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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783081/recent-technological-advancements-in-tuberculosis-diagnostics-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Shagun Gupta, Vipan Kakkar
Early diagnosis and on-time effective treatment are indispensable for Tuberculosis (TB) control - a life threatening infectious communicable disease. The conventional techniques for diagnosing TB normally take two to three weeks. This delay in diagnosis and further increase in detection complexity due to the emerging risks of XDR-TB (Extensively drug Resistant-TB) and MDR-TB (Multidrug Resistant-TB) are evoking interest of researchers in the field of developing rapid TB detection techniques such as biosensing and other point-of-care (POC) techniques...
May 11, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783029/comparison-of-stanford-b-aortic-dissection-patients-who-received-tevar-combined-with-or-without-sleep-apnea-syndrome
#2
Xin Li, Wenwu Cai, Ping Zhang, Kun Fang, Jieting Zhu, Chang Shu
BACKGROUND: Patients with Stanford B aortic dissection usually complicated with sleep apnea syndrome. This condition always threatens the patients' respiration situation. In this study, we collected and analysis data of patients' peri-operative managements of Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair (TEVAR) for Stanford B Aortic Dissection (AD) complicated with Sleep Apnea Syndrome (SAS). Comparison has been made between these SAS patients and those who without SAS. METHODS: Between June 2013 and June 2014, the clinical data and outcomes of the Stanford B AD patients in the department of vascular surgery in the Second Xiangya Hospital were retrospectively reviewed and studied...
May 18, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782679/mos-2-negative-capacitance-field-effect-transistors-with-subthreshold-swing-below-the-physics-limit
#3
Xingqiang Liu, Renrong Liang, Guoyun Gao, Caofeng Pan, Chunsheng Jiang, Qian Xu, Jun Luo, Xuming Zou, Zhenyu Yang, Lei Liao, Zhong Lin Wang
The Boltzmann distribution of electrons induced fundamental barrier prevents subthreshold swing (SS) from less than 60 mV dec-1 at room temperature, leading to high energy consumption of MOSFETs. Herein, it is demonstrated that an aggressive introduction of the negative capacitance (NC) effect of ferroelectrics can decisively break the fundamental limit governed by the "Boltzmann tyranny". Such MoS2 negative-capacitance field-effect transistors (NC-FETs) with self-aligned top-gated geometry demonstrated here pull down the SS value to 42...
May 21, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781934/absolute-reliability-and-concurrent-validity-of-the-stryd-system-for-the-assessment-of-running-stride-kinematics-at-different-velocities
#4
Felipe García-Pinillos, Luis E Roche-Seruendo, Noel Marcén-Cinca, Luis A Marco-Contreras, Pedro A Latorre-Román
García-Pinillos, F, Roche-Seruendo, LE, Marcen-Cinca, N, Marco-Contreras, LA, and Latorre-Román, PA. Absolute reliability and concurrent validity of the Stryd system for the assessment of running stride kinematics at different velocities. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study aimed to determine the absolute reliability and to evaluate the concurrent validity of the Stryd system for measuring spatiotemporal variables during running at different velocities (8-20 km·h) by comparing data with another widely used device (the OptoGait system)...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781606/rapid-diagnostic-for-point-of-care-malaria-screening
#5
Samantha E McBirney, Dongyu Chen, Alexis Scholtz, Hossein Ameri, Andrea M Armani
Despite significant success in therapeutic development, malaria remains a widespread and deadly infectious disease in the developing world. Given the nearly 100% efficacy of current malaria therapeutics, the primary barrier to eradication is lack of early diagnosis of the infected population. However, there are multiple strains of malaria. Although significant efforts and resources have been invested in developing antibody-based diagnostic methods for Plasmodium falciparum, a rapid and easy to use screening method capable of detecting all malaria strains has not been realized...
May 21, 2018: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780999/iphone-imaged-and-cell-powered-electrophoresis-titration-chip-for-the-alkaline-phosphatase-assay-in-serum-by-the-moving-reaction-boundary
#6
Xin-Yu Cao, Fan-Zhi Kong, Qiang Zhang, Wei-Wen Liu, Xiao-Ping Liu, Guo-Qing Li, Ran Zhong, Liu-Yin Fan, Hua Xiao, Cheng-Xi Cao
As a vital enzyme, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has great clinical significance in diagnoses of bone or liver cancer, bone metastases, rickets, and extrahepatic biliary obstruction. However, there is still no really portable chip for the ALP assay in blood. Herein, a simple electrophoresis titration (ET) model was developed for ALP detection via a moving reaction boundary (MRB). In the model, ALP catalyzed the dephosphorylation of a 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate disodium salt (4-MUP) substrate in the cathode well to 4-methylumbelliferone ([4-MU]-) with a negative charge and blue fluorescence under UV excitation...
May 21, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780471/direct-observation-of-supramolecular-binding-of-light-hydrocarbons-in-vanadium-iii-and-iv-metal-organic-framework-materials
#7
Zhenzhong Lu, Harry G W Godfrey, Ivan da Silva, Yongqiang Cheng, Mathew Savage, Pascal Manuel, Svemir Rudić, Anibal J Ramirez-Cuesta, Sihai Yang, Martin Schröder
Fine tuning of host-guest supramolecular interactions in porous systems enables direct control over the properties of functional materials. We report here a modification of hydrogen bonding and its effect on guest binding in a pair of redox-active metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Oxidation of MFM-300(VIII ) {[VIII2(OH)2 (L)], LH4 = biphenyl-3,3',5,5'-tetracarboxylic acid} is accompanied by deprotonation of the bridging hydroxyl groups to afford isostructural MFM-300(VIV ), [VIV2O2 (L)]. The precise role of the hydroxyl groups, O -carboxylate centres and π-π interactions in the supramolecular binding of C2 hydrocarbons in these materials has been determined using neutron diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering, coupled with DFT modelling...
April 7, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779829/leveling-the-playing-field-evaluation-of-a-portable-instrument-for-quantifying-balance-performance
#8
Sutton B Richmond, Kevin D Dames, Daniel J Goble, Brett W Fling
Balance is a complex, sensorimotor task requiring an individual to maintain the center of gravity within the base of support. Quantifying balance in a reliable and valid manner is essential to evaluating disease progression, aging complications, and injuries in clinical and research settings. Typically, researchers use force plates to track motion of the center of gravity during a variety of tasks. However, limiting factors such as cost, portability, and availability have hindered postural stability evaluation in these settings...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779716/clinical-3d-printing-a-protected-health-information-phi-and-compliance-perspective
#9
Henry Feldman, Parisa Kamali, Samuel J Lin, John D Halamka
Advanced manufacturing techniques such as 3-dimensional (3D) printing, while mature in other industries, are starting to become more commonplace in clinical care. Clinicians are producing physical objects based on patient clinical data for use in planning care and educating patients, all of which should be managed like any other healthcare system data, except it exists in the "real" world. There are currently no provisions in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) either in its original 1996 form or in more recent updates that address the nature of physical representations of clinical data...
July 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779601/noninvasive-ventilation-for-neuromuscular-disease
#10
REVIEW
Dean R Hess
Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is standard practice for patients with neuromuscular respiratory failure. The interface distinguishes noninvasive from invasive ventilation. Interfaces are commercially available in a variety of styles and sizes. There are now available portable ventilators with good leak compensation and with a variety of modes. Although much has been written about the technical aspects of interfaces and ventilators, the initiation of NIV is an art. Selection of an appropriate interface and ventilator settings requires a close working relationship between clinicians, patients, and families...
June 2018: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778681/portable-x-ray-fluorescence-for-the-detection-of-pop-bfrs-in-waste-plastics
#11
Martin Sharkey, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa Abdallah, Daniel S Drage, Stuart Harrad, Harald Berresheim
The purpose of this study was to establish the efficacy of portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrumentation as a screening tool for a variety of end of life plastics which may contain excess amounts of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), in compliance with European Union (EU) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) legislative limits (low POP concentration limits - LPCLs). 555 samples of waste plastics were collected from eight waste and recycling sites in Ireland, including waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), textiles, polyurethane foams (PUFs), and expanded polystyrene foams...
May 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778563/development-and-evaluation-of-a-rapid-nucleic-acid-amplification-method-to-detect-influenza-a-and-b-viruses-in-human-respiratory-specimens
#12
Sonja Elf, Pauliina Auvinen, Lisa Jahn, Karoliina Liikonen, Solveig Sjöblom, Päivi Saavalainen, Minna Mäki, Kevin E Eboigbodin
Isothermal nucleic acid amplification methods can potentially shorten the amount of time required to diagnose influenza. We developed and evaluated a novel isothermal nucleic acid amplification method, RT-SIBA to rapidly detect and differentiate between influenza A and B viruses in a single reaction tube. The performance of the RT-SIBA Influenza assay was compared with two established RT-PCR methods. The sensitivities of the RT-SIBA, RealStar RT-PCR, and CDC RT-PCR assays for the detection of influenza A and B viruses in the clinical specimens were 98...
April 18, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778229/a-novel-portable-filtration-system-for-sampling-and-concentration-of-microorganisms-demonstration-on-marine-microalgae-with-subsequent-quantification-using-ic-nasba
#13
Christos-Moritz Loukas, Matthew C Mowlem, Maria-Nefeli Tsaloglou, Nicolas G Green
This paper presents a novel portable sample filtration/concentration system, designed for use on samples of microorganisms with very low cell concentrations and large volumes, such as water-borne parasites, pathogens associated with faecal matter, or toxic phytoplankton. The example application used for demonstration was the in-field collection and concentration of microalgae from seawater samples. This type of organism is responsible for Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), an example of which is commonly referred to as "red tides", which are typically the result of rapid proliferation and high biomass accumulation of harmful microalgal species in the water column or at the sea surface...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777432/qualitative-study-of-mechanical-parameters-of-conventional-diagnostic-x-ray-machines-in-mizoram
#14
Jonathan Lalrinmawia, Kham Suan Pau, Ramesh Chandra Tiwari
The present study examined the mechanical attributes of 135 conventional diagnostic X-ray machines in Mizoram, India. The purpose of studying the X-ray mechanical parameters, such as congruency, perpendicularity of the central beam, and half-value layer, was to improve the quality of the diagnostic image and reduce the patient dose. A battery-operated portable dosimeter was used to measure output radiation of the X-ray machine. The half-value layer was measured at a constant accelerating potential of 70 kVp and tube load...
May 18, 2018: Radiological Physics and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776379/development-of-a-rapid-field-applicable-molecular-diagnostic-for-knockdown-resistance-kdr-markers-in-an-gambiae
#15
Vera T Unwin, Shaun Ainsworth, Emily J Rippon, El Hadji Amadou Niang, Mark J I Paine, David Weetman, Emily R Adams
BACKGROUND: The spread of insecticide resistance (IR) is a major threat to vector control programmes for mosquito-borne diseases. Early detection of IR using diagnostic markers could help inform these programmes, especially in remote locations where gathering reliable bioassay data is challenging. Most current molecular tests for genetic IR markers are only suitable for use in well-equipped laboratory settings. There is an unmet need for field-applicable diagnostics. METHODS: A single-cartridge test was designed to detect key IR mutations in the major African vector of malaria, Anopheles gambiae...
May 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775912/an-accurate-sleep-stages-classification-system-using-a-new-class-of-optimally-time-frequency-localized-three-band-wavelet-filter-bank
#16
Manish Sharma, Deepanshu Goyal, P V Achuth, U Rajendra Acharya
Sleep related disorder causes diminished quality of lives in human beings. Sleep scoring or sleep staging is the process of classifying various sleep stages which helps to detect the quality of sleep. The identification of sleep-stages using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is an arduous task. Just by looking at an EEG signal, one cannot determine the sleep stages precisely. Sleep specialists may make errors in identifying sleep stages by visual inspection. To mitigate the erroneous identification and to reduce the burden on doctors, a computer-aided EEG based system can be deployed in the hospitals, which can help identify the sleep stages, correctly...
May 10, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775276/fully-printed-organic-inorganic-nanocomposites-for-flexible-thermoelectric-applications
#17
Canlin Ou, Abhijeet Laxman Sangle, Anuja Datta, Qingshen Jing, Tommaso Busolo, Thomas Chalklen, Vijay Narayan, Sohini Kar-Narayan
Thermoelectric materials, capable of interconverting heat and electricity, are attractive for applications in thermal energy harvesting as a means to power wireless sensors, wearable devices and portable electronics. However, traditional inorganic thermoelectric materials pose significant challenges due to high cost, toxicity, scarcity, as well as brittleness particularly when it comes to applications requiring flexibility. Here, we investigate organic-inorganic nanocomposites that have been developed from bespoke inks which are printed via an aerosol jet printing method onto flexible substrates...
May 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775275/a-high-performance-and-recyclable-al-air-coin-cell-based-on-eco-friendly-chitosan-hydrogel-membranes
#18
Yisi Liu, Qian Sun, Xiaofei Yang, Jianneng Liang, Biqiong Wang, Alicia Koo, Ruying Li, Jie Li, Xueliang Sun
Aluminum-air batteries are a promising power supply for electronics due to its low cost and high energy density. However, portable coin-type Al-air batteries operating under ambient air condition for small electronic appliances have rarely been reported. Herein, coin cell-type Al-air batteries using cost-effective and eco-friendly chitosan hydrogel membranes modified by SiO2, SnO2, and ZnO have been prepared and assembled. The Al-air coin cell employing chitosan hydrogel membrane containing 10 wt.% SiO2 as a separator exhibits better discharge performance with a higher flat voltage plateau, longer discharge duration, and higher power density than the cells using a chitosan hydrogel membrane containing SnO2 or ZnO...
May 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774899/smartphone-based-rapid-quantification-of-viable-bacteria-by-single-cell-microdroplet-turbidity-imaging
#19
Xiaonan Cui, Lihui Ren, Yufei Shan, Xixian Wang, Zhenlong Yang, Chunyu Li, Jian Xu, Bo Ma
Standard plate count (SPC) has been recognized as the golden standard for the quantification of viable bacteria. However, SPC usually takes one to several days to grow individual cells into a visible colony, which greatly hampers its application in rapid bacteria enumeration. Here we present a microdroplet turbidity imaging based digital standard plate count (dSPC) method to overcome this hurdle. Instead of cultivating on agar plates, bacteria are encapsulated in monodisperse microdroplets for single-cell cultivation...
May 18, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774071/molecular-detection-and-analysis-of-exosomes-using-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering-gold-nanorods-and-a-miniaturized-device
#20
Elyahb Allie Kwizera, Ryan O'Connor, Vojtech Vinduska, Melody Williams, Elizabeth R Butch, Scott E Snyder, Xiang Chen, Xiaohua Huang
Exosomes are a potential source of cancer biomarkers. Probing tumor-derived exosomes can offer a potential non-invasive way to diagnose cancer, assess cancer progression, and monitor treatment responses. Novel molecular methods would facilitate exosome analysis and accelerate basic and clinical exosome research. Methods: A standard gold-coated glass microscopy slide was used to develop a miniaturized affinity-based device to capture exosomes in a target-specific manner with the assistance of low-cost 3-D printing technology...
2018: Theranostics
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