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Eosinophils in gastrointestinal tract

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338484/the-importance-of-biopsy-sampling-practices-in-the-pathologic-evaluation-of-gastrointestinal-disorders
#1
Nicole C Panarelli, Rhonda K Yantiss
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the literature regarding appropriate endoscopic sampling and surveillance protocols for common inflammatory diseases of the digestive tract. Gastroenterologists increasingly use endoscopy with mucosal biopsy to detect inflammatory diseases, assess response to therapy, and monitor for progression to dysplasia. RECENT FINDINGS: Many diseases show a patchy distribution in the digestive tract and there may be poor correlation between the endoscopic appearance and presence of histologic abnormalities...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299223/hematemesis-as-initial-presentation-in-a-10-week-old-infant-with-eosinophilic-gastroenteritis
#2
Varun Shetty, Kayla E Daniel, Anil Kesavan
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract resulting in a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms. There is currently a dearth of information on this topic in the pediatric literature, as very few cases have been reported. In this report, we present a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis in a 10-week-old patient with initial presenting symptom of hematemesis. To our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature and is unique in its initial presentation...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261032/eosinophilic-colitis-in-children
#3
Urszula Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk, Sabina Horowska-Ziaja, Maciej Kajor, Sabina Więcek, Wojciech Chlebowczyk, Halina Woś
INTRODUCTION: Eosinophilic colitis, which is a rare form of eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases, occurs as primary and secondary allergic eosinophilic colitis of the gastrointestinal tract infection, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and vasculitis. The diagnosis is based on a significant amount of eosinophils in the inflammatory infiltrate of the colon wall. AIM: To analyze the clinical picture taking into account comorbidities and endoscopic picture in children with eosinophilic colitis...
February 2017: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247277/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis-in-clinical-practice
#4
REVIEW
Yasuhiko Abe, Yu Sasaki, Makoto Yagi, Takao Yaoita, Shoichi Nishise, Yoshiyuki Ueno
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic and abnormal Th2 type immunological response characterized by intense eosinophilic inflammation localized within the esophagus. This leads to esophageal dysfunction and remodeling accompanied by subepithelial fibrosis. Recently, EoE has been recognized as one of the major causes of dysphagia or food impaction in adults. The prevalence of EoE has been increasing over the past several decades, particularly in Western countries. EoE should be differentiated from secondary esophageal eosinophilia (EE) in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and eosinophilic gastroenteritis, involving the entire gastrointestinal tract...
April 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226319/oral-and-sublingual-immunotherapy-potential-causes-for-eosinophilic-gastrointestinal-disorders
#5
Delara Babaie, Mehrnaz Mesdaghi, Makoto Nishino, Mahboubeh Mansouri, Motohiro Ebisawa
Food allergy is a common health problem worldwide, with increasing prevalence during recent decades. The only approved treatments for food allergy are food avoidance and administration of emergency medications in case of accidental exposure, which negatively affects patients' quality of life, so new treatments are highly desirable. Different food immunotherapy modalities have recently been used, with variable success rates in the induction of desensitization and tolerance, and different numbers and types of adverse reactions...
February 23, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225494/a-unique-case-of-inflammatory-fibroid-polyp-in-the-duodenum-of-a-female-adolescent-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
REVIEW
Mauricio Giusti Calderon, Valéria Campos Caivano, Sauro Bagnaresi, José Ozório de Oliveira Lira, Rodrigo Daminello Raimundo, Luiz Carlos de Abreu, João Antonio Correa
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP) is a very rare benign condition in children that can occur throughout the gastrointestinal tract. It is characterized as a polypoid lesion originating in the submucosa, composed of connective tissue and eosinophilic infiltrate. It is most common in the stomach and in adults between the fifth and seventh decades of life. Its occurrence is unusual in the duodenum. CASE SUMMARY: One case of duodenal IFP was described and the literature is reviewed with emphasis on the clinical and pathological features of IFP in children...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220362/the-role-of-impedance-planimetry-in-the-evaluation-of-esophageal-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Nitin K Ahuja, John O Clarke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Impedance planimetry measures tissue wall distensibility as a function of pressure and cross-sectional area. Recent interest in this technique's relevance to the gastrointestinal tract has been accelerated by the availability of the functional lumen imaging probe, a catheter-based system that dynamically quantitates these biomechanical properties. Herein, we review the device's particular utility in the setting of esophageal pathology, including processes affecting the esophageal body as well as the upper and lower esophageal sphincters...
February 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131390/calpain-14-and-its-association-with-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#8
REVIEW
Vladislav A Litosh, Mark Rochman, Jeffrey K Rymer, Aleksey Porollo, Leah C Kottyan, Marc E Rothenberg
Calpains are a family of intracellular, calcium-dependent cysteine proteases involved in a variety of regulatory processes, including cytoskeletal dynamics, cell-cycle progression, signal transduction, gene expression, and apoptosis. These enzymes have been implicated in a number of disease processes, notably for this review involving eosinophilic tissue inflammation, such as eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), a chronic inflammatory disorder triggered by allergic hypersensitivity to food and associated with genetic variants in calpain 14 (CAPN14)...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119348/a-pragmatic-approach-to-vasculitis-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#9
REVIEW
Runjan Chetty, Stefano Serra
Although vasculitis involving the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is an uncommon occurrence, occasionally vasculitis can present as haemorrhagic infarction or ischaemia for which a length of bowel is removed. Invariably, the appropriate clinical history is not forthcoming, or vasculitis is not clinically suspected. The purpose of this overview is to provide the practising gastrointestinal (GI) pathologist with a framework to recognise and diagnose vasculitides within the GIT. The classification may be approached by aetiological agent or size of vessel involved; an international consensus group now favours the latter approach...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029282/assessment-of-eosinophil-peroxidase-as-a-potential-diagnostic-and-prognostic-marker-in-dogs-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#10
Idil Bastan, Nicholas A Robinson, Xiao Na Ge, Aaron K Rendahl, Savita P Rao, Robert J Washabau, P Sriramarao
OBJECTIVE To evaluate a method for identifying intact and degranulated eosinophils in the small intestine of dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by use of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against eosinophil peroxidase (EPX). ANIMALS 11 untreated dogs with IBD, 5 dogs with IBD treated with prednisolone, and 8 control dogs with no clinical evidence of gastrointestinal tract disease and no immunosuppressive treatment. PROCEDURES 4-μm-thick sections of paraffin-embedded tissues from necropsy specimens were immunostained with EPX mAb...
January 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018451/eosinophilic-gastroenteritis-in-an-18-year-old-male-with-prolonged-nephrotic-syndrome
#11
Da Min Choi, Jung Eun Pyun, Hyung Eun Yim, Kee Hwan Yoo, Jung Ok Shim, Eun Jung Lee, Nam Hee Won
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare disease characterized by prominent eosinophilic tissue infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we report a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis in an 18-year-old patient with prolonged nephrotic syndrome who presented with abdominal pain and peripheral hypereosinophilia. During the previous 2 years, he had visited local Emergency Department several times because of epigastric pain and nausea. He had been treated with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome since 3 years of age...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956893/eosinophilic-disorders-of-the-gastro-intestinal-tract-an-update
#12
REVIEW
Erminia Ridolo, Valerie Melli, Gianluigi De' Angelis, Irene Martignago
Eosinophilic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE), are rare chronic pathologies of the digestive system, with an immuno-mediated pathogenesis. Recent data suggest that, together with the "classic" IgE-response to allergens, also a delayed hypersensitivity mechanism could be involved in the development of eosinophilic disorders. EoE and EGE were studied only in the latest decades and as a consequence accurate data are not yet available, concerning not only pathogenesis, but also epidemiology, treatment and outcomes...
2016: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843730/abdominal-pain-and-ascites-not-always-related-to-portal-hypertension
#13
Fredy Nehme, Gilbert Kisang, Michael Green, Nathan Tofteland
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract with an estimated prevalence of one in 100,000. The typical presentation consists of vague gastrointestinal symptoms with the mucosal involvement of the digestive system. Rarely, it presents as eosinophilic ascites. We report the case of a 22-year-old female who presented with acute onset abdominal pain and ascites. The laboratory studies were remarkable for eosinophilia and the ascitic fluid demonstrated high eosinophilic counts...
October 3, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750516/pathological-changes-seen-in-horses-in-new-zealand-grazing-mediterranean-tall-fescue-lolium-arundinaceum-infected-with-selected-endophytes-epichlo%C3%A3-coenophiala-causing-equine-fescue-oedema
#14
J S Munday, S C Finch, J B Vlaming, B L Sutherland, L R Fletcher
AIM: To investigate whether Mediterranean tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. (syn Festuca arundinacea)) infected with selected fungal endophytes (Epichloë coenophiala (formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum)) caused equine fescue oedema when grown in New Zealand, and to examine the pathological changes associated with this intoxication. METHODS: Horses were grazed on Mediterranean tall fescue that was infected with the endophytes AR542 (n=2), or AR584 (n=3), or Mediterranean tall fescue that was endophyte-free (n=2)...
October 17, 2016: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721930/eosinophilic-ascites-a-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-challenge
#15
Shefali Agrawal, Sandeep Vohra, Sangeeta Rawat, Vikas Kashyap
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. Depending on the dominant layer of infiltration it is classified into three types namely, mucosal, muscularis and subserosal. The most uncommon variant is the subserosal type characterized by primarily subserosal disease, eosinophilic ascites and peripheral hypereosinophilia. The clinical features are non-specific with history of atopic predisposition and allergy. Endoscopic biopsy is frequently non-diagnostic due to an uninvolved gastrointestinal mucosa rendering its diagnosis a challenge...
September 27, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683752/humoral-immunity-provides-resident-intestinal-eosinophils-access-to-luminal-antigen-via-eosinophil-expressed-low-affinity-fc%C3%AE-receptors
#16
Kalmia M Smith, Raiann S Rahman, Lisa A Spencer
Eosinophils are native to the healthy gastrointestinal tract and are associated with inflammatory diseases likely triggered by exposure to food allergens (e.g., food allergies and eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders). In models of allergic respiratory diseases and in vitro studies, direct Ag engagement elicits eosinophil effector functions, including degranulation and Ag presentation. However, it was not known whether intestinal tissue eosinophils that are separated from luminal food Ags by a columnar epithelium might similarly engage food Ags...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600059/eosinophilic-ascites-a-diagnostic-challenge
#17
Hesham Khalil, Moby Joseph
Eosinophilic ascites is a rare feature of eosinophilic gastroenteritis. We would like to highlight this increasingly recognised diagnosis in a case of unexplained ascites. We present a challenging case of a woman aged 25 years who presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, generalised abdominal pain and swelling 8-week following delivery of her first baby. Her symptoms were primarily aggravated by eating, and she had also noticed postprandial itching and self-limiting generalised rash. She had a strong history of atopy...
September 6, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595440/pneumoperitoneum-in-the-setting-of-pneumatosis-intestinalis-in-children-is-surgery-always-indicated
#18
Julie Galea, Katherine M Burnand, Fiona L Dawson, Chandrasen K Sinha, Dean Rex, Bruce O Okoye
Aim Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) is a condition in which multiple gas-filled cysts form within the wall of the gastrointestinal tract in either the subserosa or submucosa. The presence of pneumoperitoneum in the presence of PI can present a therapeutic dilemma. The aim of our study was to review our experience and management of this condition. Methods A single-center retrospective study of consecutive children (> 1 year) presenting with a pneumoperitoneum and evidence of PI (2009-2015). Demographics, case notes, microbiology, and imaging were reviewed...
February 2017: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592279/primary-eosinophilic-gastrointestinal-disorders-in-children-who-have-received-food-oral-immunotherapy
#19
L Á Echeverría-Zudaire, S Fernández-Fernández, A Rayo-Fernández, C Muñóz-Archidona, R Checa-Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: Food oral immunotherapy (OIT) involves the administration of the food allergen causing the symptoms, in order to induce tolerance. Primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (PEGDs) are characterised by an eosinophil-rich inflammation affecting different locations of the digestive tract. We present a series of patients with PEGDs in a group of children following OIT with milk and/or egg. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective study during the period 2006-2014 was performed in paediatric patients subjected to OIT with milk and/or egg...
November 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549754/eosinophils-probiotics-and-the-microbiome
#20
REVIEW
Helene F Rosenberg, Joanne C Masterson, Glenn T Furuta
There is currently substantial interest in the therapeutic properties of probiotic microorganisms as recent research suggests that oral administration of specific bacterial strains may reduce inflammation and alter the nature of endogenous microflora in the gastrointestinal tract. Eosinophils are multifunctional tissue leukocytes, prominent among the resident cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa that promote local immunity. Recent studies with genetically altered mice indicate that eosinophils not only participate in maintaining gut homeostasis, but that the absence of eosinophils may have significant impact on the nature of the endogenous gut microflora and responses to gut pathogens, notably Clostridium difficile Furthermore, in human subjects, there is an intriguing relationship between eosinophils, allergic inflammation, and the nature of the lung microflora, notably a distinct association between eosinophil infiltration and detection of bacteria of the phylum Actinobacteria...
November 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
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