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Eosinophils in gastrointestinal tract

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533657/esophagitis-and-its-causes-who-is-guilty-when-acid-is-found-not-guilty
#1
EDITORIAL
Laurino Grossi, Antonio Francesco Ciccaglione, Leonardo Marzio
Esophagitis is mainly a consequence of gastroesophageal reflux disease, one of the most common diseases affecting the upper digestive tract. However the esophageal mucosa can also be targeted by some infectious, systemic or chemical conditions. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an immune-mediated inflammatory disease, characterized by eosinophilic infiltration in the mucosa. Esophageal localization of Crohn's disease is not very common, but it should always be considered in patients with inflammatory bowel disease complaining of upper digestive tract symptoms...
May 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502433/eosinophilic-gastrointestinal-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Lisa M Fahey, Chris A Liacouras
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an atopic disease that is characterized by an isolated infiltration of eosinophils into the epithelium of the esophagus and is triggered by specific allergens. Patients should undergo an upper endoscopy with biopsy after 6 to 8 weeks of treatment with a proton pump inhibitor in order to make the diagnosis of EoE. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a pathologic eosinophilic infiltration of any portion of the gastrointestinal tract, and eosinophilic proctocolitis is an eosinophilic infiltration in the colon alone...
June 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497923/ccr3-monoclonal-antibody-inhibits-eosinophilic-inflammation-and-mucosal-injury-in-a-mouse-model-of-eosinophilic-gastroenteritis
#3
Dae Jin Song, Mun Hee Shim, Nahyun Lee, Young Yoo, Ji Tae Choung
PURPOSE: Although the role of eosinophils in eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is not fully understood, they are believed to be a principal effector cell. Previous studies have demonstrated that eotaxin and its specific receptor, cysteine-cysteine chemokine receptor-3 (CCR3), play a central role in eosinophil trafficking into the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Thus, we examined the targeting of CCR3 as a potential therapeutic intervention for EGE in a mouse model. METHODS: Eight- to 10-week-old BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally sensitized and intragastrically challenged with ovalbumin (OVA)...
July 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390860/basophil-derived-interleukin-4-promotes-epicutaneous-antigen-sensitization-concomitant-with-the-development-of-food-allergy
#4
Maryam Hussain, Loïc Borcard, Kevin P Walsh, Maria Pena Rodriguez, Christoph Mueller, Brian S Kim, Masato Kubo, David Artis, Mario Noti
BACKGROUND: Exaggerated TSLP production and infiltration of basophils are associated with the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD), a recognized risk factor for the development of food allergies. While TSLP and basophils have been implicated to promote food-induced allergic disorders in response to epicutaneous sensitization, the mechanisms by which TSLP-elicited basophils guide the progression of allergic inflammation in the skin to distant mucosal sites such as the gastrointestinal tract are poorly understood...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370248/the-pathology-and-causes-of-tissue-eosinophilia-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#5
REVIEW
James R Conner, Richard Kirsch
Eosinophilic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract may occur as a primary eosinophilic disorder or as a secondary response to other causes. Primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs) are Th-2 mediated allergic diseases that overlap pathogenetically with atopic conditions involving other organs. Pathologic diagnosis of primary EGIDs can be challenging since the quantity of eosinophils considered "abnormal" is difficult to define, and the diagnosis, by definition, requires exclusion of the far more common secondary causes...
March 31, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338484/the-importance-of-biopsy-sampling-practices-in-the-pathologic-evaluation-of-gastrointestinal-disorders
#6
Nicole C Panarelli, Rhonda K Yantiss
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the literature regarding appropriate endoscopic sampling and surveillance protocols for common inflammatory diseases of the digestive tract. Gastroenterologists increasingly use endoscopy with mucosal biopsy to detect inflammatory diseases, assess response to therapy, and monitor for progression to dysplasia. RECENT FINDINGS: Many diseases show a patchy distribution in the digestive tract and there may be poor correlation between the endoscopic appearance and presence of histologic abnormalities...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299223/hematemesis-as-initial-presentation-in-a-10-week-old-infant-with-eosinophilic-gastroenteritis
#7
Varun Shetty, Kayla E Daniel, Anil Kesavan
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract resulting in a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms. There is currently a dearth of information on this topic in the pediatric literature, as very few cases have been reported. In this report, we present a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis in a 10-week-old patient with initial presenting symptom of hematemesis. To our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature and is unique in its initial presentation...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261032/eosinophilic-colitis-in-children
#8
Urszula Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk, Sabina Horowska-Ziaja, Maciej Kajor, Sabina Więcek, Wojciech Chlebowczyk, Halina Woś
INTRODUCTION: Eosinophilic colitis, which is a rare form of eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases, occurs as primary and secondary allergic eosinophilic colitis of the gastrointestinal tract infection, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and vasculitis. The diagnosis is based on a significant amount of eosinophils in the inflammatory infiltrate of the colon wall. AIM: To analyze the clinical picture taking into account comorbidities and endoscopic picture in children with eosinophilic colitis...
February 2017: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247277/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis-in-clinical-practice
#9
REVIEW
Yasuhiko Abe, Yu Sasaki, Makoto Yagi, Takao Yaoita, Shoichi Nishise, Yoshiyuki Ueno
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic and abnormal Th2 type immunological response characterized by intense eosinophilic inflammation localized within the esophagus. This leads to esophageal dysfunction and remodeling accompanied by subepithelial fibrosis. Recently, EoE has been recognized as one of the major causes of dysphagia or food impaction in adults. The prevalence of EoE has been increasing over the past several decades, particularly in Western countries. EoE should be differentiated from secondary esophageal eosinophilia (EE) in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and eosinophilic gastroenteritis, involving the entire gastrointestinal tract...
April 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226319/oral-and-sublingual-immunotherapy-potential-causes-for-eosinophilic-gastrointestinal-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Delara Babaie, Mehrnaz Mesdaghi, Makoto Nishino, Mahboubeh Mansouri, Motohiro Ebisawa
Food allergy is a common health problem worldwide, with increasing prevalence during recent decades. The only approved treatments for food allergy are food avoidance and administration of emergency medications in case of accidental exposure, which negatively affects patients' quality of life, so new treatments are highly desirable. Different food immunotherapy modalities have recently been used, with variable success rates in the induction of desensitization and tolerance, and different numbers and types of adverse reactions...
2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225494/a-unique-case-of-inflammatory-fibroid-polyp-in-the-duodenum-of-a-female-adolescent-case-report-and-literature-review
#11
REVIEW
Mauricio Giusti Calderon, Valéria Campos Caivano, Sauro Bagnaresi, José Ozório de Oliveira Lira, Rodrigo Daminello Raimundo, Luiz Carlos de Abreu, João Antonio Correa
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP) is a very rare benign condition in children that can occur throughout the gastrointestinal tract. It is characterized as a polypoid lesion originating in the submucosa, composed of connective tissue and eosinophilic infiltrate. It is most common in the stomach and in adults between the fifth and seventh decades of life. Its occurrence is unusual in the duodenum. CASE SUMMARY: One case of duodenal IFP was described and the literature is reviewed with emphasis on the clinical and pathological features of IFP in children...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220362/the-role-of-impedance-planimetry-in-the-evaluation-of-esophageal-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Nitin K Ahuja, John O Clarke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Impedance planimetry measures tissue wall distensibility as a function of pressure and cross-sectional area. Recent interest in this technique's relevance to the gastrointestinal tract has been accelerated by the availability of the functional lumen imaging probe, a catheter-based system that dynamically quantitates these biomechanical properties. Herein, we review the device's particular utility in the setting of esophageal pathology, including processes affecting the esophageal body as well as the upper and lower esophageal sphincters...
February 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131390/calpain-14-and-its-association-with-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#13
REVIEW
Vladislav A Litosh, Mark Rochman, Jeffrey K Rymer, Aleksey Porollo, Leah C Kottyan, Marc E Rothenberg
Calpains are a family of intracellular, calcium-dependent cysteine proteases involved in a variety of regulatory processes, including cytoskeletal dynamics, cell-cycle progression, signal transduction, gene expression, and apoptosis. These enzymes have been implicated in a number of disease processes, notably for this review involving eosinophilic tissue inflammation, such as eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), a chronic inflammatory disorder triggered by allergic hypersensitivity to food and associated with genetic variants in calpain 14 (CAPN14)...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119348/a-pragmatic-approach-to-vasculitis-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#14
REVIEW
Runjan Chetty, Stefano Serra
Although vasculitis involving the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is an uncommon occurrence, occasionally vasculitis can present as haemorrhagic infarction or ischaemia for which a length of bowel is removed. Invariably, the appropriate clinical history is not forthcoming, or vasculitis is not clinically suspected. The purpose of this overview is to provide the practising gastrointestinal (GI) pathologist with a framework to recognise and diagnose vasculitides within the GIT. The classification may be approached by aetiological agent or size of vessel involved; an international consensus group now favours the latter approach...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029282/assessment-of-eosinophil-peroxidase-as-a-potential-diagnostic-and-prognostic-marker-in-dogs-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Idil Bastan, Nicholas A Robinson, Xiao Na Ge, Aaron K Rendahl, Savita P Rao, Robert J Washabau, P Sriramarao
OBJECTIVE To evaluate a method for identifying intact and degranulated eosinophils in the small intestine of dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by use of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against eosinophil peroxidase (EPX). ANIMALS 11 untreated dogs with IBD, 5 dogs with IBD treated with prednisolone, and 8 control dogs with no clinical evidence of gastrointestinal tract disease and no immunosuppressive treatment. PROCEDURES 4-μm-thick sections of paraffin-embedded tissues from necropsy specimens were immunostained with EPX mAb...
January 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018451/eosinophilic-gastroenteritis-in-an-18-year-old-male-with-prolonged-nephrotic-syndrome
#16
Da Min Choi, Jung Eun Pyun, Hyung Eun Yim, Kee Hwan Yoo, Jung Ok Shim, Eun Jung Lee, Nam Hee Won
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare disease characterized by prominent eosinophilic tissue infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we report a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis in an 18-year-old patient with prolonged nephrotic syndrome who presented with abdominal pain and peripheral hypereosinophilia. During the previous 2 years, he had visited local Emergency Department several times because of epigastric pain and nausea. He had been treated with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome since 3 years of age...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956893/eosinophilic-disorders-of-the-gastro-intestinal-tract-an-update
#17
REVIEW
Erminia Ridolo, Valerie Melli, Gianluigi De' Angelis, Irene Martignago
Eosinophilic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE), are rare chronic pathologies of the digestive system, with an immuno-mediated pathogenesis. Recent data suggest that, together with the "classic" IgE-response to allergens, also a delayed hypersensitivity mechanism could be involved in the development of eosinophilic disorders. EoE and EGE were studied only in the latest decades and as a consequence accurate data are not yet available, concerning not only pathogenesis, but also epidemiology, treatment and outcomes...
2016: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843730/abdominal-pain-and-ascites-not-always-related-to-portal-hypertension
#18
Fredy Nehme, Gilbert Kisang, Michael Green, Nathan Tofteland
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract with an estimated prevalence of one in 100,000. The typical presentation consists of vague gastrointestinal symptoms with the mucosal involvement of the digestive system. Rarely, it presents as eosinophilic ascites. We report the case of a 22-year-old female who presented with acute onset abdominal pain and ascites. The laboratory studies were remarkable for eosinophilia and the ascitic fluid demonstrated high eosinophilic counts...
October 3, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750516/pathological-changes-seen-in-horses-in-new-zealand-grazing-mediterranean-tall-fescue-lolium-arundinaceum-infected-with-selected-endophytes-epichlo%C3%A3-coenophiala-causing-equine-fescue-oedema
#19
J S Munday, S C Finch, J B Vlaming, B L Sutherland, L R Fletcher
AIM: To investigate whether Mediterranean tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. (syn Festuca arundinacea)) infected with selected fungal endophytes (Epichloë coenophiala (formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum)) caused equine fescue oedema when grown in New Zealand, and to examine the pathological changes associated with this intoxication. METHODS: Horses were grazed on Mediterranean tall fescue that was infected with the endophytes AR542 (n=2), or AR584 (n=3), or Mediterranean tall fescue that was endophyte-free (n=2)...
November 6, 2016: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721930/eosinophilic-ascites-a-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-challenge
#20
Shefali Agrawal, Sandeep Vohra, Sangeeta Rawat, Vikas Kashyap
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. Depending on the dominant layer of infiltration it is classified into three types namely, mucosal, muscularis and subserosal. The most uncommon variant is the subserosal type characterized by primarily subserosal disease, eosinophilic ascites and peripheral hypereosinophilia. The clinical features are non-specific with history of atopic predisposition and allergy. Endoscopic biopsy is frequently non-diagnostic due to an uninvolved gastrointestinal mucosa rendering its diagnosis a challenge...
September 27, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
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