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Eosinophils in gastrointestinal tract

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438165/histologic-features-of-gastrointestinal-tract-biopsies-in-iga-vasculitis-henoch-sch%C3%A3-nlein-purpura
#1
Christine Y Louie, Adam J Gomez, Richard K Sibley, Dorsey Bass, Teri A Longacre
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) vasculitis or Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) typically occurs in the pediatric population, although rare cases also occur in adults. Gastrointestinal (GI) involvement is common. The "classic" histologic finding in IgA vasculitis (HSP) is leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV); other histologic features in biopsies of IgA vasculitis (HSP) have only been rarely described. The pathology archival files at our institution were searched for GI biopsies from patients with IgA vasculitis (HSP)...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353932/pathogenic-potential-of-fresh-frozen-and-thermally-treated-anisakis-spp-type-ii-l3-nematoda-anisakidae-after-oral-inoculation-into-wistar-rats-a-histopathological-study
#2
Kareem Morsy, Abeer Mahmoud Badr, Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar, Somaya El Deeb, Samar Ebead
The third-stage (L3) larvae of Anisakis are the etiological agents of human anisakiasis caused by consumption of raw or undercooked seafood infected with anisakid nematodes. Infection with these worms is associated with abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhea and can lead to massive infiltration of eosinophils and the formation of granulomas in the gastrointestinal tract if the larvae are not removed. Food allergy affects populations worldwide, and despite several reports on the presence of the potentially zoonotic nematodes among edible fishes in Egypt, there are few immunological and molecular studies investigating the epidemiology of these parasites...
December 2017: Journal of Nematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350339/emerging-insights-into-the-esophageal-microbiome
#3
REVIEW
Michael May, Julian A Abrams
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Analysis of the esophageal microbiome remains a relatively new field of research, and most studies to date have focused on characterizing the esophageal microbiome in states of health and disease. Microbiome alterations have been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and neoplastic conditions in the colon and elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract. The epidemiology of various esophageal conditions including Barrett's esophagus (BE), esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) point to the microbiome as a potential co-factor in disease pathogenesis, and the possibility exists that these microbiome alterations could contribute directly to the inflammatory environments necessary for the carcinogenesis or atopy involved in these conditions...
January 19, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333363/creating-a-multi-center-rare-disease-consortium-the-consortium-of-eosinophilic-gastrointestinal-disease-researchers-cegir
#4
Katherine Cheng, Sandeep K Gupta, Susanna Kantor, Jonathan T Kuhl, Seema S Aceves, Peter A Bonis, Kelley E Capocelli, Christina Carpenter, Mirna Chehade, Margaret H Collins, Evan S Dellon, Gary W Falk, Rashmi Gopal-Srivastava, Nirmala Gonsalves, Ikuo Hirano, Eileen C King, John Leung, Jeffrey P Krischer, Vincent A Mukkada, Alain Schoepfer, Jonathan M Spergel, Alex Straumann, Guang-Yu Yang, Glenn T Furuta, Marc E Rothenberg
 Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs) affect various segments of the gastrointestinal tract. Since these disorders are rare, collaboration is essential to enroll subjects in clinical studies and study the broader population. The Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network (RDCRN), a program of the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), funded the Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Researchers (CEGIR) in 2014 to advance the field of EGIDs. CEGIR facilitates collaboration among various centers, subspecialties, patients, professional organizations and patient-advocacy groups and includes 14 clinical sites...
December 18, 2017: Translational Science of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317890/enterobius-vermicularis-in-the-endometrium-of-the-uterus-a-case-report
#5
Biserka Pigac, Silvija Mašić, Valentina Mašić
Enterobius vermicularis is an intestinal nematode of humans and the most common helminth infection. Main transmission path is direct contact between infected and uninfected person meaning ingestion of the eggs. Human infections are usually asymptomatic or manifest as perianal itching. Although ectopic locations are uncommon, Enterobius can occasionally be detected in appendix, kidney, male urinary tract and female genital tract. We present a case from Varaždin General Hospital, Varaždin, Croatia in 2012, involving a 90-yr-old female patient who underwent hysterectomy leading to accidental finding of E...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302869/lanthanum-induced-mucosal-alterations-in-the-stomach-lanthanum-gastropathy-a-comparative-study-using-an-animal-model
#6
Kei Yabuki, Joji Haratake, Yojiro Tsuda, Eisuke Shiba, Hiroshi Harada, Kenji Yorita, Kazuyoshi Uchihashi, Atsuji Matsuyama, Keiji Hirata, Masanori Hisaoka
Lanthanum (La) carbonate (LC) is one of the most potent phosphate binders that prevents the elevation of serum phosphate levels in patients with end-stage renal diseases undergoing dialysis. LC binds strongly to dietary phosphate and forms insoluble complexes that pass through the gastrointestinal tract. La deposition in patients treated with LC is a recently documented finding particularly observed in gastric mucosa. We herein describe the detailed gastric mucosal lesions in 45 LC-treated patients and address the potential underlying pathologic mechanism using oral LC administration in rats...
January 4, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259861/inflammatory-fibroid-polyp-of-the-gastric-antrum-presenting-as-hypovolemic-shock-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
Kyle D Klingbeil, Alexandra Balaban, Raymond M Fertig, A Caresse Gamret, Yuna Gong, Carolyn Torres, Shevonne S Satahoo
Inflammatory fibroid polyps (IFP) are an extremely rare entity that arise within the submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, and represent less than 0.1% of all gastric polyps. They are most commonly localized to the gastric antrum, small intestines and recto-sigmoid colon. IFPs are most commonly found incidentally upon endoscopic evaluation in the absence of symptoms. Presenting symptoms depend on the location of the tumor, although polyps located in the stomach most commonly present with epigastric pain and early satiety...
November 2017: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259025/noncanonical-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-and-the-essential-kinase-nik-modulate-crucial-features-associated-with-eosinophilic-esophagitis-pathogenesis
#8
Kristin Eden, Daniel E Rothschild, Dylan K McDaniel, Bettina Heid, Irving C Allen
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic disease of the esophagus driven by T cell and eosinophil responses to dietary allergens, resulting in chronic mucosal inflammation. Few spontaneous animal models of esophageal eosinophilia exist, with most studies relying on artificial sensitization procedures. NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK; MAP3K14) is a key signaling molecule of the noncanonical NF-κB (NFKB1) pathway, an alternative signaling cascade producing chemokines involved in lymphoid stroma development and leukocyte trafficking...
December 19, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127496/classification-of-eosinophilic-disorders-of-the-small-and-large-intestine
#9
Aoife J McCarthy, Kieran Sheahan
Eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases (EGIDs), including eosinophilic gastroenteritis and eosinophilic colitis, have been increasing in prevalence in Western countries in recent years. Eosinophils are normally scanty in the gastrointestinal tract, and increased numbers of eosinophils can denote pathology. Normal values for tissue eosinophils vary widely between different segments of the colon, thus location of the biopsy is critically important for the interpretation of findings. However, no standard diagnostic criteria have been proposed for the diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis or eosinophilic colitis...
November 10, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065679/localized-gastric-amyloidosis-with-kappa-and-lambda-light-chain-co-expression
#10
Yong Hwan Ahn, Ye Young Rhee, Suck Chei Choi, Geom Seog Seo
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy for cancer screening was performed in a 55-year-old woman as part of a health screening program, and revealed a depressed lesion approximately 20 mm in diameter in the lesser curvature of the mid-gastric body. Several biopsy specimens were collected as the lesion resembled early gastric cancer; however, histopathologic evaluation revealed chronic active gastritis with an ulcer and amorphous eosinophilic material deposition. Congo red staining identified amyloid proteins, and apple-green birefringence was shown using polarized light microscopy...
October 26, 2017: Clinical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059642/diagnostic-algorithm-and-peculiarities-of-monitoring-for-infants-with-disorders-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#11
Tetyana O Kryuchko, Inna M Nesina, Olha Ya Tkachenko
INTRODUCTION: The most common medical conditions in infants, which belong to pediatric and gastroenterological disease areas, are functional gastrointestinal disorders, food hypersensitivity and food allergy. First of all, these symptoms can disguise lactase deficiency, cow's milk protein allergy, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, allergic proctocolitis, gastrointestinal manifestations of atopic dermatitis, functional disorders of gastrointestinal and biliary tract, etc. The aim of our study was to develop an algorithm of monitoring for infants with disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and to study the efficacy of probiotic and enzyme replacement therapy...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051893/eosinophilic-enteritis-a-delayed-diagnosis
#12
Ankita Munjal, Abdulhameed Al-Sabban, Kathryn Bull-Henry
Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders are a rare and complex group of disorders that are characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. Patients often present with a wide range of signs and symptoms as any length or layer of the GI tract can be involved such as mucosal, muscular, or serosal. As a part of the workup, patients frequently undergo computed tomography scans and multiple endoscopies before the diagnosis is finally made as was true in our case of a 59-year-old male patient presenting with 2 months of nausea, abdominal pain, and weight loss...
October 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026737/eosinophilic-gastrointestinal-disorder-presenting-as-intractable-vomiting-and-ascites-in-a-young-girl
#13
Ji Yoon Kwon, Ji Sun Huh, Bo Kyung Je, Kwang Dae Hong, Jee Hyun Lee
Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder (EGID) is a rare disease in children that affects the bowel wall, with eosinophilic infiltration in the absence of any other causes for eosinophilia. The etiology remains unknown, but allergies and immunological imbalance are suspected triggers. We encountered a case of serosal EGID presenting as intractable vomiting and ascites in a 9-year-old girl, after influenza virus infection. Peripheral eosinophilia was not present. The diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy of the bowel wall through laparotomy and endoscopy, and controlled by 2 courses of steroid therapy due to recurring symptoms...
September 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960628/treatment-of-gastric-eosinophilia-by-epicutaneous-immunotherapy-in-piglets-sensitized-to-peanuts
#14
L Mondoulet, N Kalach, V Dhelft, T Larcher, C Delayre-Orthez, P H Benhamou, J Spergel, H A Sampson, C Dupont
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs) are hypersensitivity disorders frequently triggered by food allergy and manifested by mucosal eosinophilic infiltration at any level of the gastrointestinal tract. This study established a model of gastric eosinophilia in peanut-sensitized piglets to evaluate the efficacy of epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) for its treatment. METHODS: Experiments were carried out in piglets first sensitized by three intra-peritoneal injections of peanut protein extract (PPE) with adjuvant, and then given PPE orally for 10 days, a sequence leading to gastric eosinophilia assessed by endoscopy...
December 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950884/sublingual-pythiosis-in-a-cat
#15
Jessica Sonia Fortin, Michael John Calcutt, Dae Young Kim
BACKGROUND: Pythiosis is a potentially fatal but non-contagious disease affecting humans and animals living in tropical and subtropical climates, but is also reasonably widespread in temperate climates, throughout the world. The most commonly reported affected animal species with pythiosis are equine and canine, with fewer cases in bovine and feline. Extracutaneous infections caused by Pythium insidiosum have been rarely described in the cat. CASE PRESENTATION: Sublingual pythiosis was diagnosed in a 2-year-old, male, Domestic Shorthair cat...
September 26, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906408/eosinophilic-gastroenteritis-presenting-as-upper-gastrointestinal-hematoma-and-ulcers-after-endoscopic-biopsy-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
REVIEW
Biqin Chen, Zhao Yang, Heng Lu, Cheng Wei, Fangyu Wang, Chang Liu
RATIONALE: Eosinphilic gastroenteritis (EG) is a gastrointestinal disorder characterized by eosinophilic infiltration with various manifestations. The diagnosis is usually confirmed by an endoscopic biopsy, which is considered a safe and routine procedure for the majority. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a 54-year-old male who was presented with intermittent periumbilical pain and melena, and only revealed verrucous gastritis by endoscopy. DIAGNOSES: The patient's condition worsened two days after the endoscopic biopsy, and another endoscopy found hematoma and ulcers in upper gastrointestinal tract...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869965/the-neuropeptide-neuromedin-u-stimulates-innate-lymphoid-cells-and-type-2-inflammation
#17
Christoph S N Klose, Tanel Mahlakõiv, Jesper B Moeller, Lucille C Rankin, Anne-Laure Flamar, Hiroki Kabata, Laurel A Monticelli, Saya Moriyama, Gregory Garbès Putzel, Nikolai Rakhilin, Xiling Shen, Evi Kostenis, Gabriele M König, Takashi Senda, Dustin Carpenter, Donna L Farber, David Artis
The type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13 have important roles in stimulating innate and adaptive immune responses that are required for resistance to helminth infection, promotion of allergic inflammation, metabolic homeostasis and tissue repair. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) produce type 2 cytokines, and although advances have been made in understanding the cytokine milieu that promotes ILC2 responses, how ILC2 responses are regulated by other stimuli remains poorly understood...
September 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814067/neuro-immune-interactions-in-allergic-diseases-novel-targets-for-therapeutics
#18
Tiphaine Voisin, Amélie Bouvier, Isaac M Chiu
Recent studies have highlighted an emerging role for neuro-immune interactions in mediating allergic diseases. Allergies are caused by an overactive immune response to a foreign antigen. The peripheral sensory and autonomic nervous system densely innervates mucosal barrier tissues including the skin, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal (GI) tract that are exposed to allergens. It is increasingly clear that neurons actively communicate with and regulate the function of mast cells, dendritic cells, eosinophils, Th2 cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells in allergic inflammation...
June 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791287/bidirectional-mast-cell-eosinophil-interactions-in-inflammatory-disorders-and-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Maria Rosaria Galdiero, Gilda Varricchi, Mansour Seaf, Giancarlo Marone, Francesca Levi-Schaffer, Gianni Marone
Human mast cells (MCs) and eosinophils were first described and named by Paul Ehrlich. These cells have distinct myeloid progenitors and differ morphologically, ultrastructurally, immunologically, biochemically, and pharmacologically. However, MCs and eosinophils play a pivotal role in several allergic disorders. In addition, these cells are involved in autoimmune disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. MCs are distributed throughout all normal human tissues, whereas eosinophils are present only in gastrointestinal tract, secondary lymphoid tissues, and adipose tissue, thymus, mammary gland, and uterus...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769105/transcriptome-profiling-of-mouse-colonic-eosinophils-reveals-a-key-role-for-eosinophils-in-the-induction-of-s100a8-and-s100a9-in-mucosal-healing
#20
Reichman Hadar, Moshkovits Itay, Itan Michal, Pasmanik-Chor Metsada, Vogl Thomas, Roth Johannes, Munitz Ariel
Eosinophils are bone marrow-derived cells that have been largely implicated in Th2-associated diseases. Recent data highlights a key role for eosinophils in mucosal innate immune responses especially in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which is one of the largest eosinophil reservoirs in the body. Although eosinophils express and synthesize a plethora of proteins that can mediate their effector activities, the transcriptome signature of eosinophils in mucosal inflammation and subsequent repair has been considerably overlooked...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
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