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demyelination encephalitis

Shigemi Nagayama, Keiko Tanaka
Recently, the search for diagnostic antibody markers has drawn considerable attention in relation to autoimmune encephalitis. Among the antibody markers, the most frequently detected is the anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)antibody. Patients with this antibody develop characteristic clinical features. This disease tends to affect young women, and starts with psychiatric symptoms followed by seizures, involuntary movements, autonomic failure, and respiratory failure. Nearly half of these female patients have ovarian teratoma...
September 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Atsurou Yamada, Nobuhiro Miyachi, Toshiyasu Miura, Masako Suzuki, Norio Watanabe, Tatsuo Akechi
INTRODUCTION: Post-infectious encephalitis/encephalopathy is a neurological syndrome that sometimes develops following common viral or bacterial infections. The most common form is acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). ADEM is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that typically presents as a monophasic disorder associated with multifocal neurologic symptoms and encephalitis. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is another type of severe autoimmune disorder, characterized by seizures, movement disorders and psychiatric symptoms...
2016: SpringerPlus
Juliane Wolter, Lorenz Schild, Fabian Bock, Andrea Hellwig, Ihsan Gadi, Moh D Mohanad Al-Dabet, Satish Ranjan, Raik Rönicke, Peter P Nawroth, Karl-Uwe Petersen, Christian Mawrin, Khurrum Shahzad, Berend Isermann
BACKGROUND: Studies with human samples and in rodents established a function of coagulation proteases in neuro-inflammatory demyelinating diseases, e.g. in multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE). Surprisingly, approaches to increase aPC plasma levels as well as antibody mediated inhibition of PC/aPC ameliorated EAE in mice. Hence, the role of aPC generation in demyelinating diseases and potential mechanisms involved remain controversial. Furthermore, it is not known whether loss of aPC has pathological consequences at baseline, e...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Kavitha Kothur, Louise Wienholt, Shekeeb S Mohammad, Esther M Tantsis, Sekhar Pillai, Philip N Britton, Cheryl A Jones, Rajeshwar R Angiti, Elizabeth H Barnes, Timothy Schlub, Sushil Bandodkar, Fabienne Brilot, Russell C Dale
BACKGROUND: Despite the discovery of CSF and serum diagnostic autoantibodies in autoimmune encephalitis, there are still very limited CSF biomarkers for diagnostic and monitoring purposes in children with inflammatory or autoimmune brain disease. The cause of encephalitis is unknown in up to a third of encephalitis cohorts, and it is important to differentiate infective from autoimmune encephalitis given the therapeutic implications. AIM: To study CSF cytokines and chemokines as diagnostic biomarkers of active neuroinflammation, and assess their role in differentiating demyelinating, autoimmune, and viral encephalitis...
2016: PloS One
Jun-Liang Yuan, Shuang-Kun Wang, Xiao-Juan Guo, Wen-Li Hu
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which has been associated with several vaccines such as rabies, diphtheria-tetanus-polio, smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, Japanese B encephalitis, pertussis, influenza, and the Hog vaccine. Here, we presented a case of 12-year-old child who suffered from ADEM three weeks after hepatitis B vaccination. He was admitted to our hospital with symptoms of weakness of limbs, high fever, and alteration of consciousness...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Francesca Gilli, Xi Chen, Andrew R Pachner, Barjor Gimi
Disease in the spinal cord is a major component of disability in multiple sclerosis, yet current techniques of imaging spinal cord injury are insensitive and nonspecific. This study seeks to remove this major impediment to research in multiple sclerosis and other spinal cord diseases by identifying reliable biomarkers of disability progression using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a magnetic resonance imaging technique, to evaluate the spinal cord in a model of multiple sclerosis, i.e. the Theiler's Murine Encephalitis Virus-Induced Demyelinating Disease (TMEV-IDD)...
2016: PloS One
Jing-Jing Luo, He Lv, Wei Sun, Juan Zhao, Hong-Jun Hao, Feng Gao, Yi-Ning Huang
We described a female patient with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis occurring sequentially with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). The 19-year-old patient initially presented a diencephalic syndrome with aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G antibodies (AQP4-IgG) and brain lesions which involving bilateral medial temporal lobes and periependymal surfaces of the third ventricle on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten months later, the patient developed cognitive impairment, psychiatric symptoms and dyskinesia with left basal ganglia lesions on brain MRI...
July 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Seyed Ali Nabavizadeh, Arastoo Vossough, Mehrdad Hajmomenian, Reza Assadsangabi, Suyash Mohan
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare aggressive high-grade type of extranodal lymphoma. PCNSL can have a variable imaging appearance and can mimic other brain disorders such as encephalitis, demyelination, and stroke. In addition to PCNSL, the CNS can be secondarily involved by systemic lymphoma. Computed tomography and conventional MRI are the initial imaging modalities to evaluate these lesions. Recently, however, advanced MRI techniques are more often used in an effort to narrow the differential diagnosis and potentially inform diagnostic and therapeutic decisions...
August 2016: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
Frauke Seehusen, Seham A Al-Azreg, Barbara B Raddatz, Verena Haist, Christina Puff, Ingo Spitzbarth, Reiner Ulrich, Wolfgang Baumgärtner
In demyelinating diseases, changes in the quality and quantity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) may contribute to demyelination and failure of myelin repair and axonal sprouting, especially in chronic lesions. To characterize changes in the ECM in canine distemper demyelinating leukoencephalitis (DL), histochemical and immunohistochemical investigations of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cerebella using azan, picrosirius red and Gomori`s silver stain as well as antibodies directed against aggrecan, type I and IV collagen, fibronectin, laminin and phosphacan showed alterations of the ECM in CDV-infected dogs...
2016: PloS One
Jose Torres, Caitlin Loomis, Brett Cucchiara, Michelle Smith, Steven Messé
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The utility and safety of brain biopsy for suspected primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) are uncertain. Factors predictive of a positive biopsy have not been well described. Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic yield and safety of brain biopsy in suspected PACNS and determine whether any prebiopsy variables are associated with a positive biopsy. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of consecutive patients who underwent diagnostic brain biopsy for PACNS at a single institution...
August 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Sijo V Chemmannur, Prasad Bhagat, Bhalchandra Mirlekar, Kishore M Paknikar, Samit Chattopadhyay
Owing to the suppression of immune responses and associated side effects, steroid based treatments for inflammatory encephalitis disease can be detrimental. Here, we demonstrate a novel carbon nanosphere (CNP) based treatment regime for encephalomyelitis in mice by exploiting the functional property of the nuclear matrix binding protein SMAR1. A truncated part of SMAR1 ie, the DNA binding domain was conjugated with hydrothermally synthesized CNPs. When administered intravenously, the conjugate suppressed experimental animal encephalomyelitis in T cell specific conditional SMAR1 knockout mice (SMAR(-/-))...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Margherita Nosadini, Shekeeb S Mohammad, Agnese Suppiej, Stefano Sartori, Russell C Dale
AIM: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is an expensive therapy used in immunodeficiency and autoimmune disorders. Increasing demands and consequent shortages result in a need for usage to conform to guidelines. METHOD: We retrospectively evaluated IVIG use for neuroimmunological indications and adherence to existing guidelines in a major Australian paediatric hospital between 2000 and 2014. RESULTS: One-hundred and ninety-six children (96 male, 100 female; mean age at disease onset 6y 5mo [range 3mo-15y 10mo], mean age at first IVIG dose 7y 2mo [range 3mo-16y 5mo]) received IVIG for neuroimmunological indications during the study period (28...
May 31, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Gregory J Atkins, Brian J Sheahan
Alphaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-stranded RNA genome, of the family Togaviridae. In mammals and birds they are mosquito-transmitted and are of veterinary and medical importance. They cause primarily two types of disease: encephalitis and polyarthritis. Here we review attempts to understand the molecular basis of encephalitis and virulence for the central nervous system (CNS) in mouse models. Sindbis virus (SINV) was the first virus to be studied in this way. Other viruses analysed are Semliki Forest virus (SFV), Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus and Western equine encephalitis virus...
June 2016: Journal of General Virology
Jacob Feigal, Chen Lin, George Barrio, Peter G Kranz, Xavier Preud׳Homme
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Psychosomatics
Kohji Azumagawa, Shohei Nomura, Yasushi Shigeri, Leslie Sargent Jones, Douglas Kazutoshi Sato, Ichiro Nakashima, Mitsuru Kashiwagi, Takuya Tanabe, Shuichi Shimakawa, Hideto Nakajima, Hiroshi Tamai
The mechanism of post-vaccination acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) has been hypothesized as resulting from vaccination-injected antigens cross-reacting with myelin components, however, a precise etiology has been uncertain. In this report, we describe the case of a 6-year-old Japanese boy who had multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis (MDEM), and was positive for both anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies and Chlamydophila pneumoniae antibodies. After vaccinations that were the second one for measles and rubella, and the booster immunization for Japanese encephalitis, the patient presented with fever, headache, vomiting, and a change in personality...
August 2016: Brain & Development
Dong Wang, Shi-Ping Li, Jin-Sheng Fu, Lin Bai, Li Guo
Experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease, which served as a useful model providing considerable insights into the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (mBM-MSC) were shown to have neuroprotection capabilities in EAE. Resveratrol is a small polyphenolic compound and possess therapeutic activity in various immune-mediated diseases. The sensitivity of mBM-MSCs to resveratrol was determined by an established cell-viability assay...
April 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Hassan Rafieemehr, Maryam Kheyrandish, Masoud Soleimani
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of transplanted human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stromal cells (UCB-MSC) derived neural progenitor cell (MDNPC) in EAE, an experimental model of MS. To initiate neuronal differentiation of UCB-MSCs, the pre-induction medium was removed and replaced with induction media containing retinoic acid, b FGF, h EGF, NGF, IBMX and ascorbic acid for one week...
December 2015: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
Natalia B Pikor, Jillian L Astarita, Leslie Summers-Deluca, Georgina Galicia, Joy Qu, Lesley A Ward, Susan Armstrong, Claudia X Dominguez, Deepali Malhotra, Brendan Heiden, Robert Kay, Valera Castanov, Hanane Touil, Louis Boon, Paul O'Connor, Amit Bar-Or, Alexandre Prat, Valeria Ramaglia, Samuel Ludwin, Shannon J Turley, Jennifer L Gommerman
Tertiary lymphoid tissues (TLTs) have been observed in the meninges of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, but the stromal cells and molecular signals that support TLTs remain unclear. Here, we show that T helper 17 (Th17) cells induced robust TLTs within the brain meninges that were associated with local demyelination during experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE). Th17-cell-induced TLTs were underpinned by a network of stromal cells producing extracellular matrix proteins and chemokines, enabling leukocytes to reside within, rather than simply transit through, the meninges...
December 15, 2015: Immunity
Romana Höftberger, Marianne Leisser, Jan Bauer, Hans Lassmann
INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Immunological studies suggest that it is a T-cell mediated autoimmune disease, although an MS-specific target antigen for autoimmunity has so far not been identified. Models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in part reproduce features of MS, but none of the models so far covers the entire spectrum of pathology and immunology. Autoimmune disease of the nervous system has occasionally been observed in humans after active sensitization with brain tissue or brain cells, giving rise to acute demyelinating polyradiculoneuritis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and in rare cases reflecting an inflammatory demyelinating condition similar to acute multiple sclerosis...
2015: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Stuart J McCarter, Maja Tippmann-Peikert, David J Sandness, Eoin P Flanagan, Kejal Kantarci, Bradley F Boeve, Michael H Silber, Erik K St Louis
BACKGROUND/RATIONALE: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a potentially injurious parasomnia characterized by dream enactment behavior and polysomnographic REM sleep without atonia (RSWA). Recently, RBD not only has been shown to be strongly associated with synucleinopathy neurodegeneration but has also been rarely reported to be associated with structural lesions involving the brainstem or limbic system. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical, neuroimaging, and outcome characteristics in a case series of patients with lesional RBD...
December 2015: Sleep Medicine
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