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encephalitis guidelines

D B Kadam, Sonali Salvi, Ajay Chandanwale
The World Health Organization (WHO) has coined the term expanded dengue to describe cases which do not fall into either dengue shock syndrome or dengue hemorrhagic fever. This has incorporated several atypical findings of dengue. Dengue virus has not been enlisted as a common etiological agent in several conditions like encephalitis, Guillain Barre syndrome. Moreover it is a great mimic of co-existing epidemics like Malaria, Chikungunya and Zika virus disease, which are also mosquito-borne diseases. The atypical manifestations noted in dengue can be mutisystemic and multifacetal...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Saraniya Sathiamoorthi, Wendy M Smith
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tick-borne diseases are increasing in incidence and geographic distribution. Several diseases endemic to the United States have ophthalmic manifestations, including the most common tick-borne disease, Lyme borreliosis. As ocular complaints may lead a patient to seek medical evaluation, it is important to be aware of the systemic and ophthalmic manifestations of tick-borne diseases in order to make the correct diagnosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Vision-threatening ophthalmic manifestations are relatively common in Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Virginia Mirra, Sergio Bernasconi
This review focuses key advances in different pediatric fields that were published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2015. Weaning studies continue to show promise for preventing food allergy. New diagnostic tools are available for identifying the allergic origin of allergic-like symptoms. Advances have been reported in obesity, short stature and autoimmune endocrine disorders. New molecules are offered to reduce weight gain and insulin-resistance in obese children. Regional investigations may provide suggestions for preventing short stature...
August 27, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Sophie Norton, Damien V Cordery, Brett J Abbenbroek, Angela C Ryan, David J Muscatello
OBJECTIVES: Outbreaks of known and novel pathogens causing very severe illness increase the risk to public health in a globalised community and alarm the public. Intensive care units (ICUs) may be an underused setting for public health surveillance. This study investigates the electronic Record for Intensive Care (eRIC), an electronic clinical information and management system being developed for New South Wales ICUs, and its surveillance opportunity offerings. METHODS: The surveillance benefits being introduced by the eRIC were evaluated through consultation with stakeholders and the eRIC program team...
2016: Public Health Research & Practice
Heng Gee Lee, Timothy William, Jayaram Menon, Anna P Ralph, Eng Eong Ooi, Yan'an Hou, October Sessions, Tsin Wen Yeo
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) infections are a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality globally. However, most published studies have been conducted in developed countries where the epidemiology and aetiology differ significantly from less developed areas. Additionally, there may be regional differences due to variation in the socio-economic levels, public health services and vaccination policies. Currently, no prospective studies have been conducted in Sabah, East Malaysia to define the epidemiology and aetiology of CNS infections...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Marleen H van Coevorden-Hameete, Maarten J Titulaer, Marco W J Schreurs, Esther de Graaff, Peter A E Sillevis Smitt, Casper C Hoogenraad
Autoimmune encephalitis (AIE) is a group of disorders in which autoantibodies directed at antigens located on the plasma membrane of neurons induce severe neurological symptoms. In contrast to classical paraneoplastic disorders, AIE patients respond well to immunotherapy. The detection of neuronal surface autoantibodies in patients' serum or CSF therefore has serious consequences for the patients' treatment and follow-up and requires the availability of sensitive and specific diagnostic tests. This mini-review provides a guideline for both diagnostic and research laboratories that work on the detection of known surface autoantibodies and/or the identification of novel surface antigens...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Margherita Nosadini, Shekeeb S Mohammad, Agnese Suppiej, Stefano Sartori, Russell C Dale
AIM: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is an expensive therapy used in immunodeficiency and autoimmune disorders. Increasing demands and consequent shortages result in a need for usage to conform to guidelines. METHOD: We retrospectively evaluated IVIG use for neuroimmunological indications and adherence to existing guidelines in a major Australian paediatric hospital between 2000 and 2014. RESULTS: One-hundred and ninety-six children (96 male, 100 female; mean age at disease onset 6y 5mo [range 3mo-15y 10mo], mean age at first IVIG dose 7y 2mo [range 3mo-16y 5mo]) received IVIG for neuroimmunological indications during the study period (28...
May 31, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Corinne E Fischer, Angela C Golas, Tom A Schweizer, David G Munoz, Zahinoor Ismail, Winnie Qian, David F Tang-Wai, Dalia L Rotstein, Gregory S Day
INTRODUCTION: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an inflammatory disorder of the brain that has garnered significant interest within the medical and lay communities. There is a need for formal guidelines to assist physicians in identifying patients who should undergo testing for NMDAR encephalitis, recognizing the high potential for this potentially treatable disease to mimic more common disorders, and consequently remain undiagnosed. AREAS COVERED: This review highlights the impact of the discovery of NMDAR encephalitis on the fields of neurology and psychiatry, and discusses the steps that are necessary to improve recognition and treatment of NMDAR encephalitis...
July 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Ming Lim, Mark Gorman
Autoimmune neurologic diseases are of major clinical importance in children. Antibody-mediated diseases of the central nervous system are now increasingly recognized in childhood, where the antibodies bind to cell surface epitopes on neuronal or glial proteins, and the patients demonstrate either focal or more generalized clinical signs depending on the extent of brain regions targeted by the antibodies. The antibodies are directed towards ion channels, receptors, and membrane proteins; and the diseases include limbic encephalitis and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-antibody encephalitis, among many others...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Eoin P Flanagan, Daniel A Drubach, Bradley F Boeve
Autoimmune dementia and encephalopathies (ADE) are complex disorders that can cause immune-mediated cognitive deficits and have confusing nomenclature. Presentation varies from acute limbic encephalitis to subacute or chronic disorders of cognition mimicking neurodegenerative dementia. It may occur as a paraneoplastic phenomenon or an idiopathic autoimmune phenomenon. The presence of a personal/family history of autoimmunity, inflammatory spinal fluid, serologic evidence of autoimmunity (neural or nonorgan-specific), or mesial temporal magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities are clues to diagnosis...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Jeffrey Britton
Seizures are a common manifestation of autoimmune limbic encephalitis and multifocal paraneoplastic disorders. Accumulating evidence supports an autoimmune basis for seizures in the absence of syndromic manifestations of encephalitis. The autoimmune epilepsies are immunologically mediated disorders in which recurrent seizures are a primary and persistent clinical feature. When other etiologies have been excluded, an autoimmune etiology is suggested in a patient with epilepsy upon detection of neural autoantibodies and/or the presence of inflammatory changes on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or magnetic resonance imaging...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Jessie Cooper, Ciara Kierans, Sylviane Defres, Ava Easton, Rachel Kneen, Tom Solomon
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is a potentially devastating disease, with significant rates of mortality and co-morbidities. Although the prognosis for people with HSV encephalitis can be improved by prompt treatment with aciclovir, there are often delays involved in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. In response, National Clinical Guidelines have been produced for the UK which make recommendations for improving the management of suspected viral encephalitis. However, little is currently known about the everyday experiences and processes involved in the diagnosis and care of HSV encephalitis...
2016: PloS One
Francesc Graus, Maarten J Titulaer, Ramani Balu, Susanne Benseler, Christian G Bien, Tania Cellucci, Irene Cortese, Russell C Dale, Jeffrey M Gelfand, Michael Geschwind, Carol A Glaser, Jerome Honnorat, Romana Höftberger, Takahiro Iizuka, Sarosh R Irani, Eric Lancaster, Frank Leypoldt, Harald Prüss, Alexander Rae-Grant, Markus Reindl, Myrna R Rosenfeld, Kevin Rostásy, Albert Saiz, Arun Venkatesan, Angela Vincent, Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Patrick Waters, Josep Dalmau
Encephalitis is a severe inflammatory disorder of the brain with many possible causes and a complex differential diagnosis. Advances in autoimmune encephalitis research in the past 10 years have led to the identification of new syndromes and biomarkers that have transformed the diagnostic approach to these disorders. However, existing criteria for autoimmune encephalitis are too reliant on antibody testing and response to immunotherapy, which might delay the diagnosis. We reviewed the literature and gathered the experience of a team of experts with the aims of developing a practical, syndrome-based diagnostic approach to autoimmune encephalitis and providing guidelines to navigate through the differential diagnosis...
April 2016: Lancet Neurology
Hooi-Ling Teoh, Shekeeb S Mohammad, Philip N Britton, Tejaswi Kandula, Michelle S Lorentzos, Robert Booy, Cheryl A Jones, William Rawlinson, Vidiya Ramachandran, Michael L Rodriguez, P Ian Andrews, Russell C Dale, Michelle A Farrar, Hugo Sampaio
IMPORTANCE: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes a spectrum of neurological complications with significant morbidity and mortality. Further understanding of the characteristics of EV71-related neurological disease, factors related to outcome, and potential responsiveness to treatments is important in developing therapeutic guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To further characterize EV71-related neurological disease and neurological outcome in children. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective 2-hospital (The Sydney Children's Hospitals Network) inpatient study of 61 children with enterovirus-related neurological disease during a 2013 outbreak of EV71 in Sydney, Australia...
March 2016: JAMA Neurology
Mona Nasser, Zbys Fedorowicz, Mohammad H Khoshnevisan, Maryam Shahiri Tabarestani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Huub van den Oever, John W G M Schreurs, Menno Huisman
Local and international guidelines recommend that anticoagulation should be initiated before diagnostic work up has been completed, in patients with high clinical probability of pulmonary embolism (PE). However, many patients receiving anticoagulants for suspected PE do not have this disease. We present three cases of life-threatening bleeding complications after treatment with low-molecular-weight heparins for suspected PE. A 35-year-old woman had acute chest pain and died of a ruptured thoracic aneurysm. A man with herpes encephalitis developed acute dyspnoea, and died of intracerebral haemorrhage...
2015: BMJ Case Reports
Guan Hongzhi, Kong Weize, Peng Bin, Huang Yan, Lu Qiang, Jing Yuan, Liu Qing, Shen Hang, Ren Haitao, Zhu Yicheng, Sun Dawei, Cui Liying
OBJECTIVE: With the discovery of more patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (anti- NMDAR) encephalitis, frequent clinical relapses pose a new challenge to neurologists. METHODS: Retrospective reviews were conducted for 16 hospitalized patients with relapsing anti-NMDAR encephalitis at our hospital from June 2011 until November 2014. Their clinical data including symptoms, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profiles, neuroimaging findings and relapsing treatment were compared with those initial episodes...
April 7, 2015: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Divyanshu Dubey, Anshudha Sawhney, Benjamin Greenberg, Andrea Lowden, Worthy Warnack, Pravin Khemani, Olaf Stuve, Steven Vernino
Despite being a potentially reversible neurological condition, no clear guidelines for diagnosis or management of autoimmune encephalitis exist. In this study we analyzed clinical presentation, laboratory and imaging characteristics, and outcome of autoimmune encephalitis from three teaching hospitals. Non-paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies against membrane antigens was the most common syndrome, especially in the pediatric population. Clinical outcome was better for patients with shorter latency from symptom onset to diagnosis and initiation of immunomodulation...
October 15, 2015: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Kavitha Chikkanayakanahalli Venugopal, Suresh Ramappa Melsakkare, Sahana R Manipur, Pavana Acharya, Lakshmi Bomalapura Ramamurthy
CONTEXT: In developing countries, corneal diseases are the second leading cause of blindness. This corneal blindness can be treated through corneal transplantation. Though the present infrastructure is strong enough to increase keratoplasty numbers at a required rate, India has largest corneal blind population in the world. So a constant supply of high quality donor corneal tissue is the key factor for reduction of prevalence of corneal blindness. Considering the magnitude of corneal blindness and shortage of donor cornea, there is a huge gap in the demand and supply...
August 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Xiong-Fei Pan, Ulla K Griffiths, Mark Pennington, Hongjie Yu, Mark Jit
The purpose of the study was to systematically review economic evaluations of vaccine programs conducted in mainland China. We searched for economic evaluations of vaccination in China published prior to August 3, 2015 in eight English-language and three Chinese-language databases. Each article was appraised against the 19-item Consensus on Health Economic Criteria list (CHEC-list). We found 23 papers evaluating vaccines against hepatitis B (8 articles), Streptococcus pneumoniae (5 articles), human papillomavirus (3 articles), Japanese encephalitis (2 articles), rotavirus (2 articles), hepatitis A (1 article), Enterovirus 71 (1 article) and influenza (1 article)...
November 17, 2015: Vaccine
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