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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105868/why-are-older-people-often-so-responsible-and-considerate-even-when-their-future-seems-limited-a-systematic-review
#1
Simon A Moss, Samuel G Wilson
Socioemotional selectivity theory assumes that older individuals tend to perceive their identity or life as limited in time and, therefore, prioritize meaningful relationships. Yet, other research shows that people who perceive their identity as limited in time tend to behave impulsively-contrary to the behavior of many older individuals. To redress this paradox, this article reports a systematic review, comprising 86 papers, that examined the consequences of whether individuals perceive their identity as limited or enduring...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104924/the-adaptive-nature-of-culture-a-cross-cultural-analysis-of-the-returns-of-local-environmental-knowledge-in-three-indigenous-societies
#2
Victoria Reyes-García, Maximilien Guèze, Isabel Díaz-Reviriego, Romain Duda, Álvaro Fernández-Llamazares, Sandrine Gallois, Lucentezza Napitupulu, Martí Orta-Martínez, Aili Pyhälä
Researchers have argued that the behavioral adaptations that explain the success of our species are partially cultural, i.e., cumulative and socially transmitted. Thus, understanding the adaptive nature of culture is crucial to understand human evolution. We use a cross-cultural framework and empirical data purposely collected to test whether culturally transmitted and individually appropriated knowledge provides individual returns in terms of hunting yields and health and, by extension, to nutritional status, a proxy for individual adaptive success...
December 2016: Current Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104722/paradoxical-insomnia-in-a-patient-taking-zopiclone
#3
Adam Abba-Aji, Prajjita Bardoloi
We present a case of a man aged 20 years who was diagnosed with a major depressive disorder and was started on escitalopram and zopiclone. The patient had a significant response to escitalopram except that he developed severe insomnia which dramatically resolved following discontinuation of zopiclone. The patient was recommenced on low dose of zopiclone and unfortunately redeveloped moderate insomnia. The patient was thoroughly investigated and zopiclone was determined to have paradoxically caused the insomnia...
January 19, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103268/direct-observation-of-enhanced-nitric-oxide-in-a-murine-model-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#4
Margien G S Boels, Ernst E H van Faassen, M Cristina Avramut, Johan van der Vlag, Bernard M van den Berg, Ton J Rabelink
Uncoupling of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) secondary to redox signaling is a central mechanism in endothelial and macrophage activation. To date studies on the production of nitric oxide (NO) during the development of diabetic complications show paradoxical results. We previously showed that recoupling eNOS by increasing the eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) could restore endothelial function and prevent kidney injury in experimental kidney transplantation. Here, we employed a diabetic mouse model to investigate the effects of diabetes on renal tissue NO bioavailability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102022/the-flavonoid-7-4-dihydroxyflavone-prevents-dexamethasone-paradoxical-adverse-effect-on-eotaxin-production-by-human-fibroblasts
#5
Changda Liu, Nan Yang, Xiaoke Chen, Jody Tversky, Jixun Zhan, Mirna Chehade, Rachel L Miller, Xiu-Min Li
Eotaxin/CCL-11 is a major chemoattractant that contributes to eosinophilic inflammation in asthma. Glucocorticoids inhibit inflammation, but long-time exposure may cause paradoxical adverse effects by augmenting eotaxin/CCL-11production. The aim of this study was to determine if 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone (7,4'-DHF), the eotaxin/CCL11 inhibitor isolated from Glycyrrhiza uralensis, reduces in vitro eotaxin production induced by long-time dexamethasone (Dex) exposure, and if so, to elucidate the mechanisms of this inhibition...
January 19, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101110/the-best-age-for-pregnancy-and-undue-pressures
#6
Carlo Bellieni
In western countries we assist at the paradox that fertility is socially discouraged by a mindset that depicts fertility as a resource to exploit as late as possible. So, couples have high expectative about the advantages of delayed parenthood, but they are scarcely informed about its risks. Scientific data suggests to anticipate the first pregnancy, but social pressures impose to wait, though delayed childbearing can provoke sterility and a greater gap between generations. The best age to become parents should be autonomously decided by a couple, under the condition of being a free informed choice and not a social imposition, but currently this is not guaranteed to western women and men...
September 2016: Journal of Family & Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101021/late-onset-multiple-self-healing-squamous-epithelioma-ferguson-smith-recurrence-induced-by-radiotherapy
#7
Laurence Feldmeyer, Ildiko Szeverényi, Michèle Mandallaz, E Birgit Lane, Daniel Hohl
We report the case of a woman in her 60s with confirmed multiple self-healing squamous epitheliomas (MSSE) Ferguson-Smith. After recurrences following surgery and radiotherapy, the patient was successfully treated with minimal surgical intervention combined with intralesional injections of triamcinolone acetate. The histological comparison between mature and regressed keratoacanthomas (KA) revealed an increased inflammatory infiltrate with numerous plasmacytoid dendritic cells in the regressed KA in comparison to the mature one, speaking in favor of an inflammation-mediated regression process...
September 2016: Case Reports in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100903/rhodoccocus-equi-pneumonia-and-paradoxical-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome-aids
#8
Ritika Zijoo, Ahmed Dirweesh, Nigahus Karabulut
BACKGROUND Pulmonary infections are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and can progress rapidly to respiratory failure and death without appropriate therapy. Herein, we present a rare case of an advanced HIV infection and Rhodoccocus equi (R. equi) pneumonia in a young male who had severe paradoxical immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). CASE REPORT A 47-year-old nonsmoking Hispanic man with advanced HIV infection presented with severe acute necrotizing pneumonia secondary to R...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100880/significant-association-of-serum-adiponectin-and-creatine-kinase-mb-levels-in-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#9
Tomoaki Natsukawa, Norikazu Maeda, Shiro Fukuda, Masaya Yamaoka, Yuya Fujishima, Hirofumi Nagao, Fumi Sato, Hitoshi Nishizawa, Hirotaka Sawano, Yasuyuki Hayashi, Tohru Funahashi, Tatsuro Kai, Iichiro Shimomura
AIMS: Adiponectin, an adipocyte-specific secretory protein, abundantly exists in the blood stream while its concentration paradoxically decreases in obesity. Hypoadiponectinemia is one of risks of cardiovascular diseases. However, impact of serum adiponectin concentration on acute ischemic myocardial damages has not been fully clarified. The present study investigated the association of serum adiponectin and creatine kinase (CK)-MB levels in subjects with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100744/compensatory-activation-of-cannabinoid-cb2-receptor-inhibition-of-gaba-release-in-the-rostral-ventromedial-medulla-in-inflammatory-pain
#10
Ming-Hua Li, Katherine L Suchland, Susan L Ingram
: The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) is a relay in the descending pain modulatory system and an important site of endocannabinoid modulation of pain. Endocannabinoids inhibit GABA release in the RVM, but it is not known whether this effect persists in chronic pain states. In the present studies, persistent inflammation induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) increased GABAergic miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs). Endocannabinoid activation of cannabinoid (CB1) receptors known to inhibit presynaptic GABA release was significantly reduced in the RVM of CFA-treated rats compared with naive rats...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100591/dynamics-and-fate-of-beneficial-mutations-under-lineage-contamination-by-linked-deleterious-mutations
#11
Sophie Pénisson, Tanya Singh, Paul Sniegowski, Philip Gerrish
Beneficial mutations drive adaptive evolution, yet their selective advantage does not ensure their fixation. Haldane's application of single-type branching process theory showed that genetic drift alone could cause the extinction of newly-arising beneficial mutations with high probability. With linkage, deleterious mutations will affect the dynamics of beneficial mutations and might further increase their extinction probability. Here, we model the lineage dynamics of a newly-arising beneficial mutation as a multitype branching process...
January 18, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100589/meiotic-consequences-of-genetic-divergence-across-the-murine-pseudoautosomal-region
#12
Beth L Dumont
The production of haploid gametes during meiosis is dependent on the homology-driven processes of pairing, synapsis, and recombination. On the mammalian heterogametic sex chromosomes, these key meiotic activities are confined to the pseudoautosomal region (PAR), a short region of near-perfect sequence homology between the X and Y chromosomes. Despite its established importance for meiosis, the PAR is rapidly evolving, raising the question of how proper X/Y segregation is buffered against the accumulation of homology-disrupting mutations...
January 18, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100429/right-ventricular-function-measured-by-tapse-in-obese-subjects-at-the-time-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-and-2year-outcomes
#13
Yaser S Alhamshari, Talal Alnabelsi, Ramzi Mulki, Beatriz Cepeda-Valery, Vincent M Figueredo, Abel Romero-Corral
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is associated with significantly better outcome after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), a phenomenon known as 'obesity paradox'. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) is an echocardiographic measurement of right ventricular (RV) function and has prognostic implications at the time of AMI. METHODS: We examined the difference in RV function among patients admitted with AMI according to obesity status. In a single center cohort analysis of 105 patients admitted between 2010 and 2011 with the diagnosis of AMI...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100227/prenatal-and-postnatal-mothering-by-diesel-exhaust-pm2-5-exposed-dams-differentially-program-mouse-energy-metabolism
#14
Minjie Chen, Shuai Liang, Huifen Zhou, Yanyi Xu, Xiaobo Qin, Ziying Hu, Xiaoke Wang, Lianglin Qiu, Wanjun Wang, Yuhao Zhang, Zhekang Ying
BACKGROUND: Obesity is one of the leading threats to global public health. It is consequent to abnormal energy metabolism. Currently, it has been well established that maternal exposure to environmental stressors that cause inappropriate fetal development may have long-term adverse effects on offspring energy metabolism in an exposure timing-dependent manner, known as developmental programming of health and diseases paradigm. Rapidly increasing evidence has indicated that maternal exposure to ambient fine particles (PM2...
January 18, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099441/puma-and-nf-kb-are-cell-signaling-predictors-of-reovirus-oncolysis-of-breast-cancer
#15
Chandini Thirukkumaran, Zhong-Qiao Shi, Ponnampalam Thirukkumaran, Joanne Luider, Karen Kopciuk, Jason Spurrell, Kate Elzinga, Don Morris
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Reovirus is a ubiquitous RNA virus that exploits aberrant signaling pathways for its replication. The oncolytic potential of reovirus against numerous cancers under pre-clinical/clinical conditions has been documented by us and others. Despite its proven clinical activity, the underlying mechanisms of reovirus oncolysis is still not well elucidated. If reovirus therapy is to be optimized for cancer, including breast cancer patients, it is imperative to understand the mechanisms of reovirus oncolysis, especially in treatment of resistant tumour...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099246/paradoxical-emergence-administration-of-subanesthetic-ketamine-during-isoflurane-anesthesia-induces-burst-suppression-but-accelerates-recovery
#16
Viviane S Hambrecht-Wiedbusch, Duan Li, George A Mashour
BACKGROUND: Promoting arousal by manipulating certain brain regions and/or neurotransmitters has been a recent research focus, with the goal of trying to improve recovery from general anesthesia. The current study tested the hypothesis that a single subanesthetic dose of ketamine during isoflurane anesthesia would increase cholinergic tone in the prefrontal cortex and accelerate recovery. METHODS: Adult male rats were implanted with electroencephalography electrodes (frontal, parietal, and occipital cortex) and a microdialysis guide cannula targeted for the prefrontal cortex...
January 18, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099207/could-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-predict-increased-cardiovascular-risk
#17
Tae Ik Chang, Elani Streja, Hamid Moradi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is considered to be protective against cardiovascular disease. However, there is emerging evidence that under certain conditions the HDL molecule can become dysfunctional and proinflammatory, paradoxically leading to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This review will provide a brief outline of the potential mechanisms by which HDL can become atherogenic and summarize some of the clinical evidence on this topic. RECENT FINDINGS: HDL metabolism, structure, and function in addition to its level can be profoundly altered under conditions of marked oxidative stress and chronic inflammation...
January 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099106/costing-in-radiology-and-health-care-rationale-relativity-rudiments-and-realities
#18
Geoffrey D Rubin
Costs direct decisions that influence the effectiveness of radiology in the care of patients on a daily basis. Yet many radiologists struggle to harness the power of cost measurement and cost management as a critical path toward establishing their value in patient care. When radiologists cannot articulate their value, they risk losing control over how imaging is delivered and supported. In the United States, recent payment trends directing value-based payments for bundles of care advance the imperative for radiology providers to articulate their value...
February 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099082/therapeutics-targeting-drivers-of-thoracic-aortic-aneurysms-and-acute-aortic-dissections-insights-from-predisposing-genes-and-mouse-models
#19
Dianna M Milewicz, Siddharth K Prakash, Francesco Ramirez
Thoracic aortic diseases, including aneurysms and dissections of the thoracic aorta, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Risk factors for thoracic aortic disease include increased hemodynamic forces on the ascending aorta, typically due to poorly controlled hypertension, and heritable genetic variants. The altered genes predisposing to thoracic aortic disease either disrupt smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction or adherence to an impaired extracellular matrix, or decrease canonical transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling...
January 14, 2017: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098775/mammary-gland-involution-provides-a-unique-model-to-study-the-tgf-%C3%AE-cancer-paradox
#20
REVIEW
Qiuchen Guo, Courtney Betts, Nathan Pennock, Elizabeth Mitchell, Pepper Schedin
Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) signaling in cancer has been termed the "TGF-β paradox", acting as both a tumor suppresser and promoter. The complexity of TGF-β signaling within the tumor is context dependent, and greatly impacted by cellular crosstalk between TGF-β responsive cells in the microenvironment including adjacent epithelial, endothelial, mesenchymal, and hematopoietic cells. Here we utilize normal, weaning-induced mammary gland involution as a tissue microenvironment model to study the complexity of TGF-β function...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
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