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demyelination encephalitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670575/mog-igg-associated-optic-neuritis-encephalitis-and-myelitis-lessons-learned-from-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#1
REVIEW
Giordani Rodrigues Dos Passos, Luana Michelli Oliveira, Bruna Klein da Costa, Samira Luisa Apostolos-Pereira, Dagoberto Callegaro, Kazuo Fujihara, Douglas Kazutoshi Sato
Antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG) have been found in some cases diagnosed as seronegative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). MOG-IgG allowed the identification of a subgroup with a clinical course distinct from that of NMOSD patients who are seropositive for aquaporin-4-IgG antibodies. MOG-IgG is associated with a wider clinical phenotype, not limited to NMOSD, with the majority of cases presenting with optic neuritis (ON), encephalitis with brain demyelinating lesions, and/or myelitis...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661538/an-unusual-case-of-anti-mog-cns-demyelination-with-concomitant-mild-anti-nmdar-encephalitis
#2
Jiajia Zhou, Winwen Tan, Suyin Elaine Tan, Jing Hu, Zhongqin Chen, Kang Wang
We report the case of a patient who presented with progressive unsteadiness and narcoleptic attacks followed by behavioral change and psychosis, without visual disturbances or seizures. MRI revealed multiple areas of fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) high-intensity lesions involving the cerebellum, brainstem, thalamus and third ventricular peri-ependymal region consistent with demyelination. Both the serum myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-antibodies (MOG-Abs) and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) anti-N-methyl-d-as-partate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies were positive using transfected cell based assays...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629942/paediatric-multiple-sclerosis-and-other-acute-demyelinating-diseases
#3
Kevin Rostásy, Barbara Bajer-Kornek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuroimmunological diseases encompass a wide spectrum of diseases in children. Apart from the discovery of autoantibodies affecting primarily grey matter structures and the improved clinical characterization of rare entities such as N-methyl D-aspartate receptor-R- encephalitis, important strides have also been made in autoimmune-mediated white matter diseases, including paediatric multiple sclerosis (pedMS) and other acute demyelinating syndromes (ADS) often associated with antibodies (abs) against myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein (MOG)...
April 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604982/hiv-neuropathology
#4
Susan Morgello
Primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) neuropathologies can affect all levels of the neuraxis and occur in all stages of natural history disease. Some, like HIV encephalitis, HIV myelitis, and diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis of peripheral nerve, reflect productive infection of the nervous system; others, like vacuolar myelopathy, distal symmetric polyneuropathy, and central and peripheral nervous system demyelination, are not clearly related to regional viral replication, and reflect more complex cascades of dysregulated host immunity and metabolic dysfunction...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604979/hiv-and-spinal-cord-disease
#5
Seth N Levin, Jennifer L Lyons
The epidemiology of spinal cord disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is largely unknown due to a paucity of data since combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV mediates spinal cord injury indirectly, by immune modulation, degeneration, or associated infections and neoplasms. The pathologies vary and range from cytotoxic necrosis to demyelination and vasculitis. Control of HIV determines the differential for all neurologic presentations in infected individuals. Primary HIV-associated acute transverse myelitis, an acute inflammatory condition with pathologic similarities to HIV encephalitis, arises in early infection and at seroconversion...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593631/acute-hemorrhagic-encephalitis-responding-to-combined-decompressive-craniectomy-intravenous-immunoglobulin-and-corticosteroid-therapies-association-with-novel-ranbp2-variant
#6
Abdulla Alawadhi, Christine Saint-Martin, Farhan Bhanji, Myriam Srour, Jeffrey Atkinson, Guillaume Sébire
Background: Acute hemorrhagic encephalomyelitis (AHEM) is considered as a rare form of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis characterized by fulminant encephalopathy with hemorrhagic necrosis and most often fatal outcome. Objective: To report the association with Ran Binding Protein ( RANBP2) gene variant and the response to decompressive craniectomy and high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP) in life-threatening AHEM. Design: Single case study...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574788/mechanisms-underlying-lesion-development-and-lesion-distribution-in-cns-autoimmunity
#7
REVIEW
Maren Lindner, Luisa Klotz, Heinz Wiendl
It is widely accepted that development of autoimmunity in the central nervous system (CNS) is triggered by autoreactive T cells, that are activated in the periphery and gain the capacity to migrate through endothelial cells at the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) into the CNS. Upon local reactivation, an inflammatory cascade is initiated, that subsequently leads to a recruitment of additional immune cells ultimately causing demyelination and axonal damage. Even though the interaction of immune cells with the BBB has been in the focus of research for many years, the exact mechanisms of how immune cells enter and exit the CNS remains poorly understood...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549218/clinical-and-pathogenic-significance-of-igg-iga-and-igm-antibodies-against-the-nmda-receptor
#8
Makoto Hara, Eugenia Martinez-Hernandez, Helena Ariño, Thais Armangué, Marianna Spatola, Mar Petit-Pedrol, Albert Saiz, Myrna R Rosenfeld, Francesc Graus, Josep Dalmau
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and clinical relevance of immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA, and IgM N -methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies in several diseases, and whether the IgG antibodies occur in disorders other than anti-NMDAR encephalitis. METHODS: Evaluation of IgG, IgA, and IgM NMDAR antibodies in serum of 300 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, stroke, dementia, schizophrenia, or seronegative autoimmune encephalitis. Antibodies and their effect on cultured neurons were examined with cell-based assays and brain and live neuronal immunostaining...
April 17, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542041/atx-ms-1467-induces-long-term-tolerance-to-myelin-basic-protein-in-dr2-%C3%A3-ob1-f1-mice-by-induction-of-il-10-secreting-itregs
#9
Adriano Luís Soares De Souza, Stefan Rudin, Rui Chang, Keith Mitchell, Timothy Crandall, Shuning Huang, Ji-Kyung Choi, Shinji L Okitsu, Danielle L Graham, Blake Tomkinson, Tammy Dellovade
INTRODUCTION: Antigen-specific immunotherapy could provide a targeted approach for the treatment of multiple sclerosis that removes the need for broad-acting immunomodulatory drugs. ATX-MS-1467 is a mixture of four peptides identified as the main immune-dominant disease-associated T-cell epitopes in myelin basic protein (MBP), an autoimmune target for activated autoreactive T cells in multiple sclerosis. Previous animal studies have shown that ATX-MS-1467 treatment prevented the worsening of signs of disease in experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) in the humanized (DR2 × Ob1)F1 mouse in a dose-dependent fashion...
March 14, 2018: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526318/a-comparative-study-of-melatonin-and-immunomodulatory-therapy-with-interferon-beta-and-glatiramer-acetate-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#10
E J Ramos González, L J Ramirez Jirano, D Z García Martínez, G G Ortiz, L F Jave Suárez, C A Leal Cortes, O K Bitzer Quintero
INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, demyelinating, autoimmune disease of the central nervous system causing neuroinflammation. Experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) is a model of the disease. MS is classically treated with interferon beta (IFN-β) and glatiramer acetate (GA). Melatonin (MLT) has been reported to modulate immune system responses. The aim of the present study is to analyse the effects of MLT administration in comparison with the first-line treatments for MS (IFN-β and GA)...
March 8, 2018: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459060/bickerstaff-s-brainstem-encephalitis-with-overlapping-guillain-barre-syndrome-usefulness-of-sequential-nerve-conduction-studies
#11
Choong Yi Fong, Hnin Wint Wint Aung, Arie Khairani, Chin Seng Gan, Nortina Shahrizaila, Khean Jin Goh
Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BBE) is a rare immune-mediated disorder characterized by ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and disturbance of consciousness, which may overlap with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) if there is additional limb weakness. We report a 7-month-old boy presented with ophthalmoplegia followed by a rapidly ascending paralysis of all four limbs and disturbance of consciousness. The initial impression was BBE with overlapping GBS. This was supported by sequential nerve conduction study (NCS) findings compatible with an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP)...
February 16, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426675/the-use-of-cerebral-imaging-for-investigating-delirium-aetiology
#12
Zina Hijazi, Peter Lange, Rosie Watson, Andrea B Maier
BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the frequency and patterns of use of cerebral imaging in delirium and to describe pathological changes associated with delirium using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: This retrospective observational study included patients with delirium admitted to a tertiary hospital (The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Australia) between January 2015 and August 2016. Data on cerebral imaging was collected and positive imaging findings were defined as: Acute or subacute infarct, haemorrhage, abscess, neoplasm, vasculitis, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, encephalitis, acute demyelination, or fat embolism...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423617/human-t-cell-lymphotropic-virus-htlv-associated-encephalopathy-an-under-recognised-cause-of-acute-encephalitis-case-series-and-literature-review
#13
Ania A Crawshaw, Divya Dhasmana, Brynmor Jones, Carolyn M Gabriel, Steve Sturman, Nicholas W S Davies, Graham P Taylor
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1-associated myelopathy (HAM) is well described. Clinical features are predominantly consistent with cord pathology, though imaging and autopsy studies also demonstrate brain inflammation. In general, this is subclinical; however, six cases have previously been reported of encephalopathy in HTLV-1-infected patients, without alternative identified aetiology. We describe three further cases of encephalitis in the UK HAM cohort (n = 142), whereas the annual incidence of acute encephalitis in the general population is 0...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368307/hashimoto-s-encephalopathy-presenting-as-pseudobulbar-palsy
#14
Gokcen Oz Tuncer, Serap Teber, Muhammed Gültekin Kutluk, Pelin Albayrak, Gülhis Deda
INTRODUCTION: Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) is an autoimmune condition with varied neurological and psychiatric features. HE is very unusual as a cause of pseudobulbar palsy (PSP). CASE PRESENTATION: A 14-year-old male was admitted with right-sided weakness, dysphagia, speech disorder, and aggressiveness. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed increased intensity in bilateral temporal, insular cortex, amygdala, and parahippocampal area on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images...
January 24, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356973/pitfalls-in-clinical-diagnosis-of-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis
#15
Atsushi Kaneko, Juntaro Kaneko, Naomi Tominaga, Naomi Kanazawa, Kasumi Hattori, Yoshikazu Ugawa, Arata Moriya, Daisuke Kuzume, Daisuke Ishima, Eiji Kitamura, Kazutoshi Nishiyama, Takahiro Iizuka
OBJECTIVES: To report pitfalls in the clinical diagnosis of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical information of 221 patients with clinically suspected autoimmune neurological disorders who underwent testing for autoantibodies against neuronal cell-surface antigens between January 1, 2007 and September 10, 2017. Forty-one patients met the diagnostic criteria for probable anti-NMDAR encephalitis (probable criteria), but one was excluded because neither serum nor CSF was examined at the active stage...
March 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172198/-anti-mog-antibody-associated-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Ichiro Nakashima
The anti-MOG antibody is an autoantibody that induces inflammatory demyelinating lesions in the central nervous system in diseases such as optic neuritis, encephalitis, and myelitis. The recent development of a cell-based assay that can detect specific autoantibodies, which recognize conformational epitopes of membrane proteins, revealed the clinical features of diseases associated with the anti-MOG antibody. Because the disease spectrum of anti-MOG antibody-associated diseases is different from that of conventional demyelinating diseases, a new disease classification would be established in the near future...
November 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152808/observational-safety-study-of-specific-outcomes-after-trivalent-cell-culture-seasonal-influenza-vaccination-optaflu-%C3%A2-among-adults-in-thin-database-of-electronic-uk-primary-healthcare-records
#17
Gillian C Hall, Paul T G Davies, M Yousuf Karim, Mendel D M Haag, Caroline O'Leary
PURPOSE: To investigate the safety of trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIVc) (Optaflu® ), the first cell culture seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine available in Europe. METHODS: Codes and unstructured text in adult electronic healthcare records (The Health Improvement Network) were searched for a TIVc brand name or batch number and possible outcomes within a 3 month pre- to 6 month post-TIVc exposure study period (2012-2015). The outcomes were severe allergic reactions, Bell's palsy, convulsions, demyelination, paresthesia, noninfectious encephalitis, neuritis (optic and brachial), vasculitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and thrombocytopenia...
January 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141829/cerebral-cortical-encephalitis-followed-by-recurrent-cns-demyelination-in-a-patient-with-concomitant-anti-mog-and-anti-nmda-receptor-antibodies
#18
Lei Zhou, Jingzi ZhangBao, Haiqing Li, Xiaoyang Li, Yongheng Huang, Min Wang, Chongbo Zhao, Jiahong Lu, Chuanzhen Lu, Yuxin Li, Chao Quan
We report the case of a patient who initially presented with fever, headache and seizure. MRI revealed a fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) high-intensity lesion involving the right temporal, parietal and occipital cortex. Afterwards, the patient developed three recurrent episodes, manifested as brainstem encephalitis, optic neuritis and ADEM-like illness successively, indicating demyelination. Both of his serum anti-MOG and CSF anti-NMDAR antibodies were proved positive by transfected cell based assays...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141790/cerebral-toxoplasmosis-in-an-ms-patient-receiving-fingolimod
#19
Alejandro Enriquez-Marulanda, Jaime Valderrama-Chaparro, Laura Parrado, Juan Diego Vélez, Ana Maria Granados, Jorge Luis Orozco, Jairo Quiñones
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease in which lymphocytes target putative myelin antigens in the CNS, causing inflammation and neurodegeneration. Fingolimod (FTY720) is an immunosuppressive drug used as a second line therapy for relapsing forms of MS due to its safety profile and good response to treatment. Despite its safety, there are still concerns about the possibility of Fingolimod being linked to the development of opportunistic infections like disseminated varicella zoster infections and herpes simplex encephalitis...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131884/seizures-and-encephalitis-in-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-igg-disease-vs-aquaporin-4-igg-disease
#20
Shahd H M Hamid, Dan Whittam, Mariyam Saviour, Amal Alorainy, Kerry Mutch, Samantha Linaker, Tom Solomon, Maneesh Bhojak, Mark Woodhall, Patrick Waters, Richard Appleton, Martin Duddy, Anu Jacob
Importance: Antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein IgG (MOG-IgG) are increasingly detected in patients with non-multiple sclerosis-related demyelination, some of whom manifest a neuromyelitis optica (NMO) phenotype. Cortical involvement, encephalopathy, and seizures are rare in aquaporin 4 antibody (AQP4-IgG)-related NMO in the white European population. However, the authors encountered several patients with seizures associated with MOG-IgG disease. Objective: To compare incidence of seizures and encephalitis-like presentation, or both between AQP4-IgG-positive and MOG-IgG-positive patients...
January 1, 2018: JAMA Neurology
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