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Eosinophils in gastrointestinal tract

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131390/calpain-14-and-its-association-with-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#1
REVIEW
Vladislav A Litosh, Mark Rochman, Jeffrey K Rymer, Aleksey Porollo, Leah C Kottyan, Marc E Rothenberg
Calpains are a family of intracellular, calcium-dependent cysteine proteases involved in a variety of regulatory processes, including cytoskeletal dynamics, cell-cycle progression, signal transduction, gene expression, and apoptosis. These enzymes have been implicated in a number of disease processes, notably for this review involving eosinophilic tissue inflammation, such as eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), a chronic inflammatory disorder triggered by allergic hypersensitivity to food and associated with genetic variants in calpain 14 (CAPN14)...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119348/a-pragmatic-approach-to-vasculitis-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#2
REVIEW
Runjan Chetty, Stefano Serra
Although vasculitis involving the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is an uncommon occurrence, occasionally vasculitis can present as haemorrhagic infarction or ischaemia for which a length of bowel is removed. Invariably, the appropriate clinical history is not forthcoming, or vasculitis is not clinically suspected. The purpose of this overview is to provide the practising gastrointestinal (GI) pathologist with a framework to recognise and diagnose vasculitides within the GIT. The classification may be approached by aetiological agent or size of vessel involved; an international consensus group now favours the latter approach...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029282/assessment-of-eosinophil-peroxidase-as-a-potential-diagnostic-and-prognostic-marker-in-dogs-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#3
Idil Bastan, Nicholas A Robinson, Xiao Na Ge, Aaron K Rendahl, Savita P Rao, Robert J Washabau, P Sriramarao
OBJECTIVE To evaluate a method for identifying intact and degranulated eosinophils in the small intestine of dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by use of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against eosinophil peroxidase (EPX). ANIMALS 11 untreated dogs with IBD, 5 dogs with IBD treated with prednisolone, and 8 control dogs with no clinical evidence of gastrointestinal tract disease and no immunosuppressive treatment. PROCEDURES 4-μm-thick sections of paraffin-embedded tissues from necropsy specimens were immunostained with EPX mAb...
January 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018451/eosinophilic-gastroenteritis-in-an-18-year-old-male-with-prolonged-nephrotic-syndrome
#4
Da Min Choi, Jung Eun Pyun, Hyung Eun Yim, Kee Hwan Yoo, Jung Ok Shim, Eun Jung Lee, Nam Hee Won
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare disease characterized by prominent eosinophilic tissue infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we report a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis in an 18-year-old patient with prolonged nephrotic syndrome who presented with abdominal pain and peripheral hypereosinophilia. During the previous 2 years, he had visited local Emergency Department several times because of epigastric pain and nausea. He had been treated with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome since 3 years of age...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956893/eosinophilic-disorders-of-the-gastro-intestinal-tract-an-update
#5
REVIEW
Erminia Ridolo, Valerie Melli, Gianluigi De' Angelis, Irene Martignago
Eosinophilic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE), are rare chronic pathologies of the digestive system, with an immuno-mediated pathogenesis. Recent data suggest that, together with the "classic" IgE-response to allergens, also a delayed hypersensitivity mechanism could be involved in the development of eosinophilic disorders. EoE and EGE were studied only in the latest decades and as a consequence accurate data are not yet available, concerning not only pathogenesis, but also epidemiology, treatment and outcomes...
2016: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843730/abdominal-pain-and-ascites-not-always-related-to-portal-hypertension
#6
Fredy Nehme, Gilbert Kisang, Michael Green, Nathan Tofteland
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract with an estimated prevalence of one in 100,000. The typical presentation consists of vague gastrointestinal symptoms with the mucosal involvement of the digestive system. Rarely, it presents as eosinophilic ascites. We report the case of a 22-year-old female who presented with acute onset abdominal pain and ascites. The laboratory studies were remarkable for eosinophilia and the ascitic fluid demonstrated high eosinophilic counts...
October 3, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750516/pathological-changes-seen-in-horses-in-new-zealand-grazing-mediterranean-tall-fescue-lolium-arundinaceum-infected-with-selected-endophytes-epichlo%C3%A3-coenophiala-causing-equine-fescue-oedema
#7
J S Munday, S C Finch, J B Vlaming, B L Sutherland, L R Fletcher
AIM: To investigate whether Mediterranean tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. (syn Festuca arundinacea)) infected with selected fungal endophytes (Epichloë coenophiala (formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum)) caused equine fescue oedema when grown in New Zealand, and to examine the pathological changes associated with this intoxication. METHODS: Horses were grazed on Mediterranean tall fescue that was infected with the endophytes AR542 (n=2), or AR584 (n=3), or Mediterranean tall fescue that was endophyte-free (n=2)...
October 17, 2016: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721930/eosinophilic-ascites-a-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-challenge
#8
Shefali Agrawal, Sandeep Vohra, Sangeeta Rawat, Vikas Kashyap
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. Depending on the dominant layer of infiltration it is classified into three types namely, mucosal, muscularis and subserosal. The most uncommon variant is the subserosal type characterized by primarily subserosal disease, eosinophilic ascites and peripheral hypereosinophilia. The clinical features are non-specific with history of atopic predisposition and allergy. Endoscopic biopsy is frequently non-diagnostic due to an uninvolved gastrointestinal mucosa rendering its diagnosis a challenge...
September 27, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683752/humoral-immunity-provides-resident-intestinal-eosinophils-access-to-luminal-antigen-via-eosinophil-expressed-low-affinity-fc%C3%AE-receptors
#9
Kalmia M Smith, Raiann S Rahman, Lisa A Spencer
Eosinophils are native to the healthy gastrointestinal tract and are associated with inflammatory diseases likely triggered by exposure to food allergens (e.g., food allergies and eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders). In models of allergic respiratory diseases and in vitro studies, direct Ag engagement elicits eosinophil effector functions, including degranulation and Ag presentation. However, it was not known whether intestinal tissue eosinophils that are separated from luminal food Ags by a columnar epithelium might similarly engage food Ags...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600059/eosinophilic-ascites-a-diagnostic-challenge
#10
Hesham Khalil, Moby Joseph
Eosinophilic ascites is a rare feature of eosinophilic gastroenteritis. We would like to highlight this increasingly recognised diagnosis in a case of unexplained ascites. We present a challenging case of a woman aged 25 years who presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, generalised abdominal pain and swelling 8-week following delivery of her first baby. Her symptoms were primarily aggravated by eating, and she had also noticed postprandial itching and self-limiting generalised rash. She had a strong history of atopy...
September 6, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595440/pneumoperitoneum-in-the-setting-of-pneumatosis-intestinalis-in-children-is-surgery-always-indicated
#11
Julie Galea, Katherine M Burnand, Fiona L Dawson, Chandrasen K Sinha, Dean Rex, Bruce O Okoye
Aim Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) is a condition in which multiple gas-filled cysts form within the wall of the gastrointestinal tract in either the subserosa or submucosa. The presence of pneumoperitoneum in the presence of PI can present a therapeutic dilemma. The aim of our study was to review our experience and management of this condition. Methods A single-center retrospective study of consecutive children (> 1 year) presenting with a pneumoperitoneum and evidence of PI (2009-2015). Demographics, case notes, microbiology, and imaging were reviewed...
February 2017: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592279/primary-eosinophilic-gastrointestinal-disorders-in-children-who-have-received-food-oral-immunotherapy
#12
L Á Echeverría-Zudaire, S Fernández-Fernández, A Rayo-Fernández, C Muñóz-Archidona, R Checa-Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: Food oral immunotherapy (OIT) involves the administration of the food allergen causing the symptoms, in order to induce tolerance. Primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (PEGDs) are characterised by an eosinophil-rich inflammation affecting different locations of the digestive tract. We present a series of patients with PEGDs in a group of children following OIT with milk and/or egg. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective study during the period 2006-2014 was performed in paediatric patients subjected to OIT with milk and/or egg...
November 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549754/eosinophils-probiotics-and-the-microbiome
#13
REVIEW
Helene F Rosenberg, Joanne C Masterson, Glenn T Furuta
There is currently substantial interest in the therapeutic properties of probiotic microorganisms as recent research suggests that oral administration of specific bacterial strains may reduce inflammation and alter the nature of endogenous microflora in the gastrointestinal tract. Eosinophils are multifunctional tissue leukocytes, prominent among the resident cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa that promote local immunity. Recent studies with genetically altered mice indicate that eosinophils not only participate in maintaining gut homeostasis, but that the absence of eosinophils may have significant impact on the nature of the endogenous gut microflora and responses to gut pathogens, notably Clostridium difficile Furthermore, in human subjects, there is an intriguing relationship between eosinophils, allergic inflammation, and the nature of the lung microflora, notably a distinct association between eosinophil infiltration and detection of bacteria of the phylum Actinobacteria...
November 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545738/eosinophilic-disorders-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#14
REVIEW
Samiullah, Hadi Bhurgri, Umair Sohail
Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders represent a spectrum of disorders demonstrating gastrointestinal eosinophilia without any known cause for eosinophilia. Pathogenesis is not clearly established, but immune responses to dietary antigens are implicated. These disorders affect children and adults and are seen in association with allergic disorders. Eosinophilic esophagitis is diagnosed in the setting of mucosal eosinophilia on endoscopic biopsy and symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is also diagnosed with endoscopic biopsies...
September 2016: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478819/the-utility-of-endoscopic-biopsies-in-patients-with-normal-upper-endoscopy
#15
Anouar Teriaky, Abdullah AlNasser, Carolyn McLean, James Gregor, Brian Yan
Background and Aims. Upper endoscopy is a valuable tool in the workup of gastrointestinal (GI) complaints. The purpose of this study is to determine cost and yield of taking biopsies in a normal upper GI tract. Methods. This is a retrospective study where all upper GI biopsies were identified between May 2012 and April 2013, at a tertiary care center. Clinical, procedural, and pathology reports were reviewed to identify patient demographics, procedure information, and pathology diagnosis. Results. Biopsies of the upper GI tract were taken in 1297 patients with normal upper endoscopies...
2016: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454603/inflammatory-fibroid-polyp-of-the-stomach-mimics-malignancy-on-18f-fdg-pet-ct-imaging
#16
Sabriye Sennur Bilgin, Mehmet Bilgin, Recep Savas, Ezgi Basak Erdogan
Inflammatory fibroid polyps (IFPs) are rare non-neoplastic and proliferating submucosal lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. The classic IFP, which was first described by Vanek, consists of prominent blood vessels and is characterized by a heavy inflammatory infiltrate, which is rich in eosinophilic granulocytes. The clinical presentation depends on the size and location. Inflammatory fibroid polyps cannot be differentiated from malignancy without histological examination. We report a case of IFP in the stomach that mimicked a primary gastric malignancy showing an increased F-FDG uptake...
September 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445346/regulation-and-dysregulation-of-esophageal-peristalsis-by-the-integrated-function-of-circular-and-longitudinal-muscle-layers-in-health-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Ravinder K Mittal
Muscularis propria throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract including the esophagus is comprised of circular and longitudinal muscle layers. Based on the studies conducted in the colon and the small intestine, for more than a century, it has been debated whether the two muscle layers contract synchronously or reciprocally during the ascending contraction and descending relaxation of the peristaltic reflex. Recent studies in the esophagus and colon prove that the two muscle layers indeed contract and relax together in almost perfect synchrony during ascending contraction and descending relaxation of the peristaltic reflex, respectively...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428817/anisakis-immunology-of-a-foodborne-parasitosis
#18
REVIEW
Natalie E Nieuwenhuizen
Anisakis species are marine nematodes which can cause zoonotic infection in humans if consumed in raw, pickled or undercooked fish and seafood. Infection with Anisakis is associated with abdominal pain, nausea and diarrhoea and can lead to massive infiltration of eosinophils and formation of granulomas in the gastrointestinal tract if the larvae are not removed. Re-infection leads to systemic allergic reactions such as urticarial or anaphylaxis in some individuals, making Anisakis an important source of hidden allergens in seafood...
September 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27393494/mast-cells-as-effector-cells-of-innate-immunity-and-regulators-of-adaptive-immunity
#19
Chiara Cardamone, Roberta Parente, Giulia De Feo, Massimo Triggiani
Mast cells are widely distributed in human organs and tissues and they are particularly abundant at major body interfaces with the external environment such as the skin, the lung and the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, mast cells are located around blood vessels and are highly represented within central and peripheral lymphoid organs. The strategic distribution of mast cells closely reflects the primary role of these cells in providing first-line defense against environmental dangers, in regulating local and systemic inflammatory reactions and in shaping innate and adaptive immune responses...
October 2016: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27382945/eosinophilic-gastroenteritis%C3%A2-brief-review
#20
REVIEW
H-M Shih, M-J Bair, H-L Chen, I-T Lin
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare disease which belongs to primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (primary EGIDs), characterized by an accumulation of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and is strongly associated with atopy and allergy. The clinical presentations vary depending on the site and depth of eosinophilic intestinal infiltration. Radiology pictures may show irregular thickening of the folds, but these findings can also be present in other conditions like inflammatory bowel disease and lymphoma...
April 2016: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
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