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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776015/delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-potentiates-fear-memory-salience-through-functional-modulation-of-mesolimbic-dopaminergic-activity-states
#1
Aurelie Fitoussi, Jordan Zunder, Huibing Tan, Steven R Laviolette
Chronic or acute exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive compound in cannabis, has been associated with numerous neuropsychiatric side-effects, including dysregulation of emotional processing and associative memory formation. Clinical and pre-clinical evidence suggests that the effects of THC are due to the ability to modulate mesolimbic dopamine (DA) activity states in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which THC modulates mesolimbic DA function and emotional processing are not well understood...
May 18, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775823/plasticity-of-population-coding-in-primary-sensory-cortex
#2
REVIEW
Amy M LeMessurier, Daniel E Feldman
That experience shapes sensory tuning in primary sensory cortex is well understood. But effective neural population codes depend on more than just sensory tuning. Recent population imaging and recording studies have characterized population codes in sensory cortex, and tracked how they change with sensory manipulations and training on perceptual learning tasks. These studies confirm sensory tuning changes, but also reveal other features of plasticity, including sensory gain modulation, restructuring of firing correlations, and differential routing of information to output pathways...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775702/abnormal-sleep-architecture-and-hippocampal-circuit-dysfunction-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#3
Christine E Boone, Heydar Davoudi, Jon B Harrold, David J Foster
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability and single-gene cause of autism spectrum disorder. The Fmr1 null mouse models much of the human disease including hyperarousal, sensory hypersensitivity, seizure activity, and hippocampus-dependent cognitive impairment. Sleep architecture is disorganized in FXS patients, but has not been examined in Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1-KO) mice. Hippocampal neural activity during sleep, which is implicated in memory processing, also remains uninvestigated in Fmr1-KO mice...
May 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775679/identification-and-validation-of-midbrain-kcnq4-regulation-of-heavy-alcohol-consumption-in-rodents
#4
Natalie S McGuier, Jennifer A Rinker, Reginald Cannady, Diana B Fulmer, Sara R Jones, Michaela Hoffman, Patrick J Mulholland
Currently available pharmacotherapies for treating alcohol use disorder (AUD) suffer from deleterious side effects and are not efficacious in diverse populations. Clinical and preclinical studies provide evidence that the Kcnq family of genes that encode KV 7 channels influence alcohol intake and dependence. KV 7 channels are a class of slowly activating voltage-dependent K+ channels that regulate neuronal excitability. Studies indicate that the KV 7 channel positive modulator retigabine can decrease dopaminergic neuron firing, alter dopamine (DA) release, and reduce alcohol intake in heavy drinking rodents...
May 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775579/a-mad2-mediated-translational-regulatory-mechanism-promoting-s-phase-cyclin-synthesis-controls-origin-firing-and-survival-to-replication-stress
#5
Sophie Gay, Daniele Piccini, Christopher Bruhn, Sara Ricciardi, Paolo Soffientini, Walter Carotenuto, Stefano Biffo, Marco Foiani
Cell survival to replication stress depends on the activation of the Mec1ATR -Rad53 checkpoint response that protects the integrity of stalled forks and controls the origin firing program. Here we found that Mad2, a member of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), contributes to efficient origin firing and to cell survival in response to replication stress. We show that Rad53 and Mad2 promote S-phase cyclin expression through different mechanisms: while Rad53 influences Clb5,6 degradation, Mad2 promotes their protein synthesis...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775205/modified-device-for-fluid-percussion-injury-in-rodents
#6
Wei Ouyang, Wenhui Wu, Zhiheng Fan, Jihui Wang, Huiju Pan, Weibin Yang
Fluid percussion (FP) injury model is a popular animal model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but still there are some issues need to be addressed. To increase the validity and reliability of this technique, we adapted the FP device using electromagnetic protractor, stainless-steel cylinder, changing pressure transducer position, and foam pads to adjust the parameters of FP pulse. Besides, the adjusted FP device is more automatic. The FP pulse is promptly measured and displayed in a graphic user interface software...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774234/the-fission-yeast-stn1-ten1-complex-limits-telomerase-activity-via-its-sumo-interacting-motif-and-promotes-telomeres-replication
#7
Samah Matmati, Mélina Vaurs, José M Escandell, Laetitia Maestroni, Toru M Nakamura, Miguel G Ferreira, Vincent Géli, Stéphane Coulon
Mammalian CST (CTC1-STN1-TEN1) complex fulfills numerous functions including rescue of the stalled replication forks and termination of telomerase action. In fission yeast lacking the CTC1 ortholog, the Stn1-Ten1 complex restricts telomerase action via its sumoylation-mediated interaction with Tpz1TPP1 . We identify a small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-interacting motif (SIM) in the carboxyl-terminal part of Stn1 and show that this domain is crucial for SUMO and Tpz1-SUMO interactions. Point mutations in the SIM (Stn1-226) lead to telomere elongation, impair Stn1-Ten1 recruitment to telomeres, and enhance telomerase binding, revealing that Stn1 SIM domain contributes to the inhibition of telomerase activity at chromosome ends...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773948/the-impact-of-total-sleep-deprivation-upon-cognitive-functioning-in-firefighters
#8
Sławomir Kujawski, Joanna Słomko, Małgorzata Tafil-Klawe, Monika Zawadka-Kunikowska, Justyna Szrajda, Julia L Newton, Paweł Zalewski, Jacek J Klawe
Introduction: Firefighters as a profession are required to maintain high levels of attention for prolonged periods. However, total sleep deprivation (TSD) could influence negatively upon performance, particularly when the task is prolonged and repetitive. Purpose: The aim of this study is to examine the influence of TSD on cognitive functioning in a group of firefighters. Subjects and methods: Sixty volunteers who were active male fire brigade officers were examined with a computerized battery test that consisted of simple reaction time (SRT) (repeated three times), choice reaction time, visual attention test, and delayed matching to sample...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773830/circadian-and-homeostatic-modulation-of-multi-unit-activity-in-midbrain-dopaminergic-structures
#9
Karim Fifel, Johanna H Meijer, Tom Deboer
Although the link between sleep disturbances and dopamine (DA)-related neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders is well established, the impact of sleep alterations on neuronal activity of midbrain DA-ergic structures is currently unknown. Here, using wildtype C57Bl mice, we investigated the circadian- and sleep-related modulation of electrical neuronal activity in midbrain ventral-tegmental-area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN). We found no significant circadian modulation of activity in SN while VTA displayed a low amplitude but significant circadian modulation with increased firing rates during the active phase...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773471/increased-spontaneous-firing-rates-in-auditory-midbrain-following-noise-exposure-are-specifically-abolished-by-a-kv3-channel-modulator
#10
Lucy A Anderson, Lara L Hesse, Nadia Pilati, Warren M H Bakay, Giuseppe Alvaro, Charles H Large, David McAlpine, Roland Schaette, Jennifer F Linden
Noise exposure has been shown to produce long-lasting increases in spontaneous activity in central auditory structures in animal models, and similar pathologies are thought to contribute to clinical phenomena such as hyperacusis or tinnitus in humans. Here we demonstrate that multi-unit spontaneous neuronal activity in the inferior colliculus (IC) of mice is significantly elevated four weeks following noise exposure at recording sites with frequency tuning within or near the noise exposure band, and this selective central auditory pathology can be normalised through administration of a novel compound that modulates activity of Kv3 voltage-gated ion channels...
April 30, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772921/a-multicomponent-intervention-to-encourage-stair-use-in-municipal-buildings
#11
Brent W Moloughney, Gayle E Bursey, Rebecca B Fortin, Maria G Morais, Khanh Thi Dang
PURPOSE: Evaluate the incremental impact of environmental stairwell enhancements on stair usage in addition to prompts. DESIGN: Phased, nonrandomized, quasi-experimental intervention. SETTING: Two 6-story and one 8-story municipal government office buildings-each with 2 stairwells. PARTICIPANTS: Approximately 2800 municipal employees and 1000 daily visitors. INTERVENTION: All stairwells received door wraps and point-of-decision and wayfinding prompts...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772740/tactile-estimation-of-molded-plastic-plates-based-on-the-estimated-impulse-responses-of-mechanoreceptive-units
#12
Lisako Nobuyama, Yuta Kurashina, Kei Kawauchi, Koji Matsui, Kenjiro Takemura
This study proposes a tactile estimation method of molded plastic plates based on human tactile perception characteristics. Plastic plates are often used in consumer products. The tactile evaluation plays an important role in product development. However, physical quantities not taking into account human tactile perception have been employed in previous tactile estimation procedures. Hence, in this study, we adopted the vibrational thresholds of the mechanoreceptive units-FA I, FA II, SA I and SA II-for stimuli detection and developed a tactile estimation method for plastic plates that clarified the mechanoreceptive units related to tactile sensation...
May 16, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772452/epidemiological-aspects-of-drowning-and-non-fatal-drowning-in-the-waters-of-amsterdam
#13
G Reijnen, M van de Westeringh, M C Buster, P J E Vos, U L J Reijnders
We examined who, when, and where people non-fatally drowned of drowned in Amsterdam between January 2011 and December 2015 so that in the future more targeted and effective measures can be taken to prevent drowning. Data on non fatal drownings (N = 515, fire department database) were combined with the forensic medicine data on drowning fatalities (N=88). Who drowns in Amsterdam? The majority of those who drowned were men (82%). A high percentage of the people who drowned were under the influence of alcohol or drugs (up to 55%)...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772199/it-s-about-time-temporal-dynamics-of-dentate-gyrus-pattern-separation
#14
Xiaojing Chen, James J Knierim
The dentate gyrus (DG) is hypothesized to be a pattern separator crucial for distinguishing similar memories. In this issue of Neuron, a new study by van Dijk and Fenton (2018) revealed that transient changes of firing patterns of DG ensembles, but not the remapping of session-averaged place fields, contributed to a place discrimination task.
May 16, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772071/to-test-or-not-to-test-the-value-of-toxicology-in-a-delayed-overdose-death
#15
Erin E Walsh, Elisa N Shoff, Mary Elizabeth Zaney, George W Hime, Fintan Garavan, Diane M Boland
A case demonstrating the necessity of thorough death investigation processes where toxicology plays an active role is presented. A 33-year-old white man presented to the emergency room in respiratory distress after an overdose episode where he was revived on the scene by fire rescue. His condition continued to deteriorate and he expired 6 days after the initial incident. No admission specimens were available for testing; however, there were specimens drawn 4 and 5 days after the incident. Drug paraphernalia from the scene was obtained by the laboratory through collaboration with local law enforcement...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772064/impact-of-inter-patient-variability-on-organ-dose-estimates-according-to-mird-schema-uncertainty-and-variance-based-sensitivity-analysis
#16
Alexandra Zvereva, Florian Kamp, Helmut Schlattl, Maria Zankl, Katia Parodi
PURPOSE: Variance-based sensitivity analysis (SA) is described and applied to the radiation dosimetry model proposed by the Committee on Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) for the organ-level absorbed dose calculations in nuclear medicine. The uncertainties in the dose coefficients thus calculated are also evaluated. METHODS: A Monte Carlo approach was used to compute first-order and total-effect SA indices, which rank the input factors according to their influence on the uncertainty in the output organ doses...
May 17, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772062/a-three-part-bayesian-network-for-modeling-dwelling-fires-and-their-impact-upon-people-and-property
#17
D B Matellini, A D Wall, I D Jenkinson, J Wang, R Pritchard
In the United Kingdom, dwelling fires are responsible for the majority of all fire-related fatalities. The development of these incidents involves the interaction of a multitude of variables that combine in many different ways. Consequently, assessment of dwelling fire risk can be complex, which often results in ambiguity during fire safety planning and decision making. In this article, a three-part Bayesian network model is proposed to study dwelling fires from ignition through to extinguishment in order to improve confidence in dwelling fire safety assessment...
May 17, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771919/firing-rate-based-network-modeling-of-the-dlgn-circuit-effects-of-cortical-feedback-on-spatiotemporal-response-properties-of-relay-cells
#18
Milad Hobbi Mobarhan, Geir Halnes, Pablo Martínez-Cañada, Torkel Hafting, Marianne Fyhn, Gaute T Einevoll
Visually evoked signals in the retina pass through the dorsal geniculate nucleus (dLGN) on the way to the visual cortex. This is however not a simple feedforward flow of information: there is a significant feedback from cortical cells back to both relay cells and interneurons in the dLGN. Despite four decades of experimental and theoretical studies, the functional role of this feedback is still debated. Here we use a firing-rate model, the extended difference-of-Gaussians (eDOG) model, to explore cortical feedback effects on visual responses of dLGN relay cells...
May 17, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771556/tobacco-and-alcohol-use-among-firefighters-during-their-first-3-years-of-service
#19
Suzy B Gulliver, Rose Zimering, Jeff Knight, Sandra Morissette, Barbara Kamholz, Eric Meyer, Terence Keane, Michelle Pennington, Tessa Denman, Thomas Carpenter, Nathan Kimbrel
Firefighters constitute an understudied occupational group that are exposed to a great deal of occupational stress including potentially traumatic stress. As such, higher prevalence rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders have been observed within this population; however, very little is known about the trajectories of health-risk behaviors among firefighters in response to occupational stress over time. The present study enrolled 322 fire service recruits from 7 urban U.S...
May 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770935/insight-into-elemental-mercury-hg-0-removal-from-flue-gas-using-uv-h-2-o-2-advanced-oxidation-processes
#20
Changsong Zhou, Zijian Song, Hongmin Yang, Hao Wu, Ben Wang, Jie Yu, Lushi Sun
Elemental mercury (Hg0 ) emitted from coal-fired power plants and municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators has caused great harm to the environment and human beings. The strong oxidized • OH radicals produced by UV/H2 O2 advanced oxidation processes were studied to investigate the performance of Hg0 removal from simulated flue gases. The results showed that when H2 O2 concentration was 1.0 mol/L and the solution pH value was 4.1, the UV/H2 O2 system had the highest Hg0 removal efficiency. The optimal reaction temperature was approximately 50 °C and Hg0 removal was inhibited when the temperature was higher or lower...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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