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demyelination encephalitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049232/case-report-central-nervous-system-involvement-of-human-graft-versus-host-disease-report-of-7-cases-and-a-review-of-literature
#1
Mathilde Ruggiu, Wendy Cuccuini, Karima Mokhtari, Véronique Meignin, Régis Peffault de Latour, Marie Robin, Flore Sicre de Fontbrune, Aliénor Xhaard, Gérard Socié, David Michonneau
RATIONALE: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement of graft versus host disease (GvHD) is a rare cause of CNS disorders after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Chronic CNS GvHD symptoms are heterogeneous and include cerebrovascular manifestations, demyelinating disease and immune-mediated encephalitis. CNS-Acute GvHD is not formally defined in literature. PATIENTS CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSES: We report 7 cases of CNS-GvHD among which two had histological-proven disease...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984777/anti-ma2-associated-limbic-encephalitis-with-coexisting-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy-in-a-patient-with-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-a-case-report
#2
Weina Ju, Baochang Qi, Xu Wang, Yu Yang
RATIONALE: We report the rare case of a 74-year-old man with anti-Ma2-associated paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome (PNS), and review and analyze the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient presented with a 5-month history of muscle weakness, progressive body aches, and weakness and numbness in both lower extremities. Before his hospitalization, he had experienced cognitive function decline; ptosis, inward gaze, and vertical gaze palsy in the right eye; and occasional visual hallucinations...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960227/tolerogenic-dendritic-cells-induced-by-bd750-ameliorate-proinflammatory-t-cell-responses-and-experimental-autoimmune-encephalitis-in-mice
#3
Yan Zhou, Xiao Leng, Hua Li, Shuxia Yang, Tai Yang, Limei Li, Ying Xiong, Qiang Zou, Yang Liu, Yantang Wang
BD750, a novel JAK3/STAT5 inhibitor, can inhibit T cell proliferation. This study aims to evaluate whether BD750 can induce tolerogenic dendritic cells (tolDC) and their function in experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) in mice. Following BD750 treatment, LPS-induced maturation of DC, allogeneic T cell proliferation, Th1 and Th17 cell functional differentiation, the STAT5 and AKT activation were determined. The effect of tolDC loaded with antigen peptide on the development and severity of EAE and their splenic Th1 and Th17 cell responses were determined...
September 27, 2017: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938341/neurological-toxicities-associated-with-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#4
Mehdi Touat, Daniel Talmasov, Damien Ricard, Dimitri Psimaras
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) constitute a novel class of agents recently approved to treat a number of human malignancies. Due to their immunomodulatory mechanism of action, ICIs can generate a wide range of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) of which neurological toxicities are of special interest because of their potential severity. The objective of this review is to examine the recent literature describing neurological irAEs and discuss their optimal management...
September 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919008/immunoadsorption-in-neurological-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Satoru Oji, Kyoichi Nomura
In recent years, immunoadsorption has been increasingly recognized as an alternative to therapeutic plasma exchange and used for the treatment of neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, myasthenia gravis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, and multiple sclerosis, as well as autoimmune encephalitis. Unlike therapeutic plasma exchange, which requires fluid replacement with a blood solution such as fresh frozen plasma or albumin, immunoadsorption is a blood purification technique that enables the selective removal of humoral factors from separated plasma through a high-affinity adsorbent with tryptophan or phenylalanine...
August 26, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914199/clinical-applications-of-intravenous-immunoglobulins-in-child-neurology
#6
Maria Gogou, Efimia Papadopoulou-Alataki, Martha Spilioti, Sofia Alataki, Athanasios Evangeliou
BACKGROUND: While there are guidelines for the use of intravenous immunoglobulins in children with Guillain-Barre syndrome and myasthenia gravis based on high-level evidence studies, data is fewer for the majority of neurologic disorders in this age group. Neuronal antibodies are detected in children with seizures of autoimmune etiology. Intravenous immunoglobulins with their broad immunomodulatory mechanism of action could be ideally effective in different forms of immune-dysregulated intractable epilepsies such as autoimmune epilepsy and autoimmune Rasmussen encephalitis...
September 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888467/early-electrophysiological-findings-in-fisher-bickerstaff-syndrome
#7
M A Alberti, M Povedano, J Montero, C Casasnovas
INTRODUCTION: The term Fisher-Bickerstaff syndrome (FBS) has been proposed to describe the clinical spectrum encompassing Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS) and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis. The pathophysiology of FBS and the nature of the underlying neuropathy (demyelinating or axonal) are still subject to debate. This study describes the main findings of an early neurophysiological study on 12 patients diagnosed with FBS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective evaluation of clinical characteristics and electrophysiological findings of 12 patients with FBS seen in our neurology department within 10 days of disease onset...
September 6, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863829/experimental-models-of-demyelination-and-remyelination
#8
L Torre-Fuentes, L Moreno-Jiménez, V Pytel, J A Matías-Guiu, U Gómez-Pinedo, J Matías-Guiu
INTRODUCTION: Experimental animal models constitute a useful tool to deepen our knowledge of central nervous system disorders. In the case of multiple sclerosis, however, there is no such specific model able to provide an overview of the disease; multiple models covering the different pathophysiological features of the disease are therefore necessary. DEVELOPMENT: We reviewed the different in vitro and in vivo experimental models used in multiple sclerosis research...
August 29, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815404/neurological-presentation-of-zika-virus-infection-beyond-the-perinatal-period
#9
REVIEW
Thomas De Broucker, Alexandra Mailles, Jean-Paul Stahl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our purpose was to summarize the current knowledge about the neurological presentation of Zika virus infection after the perinatal period. Other Flaviviruses infections, such as West Nile virus (WNV) or Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), can result in neuro-invasive disease such as myelitis, encephalitis, or meningitis. We aimed at describing the specificities of ZV neurological infection. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent outbreaks demonstrated clearly the neurotropism of ZV...
August 16, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806453/neurologic-complications-associated-with-the-zika-virus-in-brazilian-adults
#10
Ivan Rocha Ferreira da Silva, Jennifer A Frontera, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis, Osvaldo Jose Moreira do Nascimento
Importance: There are no prospective cohort studies assessing the incidence and spectrum of neurologic manifestations secondary to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in adults. Objective: To evaluate the rates of acute ZIKV infection among patients hospitalized with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), meningoencephalitis, or transverse myelitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective, observational cohort study was conducted at a tertiary referral center for neurological diseases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between December 5, 2015, and May 10, 2016, among consecutive hospitalized adults (>18 years of age) with new-onset acute parainfectious or neuroinflammatory disease...
October 1, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736276/b-cells-as-therapeutic-targets-in-neuro-inflammatory-diseases
#11
Reinhard Hohlfeld
B cells are an emerging therapeutic target in neuroinflammatory diseases. The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody ocrelizumab was recently approved in the US as the first B-cell targeting immunomodulatory treatment for relapsing-remitting MS and primary progressive MS. In autoantibody-associated demyelinating syndromes such as neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and in myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-(MOG)-autoantibody-associated encephalomyelitis, B-cells are a logical target based on the pathogenesis of these antibody-mediated disorders...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698711/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-a-severe-potentially-reversible-autoimmune-encephalitis
#12
REVIEW
Cai-Yun Liu, Jie Zhu, Xiang-Yu Zheng, Chi Ma, Xu Wang
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is potentially lethal, but it is also a treatable autoimmune disorder characterized by prominent psychiatric and neurologic symptoms. It is often accompanied with teratoma or other neoplasm, especially in female patients. Anti-NMDAR antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum are characteristic features of the disease, thereby suggesting a pathogenic role in the disease. Here, we summarize recent studies that have clearly documented that both clinical manifestations and the antibodies may contribute to early diagnosis and multidisciplinary care...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694134/hashimoto-s-encephalopathy-and-anti-mog-antibody-encephalitis-50-years-after-lord-brain-s-description
#13
Kerrie-Anne Chen, Fabienne Brilot, Russell C Dale, Antony R Lafferty, Peter Ian Andrews
PURPOSE: To consider the role of anti-MOG Abs associated encephalitis in Hashimoto's Encephalitis (HE). RESULTS: A 10 year old girl with pre-existing Hashimoto's thyroiditis presented with dysarthria, ataxia and lethargy whilst euthyroid. Brain MRI showed multifocal T2 and FLAIR hyperintense lesions. She responded promptly to treatment with corticosteroids. Her clinical scenario was comparable to a sizeable minority of patients diagnosed with HE in the literature, who have similar brain MRIs...
June 10, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625589/acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-in-dengue-viral-infection
#14
REVIEW
Wan Aliaa Wan Sulaiman, Liyana Najwa Inche Mat, Hasnur Zaman Hashim, Fan Kee Hoo, Siew Mooi Ching, Ramachandran Vasudevan, Mohd Hazmi Mohamed, Hamidon Basri
Dengue is the most common arboviral disease affecting many countries worldwide. An RNA virus from the flaviviridae family, dengue has four antigenically distinct serotypes (DEN-1-DEN-4). Neurological involvement in dengue can be classified into dengue encephalopathy immune-mediated syndromes, encephalitis, neuromuscular or dengue muscle dysfunction and neuro-ophthalmic involvement. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune mediated acute demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system following recent infection or vaccination...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570324/neurologic-complications-of-lymphoma-leukemia-and-paraproteinemias
#15
Michelle L Mauermann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the spectrum of neurologic complications associated with lymphoma, leukemia, and paraproteinemic disorders. While leptomeningeal metastasis is the most common complication of lymphoma and leukemia and peripheral neuropathy is the most common complication of paraproteinemic disorders, clinicians need to be familiar with the diverse neurologic complications of these disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Lymphomatous nervous system involvement can be difficult to diagnose, especially when it is the presenting symptom...
June 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561022/il-17-induced-notch1-activation-in-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-enhances-proliferation-and-inflammatory-gene-expression
#16
Chenhui Wang, Cun-Jin Zhang, Bradley N Martin, Katarzyna Bulek, Zizhen Kang, Junjie Zhao, Guanglin Bian, Julie A Carman, Ji Gao, Ashok Dongre, Haibo Xue, Stephen D Miller, Youcun Qian, Dolores Hambardzumyan, Tom Hamilton, Richard M Ransohoff, Xiaoxia Li
NOTCH1 signalling contributes to defective remyelination by impairing differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Here we report that IL-17 stimulation induces NOTCH1 activation in OPCs, contributing to Th17-mediated demyelinating disease. Mechanistically, IL-17R interacts with NOTCH1 via the extracellular domain, which facilitates the cleavage of NOTHC1 intracellular domain (NICD1). IL-17-induced NOTCH1 activation results in the interaction of IL-17R adaptor Act1 with NICD1, followed by the translocation of the Act1-NICD1 complex into the nucleus...
May 31, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533781/myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-deciphering-a-target-in-inflammatory-demyelinating-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Patrick Peschl, Monika Bradl, Romana Höftberger, Thomas Berger, Markus Reindl
Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily, is a myelin protein solely expressed at the outermost surface of myelin sheaths and oligodendrocyte membranes. This makes MOG a potential target of cellular and humoral immune responses in inflammatory demyelinating diseases. Due to its late postnatal developmental expression, MOG is an important marker for oligodendrocyte maturation. Discovered about 30 years ago, it is one of the best-studied autoantigens for experimental autoimmune models for multiple sclerosis (MS)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423529/pif-promotes-brain-re-myelination-locally-while-regulating-systemic-inflammation-clinically-relevant-multiple-sclerosis-m-smegmatis-model
#18
Giuseppe Migliara, Martin Mueller, Alessia Piermattei, Chaya Brodie, Michael J Paidas, Eytan R Barnea, Francesco Ria
Neurologic disease diagnosis and treatment is challenging. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease with few clinical forms and uncertain etiology. Current studies suggest that it is likely caused by infection(s) triggering a systemic immune response resulting in antigen/non-antigen-related autoimmune response in central nervous system (CNS). New therapeutic approaches are needed. Secreted by viable embryos, PreImplantation Factor (PIF) possesses a local and systemic immunity regulatory role...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283100/antecedent-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-in-two-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#19
A Baheerathan, W J Brownlee, D T Chard, K Shields, R Gregory, S A Trip
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder characterised by psychiatric symptoms, movement disorder and seizures often evolving into a severe encephalopathy. An overlap has recently been recognised between anti-NMDAR encephalitis and inflammatory demyelinating disorders, particularly neuromyelitis optical spectrum disorder (NMOSD). In this case report, we describe two patients with an initial presentation consistent with anti-NMDAR encephalitis who have subsequently developed relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) and discuss the literature pertaining to potential overlap between NMDAR encephalitis and inflammatory demyelinating disorders...
February 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282627/anti-nmdar-encephalitis-followed-by-seropositive-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
REVIEW
Ye Ran, Lu Wang, Fangfang Zhang, Ran Ao, Zhao Dong, Shengyuan Yu
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an inflammatory central nervous system syndrome, and encephalitis associated with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies is an autoimmune encephalopathy. A patient with both diseases, separately or simultaneously, is rare as a clinical phenomenon, but cannot be ignored. We report the clinical characteristics and imaging features of a special case with anti-NMDAR encephalitis followed by NMOSD. We subsequently reviewed the English language literature about demyelinating disorders with anti-NMDAR encephalitis...
April 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
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