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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342394/identification-of-linear-and-nonlinear-sensory-processing-circuits-from-spiking-neuron-data
#1
Dorian Florescu, Daniel Coca
Inferring mathematical models of sensory processing systems directly from input-output observations, while making the fewest assumptions about the model equations and the types of measurements available, is still a major issue in computational neuroscience. This letter introduces two new approaches for identifying sensory circuit models consisting of linear and nonlinear filters in series with spiking neuron models, based only on the sampled analog input to the filter and the recorded spike train output of the spiking neuron...
January 17, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341854/separation-of-brown-carbon-from-black-carbon-for-improve-and-csn-pm2-5-samples
#2
Judith C Chow, John G Watson, Mark C Green, Xiaoliang Wang, L-W Antony Chen, Dana L Trimble, Paul M Cropper, Steven D Kohl, Steven B Gronstal
The replacement of the DRI Model 2001 with Model 2015 thermal/optical analyzers (TOAs) results in continuity of the long-term organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) data base, and it adds optical information with no additional carbon analysis effort. The value of multiwavelength light attenuation is that light absorption due to black carbon (BC) can be separated from that of brown carbon (BrC), with subsequent attribution to known sources such as biomass burning and secondary organic aerosols. There is evidence of filter loading effects for the 25% of all samples with the highest EC concentrations based on the ratio of light attenuation to EC...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341801/local-vs-national-epidemiology-of-pedestrian-injury-in-a-mid-atlantic-city
#3
Elizabeth D Nesoff, Keshia M Pollack, Amy R Knowlton, Janice V Bowie, Andrea C Gielen
OBJECTIVE: Understanding pedestrian injury trends at the local level is essential for program planning and allocation of funds for urban planning and improvement. Because we hypothesize that local injury trends differ from national trends in significant and meaningful ways, we investigated city-wide pedestrian injury trends to assess injury risk among nationally-identified risk groups, as well as identify risk groups and locations specific to Baltimore City. METHODS: Pedestrian injury data, obtained from the Baltimore City Fire Department, were gathered through EMS records collected from January 1 to December 31, 2014...
January 17, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341361/parvalbumin-interneuron-mediated-feedforward-inhibition-controls-signal-output-in-the-deep-layers-of-the-perirhinal-entorhinal-cortex
#4
Janske G P Willems, Wytse J Wadman, Natalie L M Cappaert
The perirhinal (PER) and lateral entorhinal (LEC) cortex form an anatomical link between the neocortex and the hippocampus. However, neocortical activity is transmitted through the PER and LEC to the hippocampus with a low probability, suggesting the involvement of the inhibitory network. This study explored the role of interneuron mediated inhibition, activated by electrical stimulation in the agranular insular cortex (AiP), in the deep layers of the PER and LEC. Activated synaptic input by AiP stimulation rarely evoked action potentials in the PER-LEC deep layer excitatory principal neurons, most probably because the evoked synaptic response consisted of a small excitatory and large inhibitory conductance...
January 17, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340631/a-better-understanding-of-ambulance-personnel-s-attitude-towards-real-time-resuscitation-feedback
#5
Peter Brinkrolf, Roman Lukas, Ulf Harding, Sebastian Thies, Joachim Gerss, Hugo Van Aken, Hans Lemke, Udo Schniedermeier, Andreas Bohn
Objective: High-quality chest compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) play a significant role in surviving cardiac arrest. Chest-compression quality can be measured and corrected by real-time CPR feedback devices, which are not yet commonly used. This article looks at the acceptance of such systems in comparison of equipped and unequipped personnel. Design: Two groups of emergency medical services' (EMS) personnel were interviewed using standardized questionnaires...
January 11, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339501/correction-to-supporting-information-for-carlson-et-al-effect-of-oil-palm-sustainability-certification-on-deforestation-and-fire-in-indonesia
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339476/coding-of-episodic-memory-in-the-human-hippocampus
#7
John T Wixted, Stephen D Goldinger, Larry R Squire, Joel R Kuhn, Megan H Papesh, Kris A Smith, David M Treiman, Peter N Steinmetz
Neurocomputational models have long posited that episodic memories in the human hippocampus are represented by sparse, stimulus-specific neural codes. A concomitant proposal is that when sparse-distributed neural assemblies become active, they suppress the activity of competing neurons (neural sharpening). We investigated episodic memory coding in the hippocampus and amygdala by measuring single-neuron responses from 20 epilepsy patients (12 female) undergoing intracranial monitoring while they completed a continuous recognition memory task...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339324/oscillatory-synchronous-inhibition-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-and-its-primary-dependence-on-nr2a-containing-nmda-receptors
#8
Vassiliki Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Volodymyr I Pidoplichko, Taiza H Figueiredo, Maria F M Braga
Synchronous, rhythmic firing of GABAergic interneurons is a fundamental mechanism underlying the generation of brain oscillations, and evidence suggests that NMDA receptors (NMDARs) play a key role in oscillatory activity by regulating the activity of interneurons. Consistent with this, derangement of brain rhythms in certain neuropsychiatric disorders, notably schizophrenia and autism, is associated with NMDAR hypofunction and loss of inhibitory interneurons. In the basolateral amygdala (BLA)-dysfunction of which is involved in a host of neuropsychiatric diseases-, principal neurons display spontaneous, rhythmic "bursts" of inhibitory activity, which could potentially be involved in the orchestration of oscillations in the BLA network; here, we investigated the role of NMDARs in these inhibitory oscillations...
January 12, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338083/androgen-deprivation-therapy-dementia-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-men-with-prostate-cancer-how-much-smoke-and-how-much-fire
#9
REVIEW
Deaglan J McHugh, James C Root, Christian J Nelson, Michael J Morris
Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) remains the cornerstone of management for patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Although the toxicities of ADT are well established, there is increasing controversy surrounding the association between cognitive dysfunction and the receipt of ADT, with some evidence suggesting an increased risk of dementia. The authors conducted a literature search to identify pertinent clinical studies in this field. This general review outlines the key findings and discusses the relative strengths and weaknesses when drawing conclusions about the risk of cognitive dysfunction or dementia with ADT use...
January 16, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338007/bilateral-changes-in-afterhyperpolarization-duration-of-spinal-motoneurones-in-post-stroke-patients
#10
Bożenna Kuraszkiewicz, Jia-Jin Jason Chen, Hanna Goszczyńska, Yu-Lin Wang, Maria Piotrkiewicz
This paper extends the observations presented in the previously published work on the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) duration changes in motoneurones (MNs) on the paretic (more affected) side of 11 post-stroke patients by the same analysis on the non-paretic (less-affected) side. The estimated AHP duration for patients' MNs supplying more-affected muscles was significantly longer than control values and the elongation decreased with patient age and disorder duration. For MNs supplying less-affected muscles, dependency of AHP duration on age was closer to the control data, but the scatter was substantially bigger...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335929/computational-model-to-investigate-the-relative-contributions-of-different-neuromuscular-properties-of-tibialis-anterior-on-force-generated-during-ankle-dorsiflexion
#11
Ariba Siddiqi, Sridhar Poosapadi Arjunan, Dinesh Kant Kumar
This study describes a new model of the force generated by tibialis anterior muscle with three new features: single-fiber action potential, twitch force, and pennation angle. This model was used to investigate the relative effects and interaction of ten age-associated neuromuscular parameters. Regression analysis (significance level of 0.05) between the neuromuscular properties and corresponding simulated force produced at the footplate was performed. Standardized slope coefficients were computed to rank the effect of the parameters...
January 16, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335607/grid-scale-drives-the-scale-and-long-term-stability-of-place-maps
#12
Caitlin S Mallory, Kiah Hardcastle, Jason S Bant, Lisa M Giocomo
Medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) grid cells fire at regular spatial intervals and project to the hippocampus, where place cells are active in spatially restricted locations. One feature of the grid population is the increase in grid spatial scale along the dorsal-ventral MEC axis. However, the difficulty in perturbing grid scale without impacting the properties of other functionally defined MEC cell types has obscured how grid scale influences hippocampal coding and spatial memory. Here we use a targeted viral approach to knock out HCN1 channels selectively in MEC, causing the grid scale to expand while leaving other MEC spatial and velocity signals intact...
January 15, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335604/dentate-network-activity-is-necessary-for-spatial-working-memory-by-supporting-ca3-sharp-wave-ripple-generation-and-prospective-firing-of-ca3-neurons
#13
Takuya Sasaki, Verónica C Piatti, Ernie Hwaun, Siavash Ahmadi, John E Lisman, Stefan Leutgeb, Jill K Leutgeb
Complex spatial working memory tasks have been shown to require both hippocampal sharp-wave ripple (SWR) activity and dentate gyrus (DG) neuronal activity. We therefore asked whether DG inputs to CA3 contribute to spatial working memory by promoting SWR generation. Recordings from DG and CA3 while rats performed a dentate-dependent working memory task on an eight-arm radial maze revealed that the activity of dentate neurons and the incidence rate of SWRs both increased during reward consumption. We then found reduced reward-related CA3 SWR generation without direct input from dentate granule neurons...
January 15, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335359/recruitment-of-additional-corticospinal-pathways-in-the-human-brain-with-state-dependent-paired-associative-stimulation
#14
Dominic Kraus, Georgios Naros, Robert Guggenberger, Maria Teresa Leão, Ulf Ziemann, Alireza Gharabaghi
Standard brain stimulation protocols modify human motor cortex excitability by modulating the gain of the activated corticospinal pathways. However, the restoration of motor function following lesions of the corticospinal tract requires also the recruitment of additional neurons to increase the net corticospinal output. For this purpose, we investigated a novel protocol based on brain state-dependent paired associative stimulation.Motor imagery (MI)-related electroencephalography was recorded in healthy males and females for brain state-dependent control of both cortical and peripheral stimulation in a brain-machine interface environment...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335357/nonlinear-relationship-between-spike-dependent-calcium-influx-and-trpc-channel-activation-enables-robust-persistent-spiking-in-neurons-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#15
Stéphanie Ratté, Sergei Karnup, Steven A Prescott
Persistent spiking - the continuation of spiking after a stimulus ends - is thought to support working memory. Muscarinic receptor activation enables persistent spiking among synaptically isolated pyramidal neurons in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) but a detailed characterization of that spiking is lacking and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that the rate of persistent spiking in ACC neurons is insensitive to the intensity and number of triggers but can be modulated by injected current, and that persistent spiking can resume after several seconds of hyperpolarization-imposed quiescence...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335072/rebound-excitability-mediates-motor-abnormalities-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Jeongjin Kim, Daesoo Kim
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating disorder resulting from loss of dopamine neurons. In dopamine deficient state, the basal ganglia increases inhibitory synaptic outputs to the thalamus. This increased inhibition by the basal ganglia output is known to reduce firing rate of thalamic neurons that relay motor signals to the motor cortex. This 'rate model' suggests that the reduced excitability of thalamic neurons is the key for inducing motor abnormalities in PD patients. We reveal that in response to inhibition, thalamic neurons generate rebound firing at the end of inhibition...
January 16, 2018: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334401/unearthing-belowground-bud-banks-in-fire-prone-ecosystems
#17
Juli G Pausas, Byron B Lamont, Susana Paula, Beatriz Appezzato-da-Glória, Alessandra Fidelis
Despite long-time awareness of the importance of the location of buds in plant biology, research on belowground bud banks has been scant. Terms such as lignotuber, xylopodium and sobole, all referring to belowground bud-bearing structures, are used inconsistently in the literature. Because soil efficiently insulates meristems from the heat of fire, concealing buds below ground provides fitness benefits in fire-prone ecosystems. Thus, in these ecosystems, there is a remarkable diversity of bud-bearing structures...
January 15, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333930/a-histological-analysis-of-artificial-skin-in-an-extensively-burned-child-14-years-after-application-a-case-report
#18
Robert Zajicek, Eva Sticova, Radana Königova
INTRODUCTION: Artificial skin has become the treatment of choice in extensive, full-thickness thermal injuries. The longest follow-up of the healing process in burn sites covered with the Integra Bilayer Matrix Wound Dressing onto the wound published to date was at around five years after application. In our case report, we describe the clinical and histological analysis of an extensive, full-thickness thermal injury 14 years on from treatment with the bilayer matrix wound dressing. CASE STUDY: A nine-year-old boy suffered a full-thickness skin loss over 85% of his body surface area following a fire accident...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333820/osteomyelitis-in-burn-children-ten-years-of-experience
#19
María T Rosanova, Carla Voto, Susana Carnovale, Nidia Tramonti, Jimena Lema, José L Pinheiro, Adela Isasmendi, Verónica Alvarez, Rosa M Villasboas, Santiago Laborde, Hugo Basílico
INTRODUCTION: Osteomyelitis is uncommon among burn patients. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical, microbiological, and evolutionary characteristics of burn children with osteomyelitis hospitalized in a tertiary care facility. METHODS: Retrospective and descriptive study conducted between January 2007 and January 2017. RESULTS: Out of 600 burn children, 12 developed osteomyelitis (incidence: 2%). Eleven patients had a burn caused by direct fire...
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333772/-effect-of-different-surface-processes-on-the-bond-strength-between-zirconia-framework-and-veneering-ceramic
#20
Gong Qi, Sun Huiqiang, Hu Yijun, Chen Jia, Ding Weishan
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of different surface processes on bond strength and microscopic structure using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy distribution spectrum (EDS) at the bonding interface between zirconia framework and veneering ceramic. METHODS: WIELAND zirconia core material was cut into 33 rectangular specimens and fired on into rectangular specimens (10 mm×5 mm×5 mm). The specimens were randomly divided into three groups (n=
11)...
December 1, 2017: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
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