilat Livni, Hadassa Goldberg, Avinoam Shuper, Tami Steinberg, Eli Lahat, Eli Haiman, Rachel Shtrausberg
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) encephalitis is a disorder characterized by acute neuro-psychiatric symptoms, appearing mostly after a recent febrile disease, with a gradual progressive course, associated with laboratory or radiologic evidence of active inflammation. Many of the patients will present with a continuous neuro-cognitive disorder which could lead to major morbidity and even mortality. It was recently reported that this disorder can present at childhood as a primary disease or as a secondary complication of herpes simplex infection...
August 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814513/escape-of-tick-borne-flavivirus-from-2-c-methylated-nucleoside-antivirals-is-mediated-by-a-single-conservative-mutation-in-ns5-that-has-a-dramatic-effect-on-viral-fitness
#17
Ludek Eyer, Hirofumi Kondo, Darina Zouharova, Minato Hirano, James J Valdés, Memi Muto, Tomas Kastl, Shintaro Kobayashi, Jan Haviernik, Manabu Igarashi, Hiroaki Kariwa, Marketa Vaculovicova, Jiri Cerny, Rene Kizek, Andrea Kröger, Stefan Lienenklaus, Milan Dejmek, Radim Nencka, Martin Palus, Jiri Salat, Erik De Clercq, Kentaro Yoshii, Daniel Ruzek
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes a severe and potentially fatal neuroinfection in humans. Despite its high medical relevance, no specific antiviral therapy is currently available. Here we demonstrate that treatment with a nucleoside analog, 7-deaza-2' -C-methyladenosine (7-deaza-2' -CMA), substantially improved disease outcome, increased survival, and reduced signs of neuroinfection and viral titers in the brains of mice infected with a lethal dose of TBEV. To investigate the mechanism of action of 7-deaza-2' -CMA, two drug-resistant TBEV clones were generated and characterized...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741102/the-range-of-neurological-complications-in-chikungunya-fever
#18
T Cerny, M Schwarz, U Schwarz, J Lemant, P Gérardin, E Keller
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya fever is a globally spreading mosquito-borne disease that shows an unexpected neurovirulence. Even though the neurological complications have been a major cause of intensive care unit admission and death, to date, there is no systematic analysis of their spectrum available. OBJECTIVE: To review evidence of neurological manifestations in Chikungunya fever and map their epidemiology, clinical spectrum, pathomechanisms, diagnostics, therapies and outcomes...
December 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716891/which-dengue-vaccine-approach-is-the-most-promising-and-should-we-be-concerned-about-enhanced-disease-after-vaccination-the-path-to-a-dengue-vaccine-learning-from-human-natural-dengue-infection-studies-and-vaccine-trials
#19
Aravinda M de Silva, Eva Harris
Dengue virus (DENV) is the most common arthropod-borne viral disease of humans. Although effective vaccines exist against other flaviviral diseases like yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis, dengue vaccine development is complicated by the presence of four virus serotypes and the possibility of partial immunity enhancing dengue disease severity. Several live attenuated dengue vaccines are being tested in human clinical trials. Initial results are mixed, with variable efficacy depending on DENV serotype and previous DENV exposure...
July 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714494/computerized-axial-tomography-findings-in-children-with-afebrile-seizures-a-hospital-based-study-at-eastern-nepal
#20
P Poudel, M K Gupta, S P Kafle
BACKGROUND: Computerized Tomography can be performed in resource limited areas where Magnetic Resonance Imaging is less practical. This study was conducted to find out the proportion of cases with abnormal CT scan and findings of CT scan in children with afebrile seizures in a resource limited area. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted from 1st July 2009 to 31st March 2014 in a university hospital of Nepal. Patients (1 month to 20 years of age) presenting with history of afebrile seizure were included...
January 2017: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
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