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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815404/neurological-presentation-of-zika-virus-infection-beyond-the-perinatal-period
#1
REVIEW
Thomas De Broucker, Alexandra Mailles, Jean-Paul Stahl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our purpose was to summarize the current knowledge about the neurological presentation of Zika virus infection after the perinatal period. Other Flaviviruses infections, such as West Nile virus (WNV) or Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), can result in neuro-invasive disease such as myelitis, encephalitis, or meningitis. We aimed at describing the specificities of ZV neurological infection. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent outbreaks demonstrated clearly the neurotropism of ZV...
August 16, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806453/neurologic-complications-associated-with-the-zika-virus-in-brazilian-adults
#2
Ivan Rocha Ferreira da Silva, Jennifer A Frontera, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis, Osvaldo Jose Moreira do Nascimento
Importance: There are no prospective cohort studies assessing the incidence and spectrum of neurologic manifestations secondary to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in adults. Objective: To evaluate the rates of acute ZIKV infection among patients hospitalized with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), meningoencephalitis, or transverse myelitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective, observational cohort study was conducted at a tertiary referral center for neurological diseases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between December 5, 2015, and May 10, 2016, among consecutive hospitalized adults (>18 years of age) with new-onset acute parainfectious or neuroinflammatory disease...
August 14, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736276/b-cells-as-therapeutic-targets-in-neuro-inflammatory-diseases
#3
Reinhard Hohlfeld
B cells are an emerging therapeutic target in neuroinflammatory diseases. The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody ocrelizumab was recently approved in the US as the first B-cell targeting immunomodulatory treatment for relapsing-remitting MS and primary progressive MS. In autoantibody-associated demyelinating syndromes such as neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and in myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-(MOG)-autoantibody-associated encephalomyelitis, B-cells are a logical target based on the pathogenesis of these antibody-mediated disorders...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698711/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-a-severe-potentially-reversible-autoimmune-encephalitis
#4
REVIEW
Cai-Yun Liu, Jie Zhu, Xiang-Yu Zheng, Chi Ma, Xu Wang
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is potentially lethal, but it is also a treatable autoimmune disorder characterized by prominent psychiatric and neurologic symptoms. It is often accompanied with teratoma or other neoplasm, especially in female patients. Anti-NMDAR antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum are characteristic features of the disease, thereby suggesting a pathogenic role in the disease. Here, we summarize recent studies that have clearly documented that both clinical manifestations and the antibodies may contribute to early diagnosis and multidisciplinary care...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694134/hashimoto-s-encephalopathy-and-anti-mog-antibody-encephalitis-50-years-after-lord-brain-s-description
#5
Kerrie-Anne Chen, Fabienne Brilot, Russell C Dale, Antony R Lafferty, Peter Ian Andrews
PURPOSE: To consider the role of anti-MOG Abs associated encephalitis in Hashimoto's Encephalitis (HE). RESULTS: A 10 year old girl with pre-existing Hashimoto's thyroiditis presented with dysarthria, ataxia and lethargy whilst euthyroid. Brain MRI showed multifocal T2 and FLAIR hyperintense lesions. She responded promptly to treatment with corticosteroids. Her clinical scenario was comparable to a sizeable minority of patients diagnosed with HE in the literature, who have similar brain MRIs...
June 10, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625589/acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-in-dengue-viral-infection
#6
REVIEW
Wan Aliaa Wan Sulaiman, Liyana Najwa Inche Mat, Hasnur Zaman Hashim, Fan Kee Hoo, Siew Mooi Ching, Ramachandran Vasudevan, Mohd Hazmi Mohamed, Hamidon Basri
Dengue is the most common arboviral disease affecting many countries worldwide. An RNA virus from the flaviviridae family, dengue has four antigenically distinct serotypes (DEN-1-DEN-4). Neurological involvement in dengue can be classified into dengue encephalopathy immune-mediated syndromes, encephalitis, neuromuscular or dengue muscle dysfunction and neuro-ophthalmic involvement. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune mediated acute demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system following recent infection or vaccination...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570324/neurologic-complications-of-lymphoma-leukemia-and-paraproteinemias
#7
Michelle L Mauermann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the spectrum of neurologic complications associated with lymphoma, leukemia, and paraproteinemic disorders. While leptomeningeal metastasis is the most common complication of lymphoma and leukemia and peripheral neuropathy is the most common complication of paraproteinemic disorders, clinicians need to be familiar with the diverse neurologic complications of these disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Lymphomatous nervous system involvement can be difficult to diagnose, especially when it is the presenting symptom...
June 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561022/il-17-induced-notch1-activation-in-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-enhances-proliferation-and-inflammatory-gene-expression
#8
Chenhui Wang, Cun-Jin Zhang, Bradley N Martin, Katarzyna Bulek, Zizhen Kang, Junjie Zhao, Guanglin Bian, Julie A Carman, Ji Gao, Ashok Dongre, Haibo Xue, Stephen D Miller, Youcun Qian, Dolores Hambardzumyan, Tom Hamilton, Richard M Ransohoff, Xiaoxia Li
NOTCH1 signalling contributes to defective remyelination by impairing differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Here we report that IL-17 stimulation induces NOTCH1 activation in OPCs, contributing to Th17-mediated demyelinating disease. Mechanistically, IL-17R interacts with NOTCH1 via the extracellular domain, which facilitates the cleavage of NOTHC1 intracellular domain (NICD1). IL-17-induced NOTCH1 activation results in the interaction of IL-17R adaptor Act1 with NICD1, followed by the translocation of the Act1-NICD1 complex into the nucleus...
May 31, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533781/myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-deciphering-a-target-in-inflammatory-demyelinating-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Patrick Peschl, Monika Bradl, Romana Höftberger, Thomas Berger, Markus Reindl
Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily, is a myelin protein solely expressed at the outermost surface of myelin sheaths and oligodendrocyte membranes. This makes MOG a potential target of cellular and humoral immune responses in inflammatory demyelinating diseases. Due to its late postnatal developmental expression, MOG is an important marker for oligodendrocyte maturation. Discovered about 30 years ago, it is one of the best-studied autoantigens for experimental autoimmune models for multiple sclerosis (MS)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423529/pif-promotes-brain-re-myelination-locally-while-regulating-systemic-inflammation-clinically-relevant-multiple-sclerosis-m-smegmatis-model
#10
Giuseppe Migliara, Martin Mueller, Alessia Piermattei, Chaya Brodie, Michael J Paidas, Eytan R Barnea, Francesco Ria
Neurologic disease diagnosis and treatment is challenging. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease with few clinical forms and uncertain etiology. Current studies suggest that it is likely caused by infection(s) triggering a systemic immune response resulting in antigen/non-antigen-related autoimmune response in central nervous system (CNS). New therapeutic approaches are needed. Secreted by viable embryos, PreImplantation Factor (PIF) possesses a local and systemic immunity regulatory role...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283100/antecedent-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-in-two-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#11
A Baheerathan, W J Brownlee, D T Chard, K Shields, R Gregory, S A Trip
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder characterised by psychiatric symptoms, movement disorder and seizures often evolving into a severe encephalopathy. An overlap has recently been recognised between anti-NMDAR encephalitis and inflammatory demyelinating disorders, particularly neuromyelitis optical spectrum disorder (NMOSD). In this case report, we describe two patients with an initial presentation consistent with anti-NMDAR encephalitis who have subsequently developed relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) and discuss the literature pertaining to potential overlap between NMDAR encephalitis and inflammatory demyelinating disorders...
February 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282627/anti-nmdar-encephalitis-followed-by-seropositive-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#12
REVIEW
Ye Ran, Lu Wang, Fangfang Zhang, Ran Ao, Zhao Dong, Shengyuan Yu
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an inflammatory central nervous system syndrome, and encephalitis associated with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies is an autoimmune encephalopathy. A patient with both diseases, separately or simultaneously, is rare as a clinical phenomenon, but cannot be ignored. We report the clinical characteristics and imaging features of a special case with anti-NMDAR encephalitis followed by NMOSD. We subsequently reviewed the English language literature about demyelinating disorders with anti-NMDAR encephalitis...
April 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212177/neurocognitive-outcomes-for-acute-global-acquired-brain-injury-in-children
#13
Fenella J Kirkham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In children, acute global brain injury from traumatic brain injury (TBI) and nontraumatic coma has a substantial cost to the child, the family, and the society. There have historically been relatively few studies looking at long-term cognition and behavioural outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Long-term follow-up studies, population-based studies, and meta-analyses are now available for TBI in children as well as adults and suggest that there is a significant cognitive cost, particularly for processing speed, working memory, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in severe TBI...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194064/therapeutic-plasma-exchange-in-patients-with-neurologic-disorders-review-of-63-cases
#14
Anil Tombak, Mehmet Ali Uçar, Aydan Akdeniz, Arda Yilmaz, Hakan Kaleagası, Mehmet Ali Sungur, Eyup Naci Tiftik
Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is a procedure that reduces circulating autoantibodies of the patients. TPE is commonly used in neurological disorders where autoimmunity plays a major role. We report our experience with regard to the indications, adverse events and outcomes of plasma exchange in neurological disorders. Sixty-three patients were included to this retrospective study. Median age was 48 years (range 1-85), there was a predominance of males. Neurological indications included Guillain-Barrè syndrome (n = 22), myasthenia gravis (n = 21), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (n = 7), polymyositis (n = 3), multifocal motor neuropathy (n = 2), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (n = 2), neuromyelitis optica (n = 2), multiple sclerosis (n = 2), limbic encephalitis (n = 1) and transverse myelitis (n = 1)...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192386/spectrum-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-in-unilateral-optic-tract-dysfunction
#15
Kristopher M Kowal, Francisco F Rivas Rodriguez, Ashok Srinivasan, Jonathan D Trobe
BACKGROUND: Optic tract dysfunction may be the predominant or only clinical manifestation of an intracranial disorder including mass legion, ischemic infarct, inflammatory disease, and trauma. Documentation of the neuroimaging features of these lesions is limited to reports mostly published before the availability of MRI. This study was undertaken to document the spectrum of MRI features in patients presenting with optic tract dysfunction. METHODS: A retrospective study from 2004 to 2015 at a single tertiary care neuro-ophthalmology service of 24 patients who had unilateral optic tract dysfunction defined by a homonymous hemianopia and a relative afferent pupil defect that could not be attributed to optic neuropathy or retinopathy...
March 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105459/mog-antibody-positive-benign-unilateral-cerebral-cortical-encephalitis-with-epilepsy
#16
Ryo Ogawa, Ichiro Nakashima, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Kimihiko Kaneko, Tetsuya Akaishi, Yoshiki Takai, Douglas Kazutoshi Sato, Shuhei Nishiyama, Tatsuro Misu, Hiroshi Kuroda, Masashi Aoki, Kazuo Fujihara
OBJECTIVE: To describe the features of adult patients with benign, unilateral cerebral cortical encephalitis positive for the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody. METHODS: In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, after we encountered an index case of MOG antibody-positive unilateral cortical encephalitis with epileptic seizure, we tested for MOG antibody using our in-house, cell-based assay in a cohort of 24 consecutive adult patients with steroid-responsive encephalitis of unknown etiology seen at Tohoku University Hospital (2008-2014)...
March 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096524/a-case-of-seronegative-limbic-encephalitis-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-possible-overlapping-syndrome
#17
Zerrin Karaaslan, Özlem Mercan, Erdem Tüzün, Handan Mısırlı, Recai Türkoğlu
BACKGROUND Autoimmune encephalitis might coexist in patients with autoimmune demyelinating disorders. CASE REPORT We report on a case of a 45-year-old female multiple sclerosis (MS) patient presenting with acute onset short-term memory loss, altered mental status, inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings and an MRI lesion on the left temporal lobe. An extensive panel for neuronal autoantibodies proved negative. Neuropsychological symptoms gave a prompt response to immunotherapy but nevertheless control MRI showed left hippocampal atrophy...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086920/absence-of-system-xc-on-immune-cells-invading-the-central-nervous-system-alleviates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalitis
#18
Ellen Merckx, Giulia Albertini, Magdalena Paterka, Cathy Jensen, Philipp Albrecht, Michael Dietrich, Joeri Van Liefferinge, Eduard Bentea, Lise Verbruggen, Thomas Demuyser, Lauren Deneyer, Jan Lewerenz, Geert van Loo, Jacques De Keyser, Hideyo Sato, Pamela Maher, Axel Methner, Ann Massie
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS), leading to neurodegeneration and chronic disability. Accumulating evidence points to a key role for neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and excitotoxicity in this degenerative process. System xc(-) or the cystine/glutamate antiporter could tie these pathological mechanisms together: its activity is enhanced by reactive oxygen species and inflammatory stimuli, and its enhancement might lead to the release of toxic amounts of glutamate, thereby triggering excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073143/demyelinating-polyneuropathy-in-a-case-of-anti-lgi1-encephalitis
#19
Gemma Tumminelli, Carla Battisti, Chiara Cioni, Andrea Mignarri, Pasquale Annunziata, Antonio Federico
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017800/viral-mouse-models-of-multiple-sclerosis-and-epilepsy-marked-differences-in-neuropathogenesis-following-infection-with-two-naturally-occurring-variants-of-theiler-s-virus-bean-strain
#20
Sonja Bröer, Elias Hage, Christopher Käufer, Ingo Gerhauser, Muneeb Anjum, Lin Li, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Thomas F Schulz, Wolfgang Löscher
Following intracerebral inoculation, the BeAn 8386 strain of Theiler's virus causes persistent infection and inflammatory demyelinating encephalomyelitis in the spinal cord of T-cell defective SJL/J mice, which is widely used as a model of multiple sclerosis. In contrast, C57BL/6 (B6) mice clear the virus and develop inflammation and lesions in the hippocampus, associated with acute and chronic seizures, representing a novel model of viral encephalitis-induced epilepsy. Here we characterize the geno- and phenotype of two naturally occurring variants of BeAn (BeAn-1 and BeAn-2) that can be used to further understand the viral and host factors involved in the neuropathogenesis in B6 and SJL/J mice...
December 22, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
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