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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777952/the-opportunity-to-avoid-pain-may-paradoxically-increase-fear
#1
Christine M van Vliet, Ann Meulders, Linda M G Vancleef, Johan W S Vlaeyen
Fear-avoidance models propose that pain-related fear may spur avoidance behaviour leading to chronic pain disability. Pain-related fear elicits avoidance behaviour, which is typically aimed at reducing fear. We hypothesized that engaging in avoidance may (paradoxically) increase rather than decrease pain-related fear (i.e. bidirectionality hypothesis). In a between-subject design, participants (N=64) were randomly assigned to the avoidance group or the control group. Avoidance group participants were led to believe they could avoid full exposure to a painful heat stimulus by pressing the stop-button, while control group participants believed they were exposed to the full painful heat stimulus at all times...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777606/human-capital-and-self-entrepreneurship-the-concept-of-robbed-time
#2
Alessio Musio
The notions of ″human capital″ and ″self-entrepreneurship″ are by now widespread. The present work takes a critical look at their pervasive acceptance and stresses the self-exploitation to which they give rise. The concept of self-entrepreneurship needs to take into account, in fact, the nature of a revolution in temporal phenomenology. This revolution not only blurs the distinction between time dedicated to life and time dedicated to one's profession. It means that time spent on whatever is traditionally irrelevant to work is potentially time robbed from successful self-entrepreneurship...
May 2018: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777527/limiting-motor-skill-knowledge-via-incidental-training-protects-against-choking-under-pressure
#3
Taraz G Lee, Daniel E Acuña, Konrad P Kording, Scott T Grafton
The paradoxical harmful effects of motivation and incentives on skilled performance ("choking under pressure") are observed in a wide variety of motor tasks. Two theories of this phenomenon suggest that choking under pressure occurs due to maladaptive attention and top-down control, either through distraction away from the task or interference via an overreliance on controlled processing of a skilled task. A third theory, overmotivation (or overarousal), suggests that under pressure, "instinctive" or Pavlovian approach/withdrawal responses compete with the desired response...
May 18, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777127/paradoxical-cardiotoxicity-of-intraperitoneally-injected-epigallocatechin-gallate-preparation-in-diabetic-mice
#4
Nora O Abdel Rasheed, Lamiaa A Ahmed, Dalaal M Abdallah, Bahia M El-Sayeh
Numerous clinical and bioavailability studies addressed epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) beneficial effects; however, our previous work revealed EGCG-induced nephrotoxicity in the presence of diabetes. In this study, the potential myocardial toxicity of EGCG preparation (100 mg/kg/day, IP; 4 days) in diabetic mice injected with streptozotocin (STZ; 150 mg/kg, IP) was investigated. Diabetic mice receiving EGCG preparation showed electrocardiographic changes in addition to elevation of both serum creatine kinase-MB and troponin-I levels accompanied by microscopic myocardial damage...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774591/causal-estimands-and-confidence-intervals-associated-with-wilcoxon-mann-whitney-tests-in-randomized-experiments
#5
Michael P Fay, Erica H Brittain, Joanna H Shih, Dean A Follmann, Erin E Gabriel
Although the P value from a Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test is used often with randomized experiments, it is rarely accompanied with a causal effect estimate and its confidence interval. The natural parameter for the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test is the Mann-Whitney parameter, ϕ, which measures the probability that a randomly selected individual in the treatment arm will have a larger response than a randomly selected individual in the control arm (plus an adjustment for ties). We show that the Mann-Whitney parameter may be framed as a causal parameter and show that it is not equal to a closely related and nonidentifiable causal effect, ψ, the probability that a randomly selected individual will have a larger response under treatment than under control (plus an adjustment for ties)...
May 17, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773669/unresolved-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-engenders-immune-resistant-latent-pancreatic-cancer-metastases
#6
Arnaud Pommier, Naishitha Anaparthy, Nicoletta Memos, Z Larkin Kelley, Alizée Gouronnec, Ran Yan, Cédric Auffray, Jean Albrengues, Mikala Egeblad, Christine A Iacobuzio-Donahue, Scott K Lyons, Douglas T Fearon
The majority of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) develop metastatic disease after resection of their primary tumor. We found that livers from patients and mice with PDA harbor single, disseminated cancer cells (DCCs) lacking expression of cytokeratin-19 (CK19) and major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI). We created a mouse model to determine how these DCCs develop. Intra-portal injection of immunogenic PDA cells into pre-immunized mice seeded livers only with single, non-replicating DCCs that were CK19- and MHCI- The DCCs exhibited an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response but, paradoxically lacked both inositol-requiring enzyme 1α activation and expression of the spliced form of transcription factor XBP1 (XBP1s)...
May 17, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773645/the-hippo-pathway-effector-wwtr1-regulates-cardiac-wall-maturation-in-zebrafish
#7
Jason K H Lai, Michelle M Collins, Veronica Uribe, Vanesa Jiménez-Amilburu, Stefan Günther, Hans-Martin Maischein, Didier Y R Stainier
Cardiac trabeculation is a highly regulated process that starts with the delamination of compact layer cardiomyocytes. The Hippo signaling pathway has been implicated in cardiac development but many questions remain. We have investigated the role of Wwtr1, a nuclear effector of the Hippo pathway, in zebrafish and find that its loss leads to reduced cardiac trabeculation. However, in mosaic animals, wwtr1-/- cardiomyocytes contribute more frequently than wwtr1+/- cardiomyocytes to the trabecular layer of wild-type hearts...
May 17, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773280/-paradoxical-effects-of-biotherapies-a-misnomer
#8
EDITORIAL
D Jullien
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2018: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773149/paradoxical-effect-of-social-support-among-people-living-with-hiv-a-diary-study-investigating-the-buffering-hypothesis
#9
Marcin Rzeszutek, Ewa Gruszczyńska
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the buffering role of time-varying received and provided support in the relationship between stress and end-of-day mood among people living with HIV. In addition, the moderating role of intimate relationships in this buffering effect was verified. METHODS: The participants included 115 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of HIV infection. The data were collected using an online diary method. For five consecutive days (from Monday to Friday), participants completed an online time-stamped questionnaire in the evening to assess their end-of day-mood, stress related to a central hassle on any given day and social support that was received and provided...
June 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772762/paradoxical-effect-of-chloroquine-treatment-in-enhancing-chikungunya-virus-infection
#10
Pierre Roques, Simon-Djamel Thiberville, Laurence Dupuis-Maguiraga, Fok-Moon Lum, Karine Labadie, Frédéric Martinon, Gabriel Gras, Pierre Lebon, Lisa F P Ng, Xavier de Lamballerie, Roger Le Grand
Since 2005, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) re-emerged and caused numerous outbreaks in the world, and finally, was introduced into the Americas in 2013. The lack of CHIKV-specific therapies has led to the use of non-specific drugs. Chloroquine, which is commonly used to treat febrile illnesses in the tropics, has been shown to inhibit CHIKV replication in vitro. To assess the in vivo effect of chloroquine, two complementary studies were performed: (i) a prophylactic study in a non-human primate model (NHP); and (ii) a curative study "CuraChik", which was performed during the Reunion Island outbreak in 2006 in a human cohort...
May 17, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770806/a-place-of-many-names-how-three-generations-of-bedouin-women-express-the-meaning-of-home
#11
Nuzha Allassad Alhuzail
This article examines how three generations of Bedouin women in southern Israel express what home means to them through the names they give it: bayt , maskan , and dar . Home has always been significant in the lives of Bedouin women, but Bedouin society is undergoing major changes-culturally, socially, and in the form of settlement. The external form of the Bedouin home has changed, too, from a tent to a stone house, from an open structure to a closed one, from being part of the open space of the desert to being a limited space in a neighborhood...
2018: Journal of housing and the built environment: HBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770313/management-of-the-axilla-in-metaplastic-breast-carcinoma
#12
Brittany L Murphy, Robert T Fazzio, Tanya L Hoskin, Katrina N Glazebrook, Michael G Keeney, Elizabeth B Habermann, Tina J Hieken
Background: Metaplastic breast cancer (MBC), characterized by admixed epithelial, squamous or mesenchymal elements, constitutes <1% of breast cancers and has a poor prognosis but a paradoxically low reported rate of axillary lymph node (LN) involvement. Due to its rarity, data on appropriate axillary management is lacking, prompting this investigation of LN status and outcomes. Methods: We identified 41 MBC patients treated at our institution 2001-2011 who were followed for a median of 66 months...
April 2018: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769669/diverse-mechanisms-for-endogenous-regeneration-and-repair-in-mammalian-organs
#13
REVIEW
James M Wells, Fiona M Watt
Mammalian organs comprise an extraordinary diversity of cell and tissue types. Regenerative organs, such as the skin and gastrointestinal tract, use resident stem cells to maintain tissue function. Organs with a lower cellular turnover, such as the liver and lungs, mostly rely on proliferation of committed progenitor cells. In many organs, injury reveals the plasticity of both resident stem cells and differentiated cells. The ability of resident cells to maintain and repair organs diminishes with age, whereas, paradoxically, the risk of cancer increases...
May 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769645/nonlocal-position-changes-of-a-photon-revealed-by-quantum-routers
#14
Avshalom C Elitzur, Eliahu Cohen, Ryo Okamoto, Shigeki Takeuchi
Since its publication, Aharonov and Vaidman's three-box paradox has undergone three major advances: i). A non-counterfactual scheme by the same authors in 2003 with strong rather than weak measurements for verifying the particle's subtle presence in two boxes. ii) A realization of the latter by Okamoto and Takeuchi in 2016. iii) A dynamic version by Aharonov et al. in 2017, with disappearance and reappearance of the particle. We now combine these advances together. Using photonic quantum routers the particle acts like a quantum "shutter...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769354/allele-specific-alterations-in-the-peptidome-underlie-the-joint-association-of-hla-a-29-02-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-aminopeptidase-2-erap2-with-birdshot-chorioretinopathy
#15
Alejandro Sanz-Bravo, Adrian Martin-Esteban, Jonas J W Kuiper, Marina García-Peydró, Eilon Barnea, Arie Admon, José A López de Castro
Virtually all patients of the rare inflammatory eye disease birdshot chorioretinopathy (BSCR) carry the HLA-A*29:02 allele. BSCR is also associated with endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 2 (ERAP2), an enzyme involved in processing HLA class I ligands, thus implicating the A*29:02 peptidome in this disease. To investigate the relationship between both risk factors we employed label-free quantitative mass spectrometry to characterize the effects of ERAP2 on the A*29:02-bound peptidome. An ERAP2-negative cell line was transduced with lentiviral constructs containing GFP-ERAP2 or GFP alone, and the A*29:02 peptidomes from both transduced cells were compared...
May 16, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769245/pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway-and-the-biphasic-effect-of-arsenic-in-carcinogenesis
#16
Qiao Yi Chen, Max Costa
Arsenic is a naturally occurring ubiquitous metalloid found in the Earth's crust. In its inorganic form, Arsenic is highly toxic and carcinogenic, and is widely found across the globe and through out the environment. As an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) defined Class I human carcinogen, arsenic has been found to cause multiple human cancers including liver, lung, urinary bladder, skin, kidney, and prostate. Mechanisms of arsenic-induced carcinogenesis remain elusive and this review specifically focuses on the role of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in promoting cancer development...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768438/survival-in-patients-on-hemodialysis-effect-of-gender-according-to-body-mass-index-and-creatinine
#17
Jeung-Min Park, Jong-Hak Lee, Hye Min Jang, Yeongwoo Park, Yon Su Kim, Shin-Wook Kang, Chul Woo Yang, Nam-Ho Kim, Eugene Kwon, Hyun-Ji Kim, Ji-Eun Lee, Hee-Yeon Jung, Ji-Young Choi, Sun-Hee Park, Chan-Duck Kim, Jang-Hee Cho, Yong-Lim Kim
BACKGROUND: The association of a higher body mass index (BMI) with better survival is a well-known "obesity paradox" in patients on hemodialysis (HD). However, men and women have different body compositions, which could impact the effect of BMI on mortality. We investigated the effect of gender on the obesity-mortality relationship in Korean patients on HD. METHODS: This study included 2,833 maintenance patients on HD from a multicenter prospective cohort study in Korea (NCT00931970)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766672/ribcage-deformity-and-the-altered-breathing-pattern-in-children-with-osteogenesis-imperfecta
#18
Antonella LoMauro, Paolo Fraschini, Simona Pochintesta, Marianna Romei, Maria G D'Angelo, Andrea Aliverti
AIM: Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disease characterized by bones fragility and progressive deformity. Life expectancy is reduced in the non-lethal most severe type III form before the age of 10 years. The main cause of death in OI is respiratory insufficiency resulting from impaired thoracic function worsened by ribcage deformity and scoliosis. METHODS: We used opto-electronic plethysmography to study chest geometry, the ventilatory, and the thoraco-abdominal pattern at rest in supine position in children younger than 10 years...
May 15, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766649/lysyl-oxidase-a-colorectal-cancer-biomarker-of-lung-and-hepatic-metastasis
#19
Yun Liu, Guanghui Wang, Zhonglin Liang, Zubing Mei, Tingyu Wu, Ang Cui, Chenying Liu, Long Cui
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common and lethal disease in which distant metastasis remains the primary cause of death. Paradoxical roles of LOX have been reported in CRC, and the intracellular function of LOX has also recently been determined. Correlations of LOX expression and its intracellular localization with clinicopathological features in CRC patients remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore the potential roles of LOX in CRC. METHODS: LOX messenger RNA expression was assayed by quantitative PCR in eight paired normal mucosa and tumor tissues...
May 15, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765602/protein-crystal-lattices-are-dynamic-assemblies-the-role-of-conformational-entropy-in-the-protein-condensed-phase
#20
Margarita Dimova, Yancho D Devedjiev
Until recently, the occurrence of conformational entropy in protein crystal contacts was considered to be a very unlikely event. A study based on the most accurately refined protein structures demonstrated that side-chain conformational entropy and static disorder might be common in protein crystal lattices. The present investigation uses structures refined using ensemble refinement to show that although paradoxical, conformational entropy is likely to be the major factor in the emergence and integrity of the protein condensed phase...
March 1, 2018: IUCrJ
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