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demyelination encephalitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900773/systematic-review-of-immunoglobulin-use-in-paediatric-neurological-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Jonathan Gadian, Emma Kirk, Kate Holliday, Ming Lim, Michael Absoud
AIM: A systematic literature review of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment of paediatric neurological conditions was performed to summarize the evidence, provide recommendations, and suggest future research. METHOD: A MEDLINE search for articles reporting on IVIG treatment of paediatric neuroinflammatory, neurodevelopmental, and neurodegenerative conditions published before September 2015, excluding single case reports and those not in English. Owing to heterogeneous outcome measures, meta-analysis was not possible...
November 30, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888275/acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-following-campylobacter-jejuni-gastroenteritis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Simone Marziali, Eliseo Picchi, Francesca Di Giuliano, Simone Altobelli, Giorgia Mataluni, Girolama Marfia, Francesco Garaci, Roberto Floris
We describe a case of a 25-year-old male with a diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) following infection with Campylobacter jejuni, which is implicated in various human pathologies regarding the central nervous system (CNS) with acute course like Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS), Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BEE), acute transverse myelitis (ATM) as well as ADEM. These conditions are caused by cross-reactivity between Campylobacter's epitopes and cells of the CNS that causes an immunomediated inflammatory demyelination of the CNS...
November 25, 2016: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855706/human-class-i-major-histocompatibility-complex-alleles-determine-central-nervous-system-injury-versus-repair
#3
Bharath Wootla, Aleksandar Denic, Jens O Watzlawik, Arthur E Warrington, Laurie J Zoecklein, Louisa M Papke-Norton, Chella David, Moses Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: We investigated the role of human HLA class I molecules in persistent central nervous system (CNS) injury versus repair following virus infection of the CNS. METHODS: Human class I A11(+) and B27(+) transgenic human beta-2 microglobulin positive (Hβ2m(+)) mice of the H-2 (b) background were generated on a combined class I-deficient (mouse beta-2 microglobulin deficient, β2m(0)) and class II-deficient (mouse Aβ(0)) phenotype. Intracranial infection with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) in susceptible SJL mice results in acute encephalitis with prominent injury in the hippocampus, striatum, and cortex...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823947/coexisting-neuronal-autoantibodies-among-children-with-demyelinating-syndromes
#4
Hikmet Kıztanır, Gonca Bektaş, Edibe Pembegül Yıldız, Tuğçe Aksu Uzunhan, Burak Tatlı, Nur Aydınlı, Mine Çalışkan, Meral Özmen
OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence and clinical relevance of neuronal autoantibodies in children with demyelinating syndromes. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study including 31 consecutive children with demyelinating syndromes. Four patients with N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, 32 patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome, 13 children with benign childhood epilepsy, and 28 healthy children were used as controls. Prior to initiating immunomodulatory therapy, serum samples were tested for antibodies against NMDAR, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) 1, AMPAR2, leucine-rich glioma-activated protein 1, contactin-associated protein 2, gamma-aminobutyric acid B receptors, paraneoplastic ma antigen 2 (PNMA2/Ta), Yo, Ri, Hu, CV2, amphiphysin, and aquaporin-4 by indirect immunofluorescence assays...
November 4, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821089/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-as-the-first-manifestation-of-bickerstaff-s-brainstem-encephalitis
#5
Pei-Ru Chen, Shih-Pin Chen
BACKGROUND: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) has been associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome in rare cases. Here we report a patient in whom PRES was the presenting manifestation of Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 75-year-old woman presented with acute onset of hypertension, headache, blurred vision, and left eyelid drooping. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed characteristic PRES lesions involving the parietal and occipital lobes bilaterally...
November 8, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780253/il-12-il-23p40-is-highly-expressed-in-secondary-lymphoid-organs-and-the-cns-during-all-stages-of-eae-but-its-deletion-does-not-affect-disease-perpetuation
#6
Petra D Cravens, Rehana Z Hussain, William A Miller-Little, Li-Hong Ben, Benjamin M Segal, Emily Herndon, Olaf Stüve
BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23 are heterodimers that share the p40 subunit, and both cytokines are critical in the differentiation of T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells, respectively. Th1 and Th17 effector cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE), an animal model of the human central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune demyelinating disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). However, ustekinumab, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against p40 failed to show efficacy over placebo in a phase II clinical trial in patients with MS...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667486/-anti-nmda-receptor-antibody-related-encephalitis
#7
Shigemi Nagayama, Keiko Tanaka
Recently, the search for diagnostic antibody markers has drawn considerable attention in relation to autoimmune encephalitis. Among the antibody markers, the most frequently detected is the anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)antibody. Patients with this antibody develop characteristic clinical features. This disease tends to affect young women, and starts with psychiatric symptoms followed by seizures, involuntary movements, autonomic failure, and respiratory failure. Nearly half of these female patients have ovarian teratoma...
September 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652003/long-term-poor-rapport-lack-of-spontaneity-and-passive-social-withdrawal-related-to-acute-post-infectious-encephalitis-a-case-report
#8
Atsurou Yamada, Nobuhiro Miyachi, Toshiyasu Miura, Masako Suzuki, Norio Watanabe, Tatsuo Akechi
INTRODUCTION: Post-infectious encephalitis/encephalopathy is a neurological syndrome that sometimes develops following common viral or bacterial infections. The most common form is acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). ADEM is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that typically presents as a monophasic disorder associated with multifocal neurologic symptoms and encephalitis. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is another type of severe autoimmune disorder, characterized by seizures, movement disorders and psychiatric symptoms...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590316/thrombomodulin-dependent-protein-c-activation-is-required-for-mitochondrial-function-and-myelination-in-the-central-nervous-system
#9
J Wolter, L Schild, F Bock, A Hellwig, I Gadi, M M Al-Dabet, S Ranjan, R Rönicke, P P Nawroth, K-U Petersen, C Mawrin, K Shahzad, B Isermann
: Essentials The role of protein C (PC) activation in experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) is unknown. PC activation is required for mitochondrial function in the central nervous system. Impaired PC activation aggravates EAE, which can be compensated for by soluble thrombomodulin. Protection of myelin by activated PC or solulin is partially independent of immune-modulation. SUMMARY: Background Studies with human samples and in rodents established a function of coagulation proteases in neuro-inflammatory demyelinating diseases (e...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575749/utility-of-csf-cytokine-chemokines-as-markers-of-active-intrathecal-inflammation-comparison-of-demyelinating-anti-nmdar-and-enteroviral-encephalitis
#10
Kavitha Kothur, Louise Wienholt, Shekeeb S Mohammad, Esther M Tantsis, Sekhar Pillai, Philip N Britton, Cheryl A Jones, Rajeshwar R Angiti, Elizabeth H Barnes, Timothy Schlub, Sushil Bandodkar, Fabienne Brilot, Russell C Dale
BACKGROUND: Despite the discovery of CSF and serum diagnostic autoantibodies in autoimmune encephalitis, there are still very limited CSF biomarkers for diagnostic and monitoring purposes in children with inflammatory or autoimmune brain disease. The cause of encephalitis is unknown in up to a third of encephalitis cohorts, and it is important to differentiate infective from autoimmune encephalitis given the therapeutic implications. AIM: To study CSF cytokines and chemokines as diagnostic biomarkers of active neuroinflammation, and assess their role in differentiating demyelinating, autoimmune, and viral encephalitis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478662/acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-following-vaccination-against-hepatitis-b-in-a-child-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#11
Jun-Liang Yuan, Shuang-Kun Wang, Xiao-Juan Guo, Wen-Li Hu
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which has been associated with several vaccines such as rabies, diphtheria-tetanus-polio, smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, Japanese B encephalitis, pertussis, influenza, and the Hog vaccine. Here, we presented a case of 12-year-old child who suffered from ADEM three weeks after hepatitis B vaccination. He was admitted to our hospital with symptoms of weakness of limbs, high fever, and alteration of consciousness...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27467829/high-resolution-diffusion-tensor-spinal-cord-mri-measures-as-biomarkers-of-disability-progression-in-a-rodent-model-of-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Francesca Gilli, Xi Chen, Andrew R Pachner, Barjor Gimi
Disease in the spinal cord is a major component of disability in multiple sclerosis, yet current techniques of imaging spinal cord injury are insensitive and nonspecific. This study seeks to remove this major impediment to research in multiple sclerosis and other spinal cord diseases by identifying reliable biomarkers of disability progression using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a magnetic resonance imaging technique, to evaluate the spinal cord in a model of multiple sclerosis, i.e. the Theiler's Murine Encephalitis Virus-Induced Demyelinating Disease (TMEV-IDD)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456878/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-in-a-patient-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#13
Jing-Jing Luo, He Lv, Wei Sun, Juan Zhao, Hong-Jun Hao, Feng Gao, Yi-Ning Huang
We described a female patient with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis occurring sequentially with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). The 19-year-old patient initially presented a diencephalic syndrome with aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G antibodies (AQP4-IgG) and brain lesions which involving bilateral medial temporal lobes and periependymal surfaces of the third ventricle on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten months later, the patient developed cognitive impairment, psychiatric symptoms and dyskinesia with left basal ganglia lesions on brain MRI...
July 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443998/neuroimaging-in-central-nervous-system-lymphoma
#14
REVIEW
Seyed Ali Nabavizadeh, Arastoo Vossough, Mehrdad Hajmomenian, Reza Assadsangabi, Suyash Mohan
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare aggressive high-grade type of extranodal lymphoma. PCNSL can have a variable imaging appearance and can mimic other brain disorders such as encephalitis, demyelination, and stroke. In addition to PCNSL, the CNS can be secondarily involved by systemic lymphoma. Computed tomography and conventional MRI are the initial imaging modalities to evaluate these lesions. Recently, however, advanced MRI techniques are more often used in an effort to narrow the differential diagnosis and potentially inform diagnostic and therapeutic decisions...
August 2016: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441688/accumulation-of-extracellular-matrix-in-advanced-lesions-of-canine-distemper-demyelinating-encephalitis
#15
Frauke Seehusen, Seham A Al-Azreg, Barbara B Raddatz, Verena Haist, Christina Puff, Ingo Spitzbarth, Reiner Ulrich, Wolfgang Baumgärtner
In demyelinating diseases, changes in the quality and quantity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) may contribute to demyelination and failure of myelin repair and axonal sprouting, especially in chronic lesions. To characterize changes in the ECM in canine distemper demyelinating leukoencephalitis (DL), histochemical and immunohistochemical investigations of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cerebella using azan, picrosirius red and Gomori`s silver stain as well as antibodies directed against aggrecan, type I and IV collagen, fibronectin, laminin and phosphacan showed alterations of the ECM in CDV-infected dogs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354225/diagnostic-yield-and-safety-of-brain-biopsy-for-suspected-primary-central-nervous-system-angiitis
#16
Jose Torres, Caitlin Loomis, Brett Cucchiara, Michelle Smith, Steven Messé
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The utility and safety of brain biopsy for suspected primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) are uncertain. Factors predictive of a positive biopsy have not been well described. Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic yield and safety of brain biopsy in suspected PACNS and determine whether any prebiopsy variables are associated with a positive biopsy. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of consecutive patients who underwent diagnostic brain biopsy for PACNS at a single institution...
August 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27274234/carbon-nanospheres-mediated-delivery-of-nuclear-matrix-protein-smar1-to-direct-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-in-mice
#17
Sijo V Chemmannur, Prasad Bhagat, Bhalchandra Mirlekar, Kishore M Paknikar, Samit Chattopadhyay
Owing to the suppression of immune responses and associated side effects, steroid based treatments for inflammatory encephalitis disease can be detrimental. Here, we demonstrate a novel carbon nanosphere (CNP) based treatment regime for encephalomyelitis in mice by exploiting the functional property of the nuclear matrix binding protein SMAR1. A truncated part of SMAR1 ie, the DNA binding domain was conjugated with hydrothermally synthesized CNPs. When administered intravenously, the conjugate suppressed experimental animal encephalomyelitis in T cell specific conditional SMAR1 knockout mice (SMAR(-/-))...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242065/intravenous-immunoglobulin-in-paediatric-neurology-safety-adherence-to-guidelines-and-long-term-outcome
#18
Margherita Nosadini, Shekeeb S Mohammad, Agnese Suppiej, Stefano Sartori, Russell C Dale
AIM: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is an expensive therapy used in immunodeficiency and autoimmune disorders. Increasing demands and consequent shortages result in a need for usage to conform to guidelines. METHOD: We retrospectively evaluated IVIG use for neuroimmunological indications and adherence to existing guidelines in a major Australian paediatric hospital between 2000 and 2014. RESULTS: One-hundred and ninety-six children (96 male, 100 female; mean age at disease onset 6y 5mo [range 3mo-15y 10mo], mean age at first IVIG dose 7y 2mo [range 3mo-16y 5mo]) received IVIG for neuroimmunological indications during the study period (28...
May 31, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27028153/molecular-determinants-of-alphavirus-neuropathogenesis-in-mice
#19
Gregory J Atkins, Brian J Sheahan
Alphaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-stranded RNA genome, of the family Togaviridae. In mammals and birds they are mosquito-transmitted and are of veterinary and medical importance. They cause primarily two types of disease: encephalitis and polyarthritis. Here we review attempts to understand the molecular basis of encephalitis and virulence for the central nervous system (CNS) in mouse models. Sindbis virus (SINV) was the first virus to be studied in this way. Other viruses analysed are Semliki Forest virus (SFV), Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus and Western equine encephalitis virus...
June 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26922652/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-presenting-with-features-of-kleine-levin-syndrome-and-demyelination
#20
Jacob Feigal, Chen Lin, George Barrio, Peter G Kranz, Xavier Preud׳Homme
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Psychosomatics
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