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Carlos Fernandez-Patron, Zamaneh Kassiri, Dickson Leung
Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is a 72-kDa zinc- and calcium-dependent endopeptidase with intracellular and extracellular functions ranging from the modulation of extracellular matrix remodeling to cell growth and migration, angiogenesis, inflammation, and metabolism. An upregulation of MMP-2 activity has the potential to deregulate lipid metabolism through the cleavage of numerous metabolic mediators including plasma lipoproteins and cell surface receptors of lipoproteins. Paradoxically, MMP-2 deficiency induces inflammation and deregulates metabolism...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Marc B Anglès d'Auriac
Avoiding complementarity between primers when designing a PCR assay constitutes a central rule strongly anchored in the mind of the molecular scientist. 3'-complementarity will extend the primers during PCR elongation using one another as template, consequently disabling further possible involvement in traditional target amplification. However, a 5'-complementarity will leave the primers unchanged during PCR cycles, albeit sequestered to one another, therefore also suppressing target amplification. We show that 5'-complementarity between primers may be exploited in a new PCR method called COMplementary-Primer-Asymmetric (COMPAS)-PCR, using asymmetric primer concentrations to achieve target PCR amplification...
2016: PloS One
Nathalie A Bogaards, Menno A de Rie
INTRODUCTION: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors are widely used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. One of the side effects of TNF-inhibitors is the development of a psoriatiform eruption, also known as paradoxical psoriasis. In this case report, we describe a patient with this side effect after treatment with adalimumab and etanercept. CASE REPORT: A 45-year-old female was treated with adalimumab 40 mg once every 2 weeks for pustulosis palmoplantaris and psoriatic arthritis...
October 25, 2016: Dermatology and Therapy
H Wan, S Wu, J Wang, Y Yang, J Zhu, X Shao, B Huang, H Zhang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: High body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased incident atrial fibrillation (AF) and mortality rate. In patients presenting with nonvalvular AF (NVAF), the prognostic relevance of BMI remains unclear. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In this prospective observational study, a total of 1759 patients with NVAF (69.9±12.9 years old, 47.9% male) were divided into three clinical settings according to estimated stroke risks (CHADS2 score ⩽1 (low), =2 (moderate) and ⩾3 (high))...
October 26, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Raya Al Maskari, Yasmin, S Cleary, Nikki Figg, Sarju Mehta, Doris Rassl, Ian Wilkinson, Kevin M O'Shaughnessy
Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder with a range of cardiovascular, skeletal, craniofacial and cutaneous manifestations. LDS type 4 is caused by mutations in TGFβ ligand 2 (TGFB2) and based on the family pedigrees described to date, appears to have a milder clinical phenotype, often presenting with isolated aortic disease. We sought to investigate its molecular basis in a new pedigree. We identified a missense variant p.(Arg320Cys) (NM_003238.3) in a highly evolutionary conserved region of TGFB2 in a new LDS type 4 pedigree with multiple cases of aortic aneurysms and dissections...
October 26, 2016: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Benjamin Mason Meier, Averi Chakrabarti
The Kingdom of Bhutan is seeking to progressively realize the human right to health without addressing the cross-cutting human rights principles essential to a rights-based approach to health. Through a landscape analysis of the Bhutanese health system, documentary review of Bhutanese reporting to the United Nations human rights system, and semi-structured interviews with health policymakers in Bhutan, this study examines the normative foundations of Bhutan's focus on "a more meaningful purpose for development than just mere material satisfaction...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
Gitau Mburu, Enrique Restoy, Evaline Kibuchi, Paula Holland, Anthony D Harries
Adherence to treatment is a key element for global TB control. Public health laws can be used to enforce isolation, adherence, and completion of TB treatment. However, the practical application of public health laws can potentially range from voluntary measures to involuntary detention approaches. This paper explores the potential risks and impacts of using detention approaches to enforce TB treatment adherence. In August 2015, we conducted a literature search regarding the application of public health laws to enforce adherence to TB treatment globally, and specifically in Kenya...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
Elizabeth H Bradley, Heather Sipsma, Lauren A Taylor
BACKGROUND: for decades, U.S. taxpayers have been lamenting the high cost of health care. Since the mid-1980s, Americans have had double-digit spending on health care. Despite this investment, Americans are less healthy than their European and Scandinavian counterparts across an array of health measures. AIM: We sought to explore how inadequate attention to the social, behavioral, and environmental determinants of health may contribute to the American health care paradox of high health care spending and poor health outcomes...
October 24, 2016: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Xu Zhang, Yu Gao, Hongzhao Li, Xin Ma, Yang Fan, Dong Ni, Yu Zhang, Qingbo Huang, Kan Liu, Xin-Tao Li, Lei Wang, Liang-You Gu, Yuanxin Yao, Qing Ai, Qingshan Du, Erlin Song
The transcription factor KLF6 has an essential role in the development and metastasis of multiple human cancers. Paradoxically, KLF6 expression was found to be attenuated in primary metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), such that it is unclear how KLF6 affects malignant progression in this setting. In this study, we demonstrate that KLF6 attenuation in renal cells is sufficient to promote E2F1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastatic prowess. In a mouse xenograft model of human ccRCC, silencing KLF6 increased tumor cell proliferation and malignant character, whereas E2F1 silencing reversed these properties...
October 25, 2016: Cancer Research
Wenying Liao, Duncan N L Menge
Symbiotic nitrogen (N) fixation is the major N input to many ecosystems. Although temperate forests are commonly N limited, symbiotic N-fixing trees ("N fixers") are rare and decline in abundance as succession proceeds-a challenging paradox that remains unexplained. Understanding demographic processes that underlie N fixers' rarity and successional decline would provide a proximate answer to the paradox. Do N fixers grow slower, die more frequently, or recruit less in temperate forests? We quantified demographic rates of N-fixing and non-fixing trees across succession using U...
2016: PloS One
Sean James Fallon, Marieke E van der Schaaf, Niels Ter Huurne, Roshan Cools
A balance has to be struck between supporting distractor-resistant representations in working memory and allowing those representations to be updated. Catecholamine, particularly dopamine, transmission has been proposed to modulate the balance between the stability and flexibility of working memory representations. However, it is unclear whether drugs that increase catecholamine transmission, such as methylphenidate, optimize this balance in a task-dependent manner or bias the system toward stability at the expense of flexibility (or vice versa)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
François Seghers, Xavier Yerna, Nadège Zanou, Olivier Devuyst, Rudi Vennekens, Bernd Nilius, Philippe Gailly
The renin - angiotensin system is a crucial blood pressure regulation system. It consists of a hormonal cascade where the rate-limiting enzyme is renin, which is secreted in blood flow by renal juxtaglomerular (JG) cells in response to low pressure in the renal afferent arteriole. In contrast, an increase in blood pressure results in a decreased renin secretion. This is accompanied by a transitory increase in [Ca(2+) ]i of JG cells. The inverse relationship between [Ca(2+) ]i and renin secretion has been called the "calcium paradox" of renin release...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Liliana Belmonte, Najate Achamrah, Séverine Nobis, Charlène Guérin, Gaëtan Riou, Christine Bôle-Feysot, Olivier Boyer, Vincent Richard, Jean Claude Do Rego, Pierre Déchelotte, Alexis Goichon, Moïse Coëffier
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with low-grade systemic inflammation and altered gut microbiota. However, the molecular origin of the inflammation remains unknown. Toll-like receptors are key regulators of innate immune response and their activation seems also to be involved in the control of food intake. We used activity-based anorexia (ABA) model to investigate the role of TLR4 and its contribution in anorexia-associated low-grade inflammation. Here, we found that ABA affected early the intestinal inflammatory status and the hypothalamic response...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Masato Matsushita, Akihiro Shirakabe, Noritake Hata, Takuro Shinada, Nobuaki Kobayashi, Kazunori Tomita, Masafumi Tsurumi, Hirotake Okazaki, Yoshiya Yamamoto, Kuniya Asai, Wataru Shimizu
Obesity is known to be associated with the development of heart failure (HF). However, the relationship between the body mass index (BMI) and acute HF (AHF) remains to be elucidated. Eight hundred and eight AHF patients were enrolled in this study. The patients were assigned to four groups according to their BMI values: severely thin (n = 11, BMI <16), normal/underweight (n = 579, 16 ≤ BMI <25), overweight (n = 178, 25 ≤ BMI <30) and obese (n = 40, BMI ≥30). The patients in the severely thin group were more likely to be female, have systolic blood pressure (SBP) <100 mmHg and have valvular disease than normal/underweight patients...
October 24, 2016: Heart and Vessels
Rebecca J Lester
This paper reflects upon questions of ontological contingency when the stark, visceral reality of a person's relentless self-destruction unfolds within institutional mechanisms that systematically withhold certain kinds of care. I consider these issues through the lens of "manipulation" as it is elaborated within an American eating disorders treatment center, where the notion of manipulation does particular kinds of affective and pragmatic work. Specifically, it serves to render clients as, paradoxically, both hyper-agentic and "agentically challenged" in ways that legitimate the withholding of their recognition as full subjects and therefore deserving of care...
October 24, 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
S Bacha, M Khemiri, H Racil, S Hantous, N Chaouch, S Cheikhrouhou, A Chabbou, M L Megdiche
INTRODUCTION: The features of paradoxical reactions (PR) that occurred in non-HIV infected patients are rare and not well known. CASE REPORT: The authors reported the case of a 21years old, non-immunocompromised, and HIV negative patient treated for disseminated tuberculosis. PR occurred after 8months after initiation of antituberculous treatment. PR presented as left cervical lymphadenopathy, pulmonary, pleural, costal and spinal location of the tuberculosis. The antituberculous drugs were prolonged...
October 21, 2016: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
T Jean M Arseneau-Robar, Eliane Müller, Anouk L Taucher, Carel P van Schaik, Erik P Willems
Males in a number of group-living species fight in intergroup conflicts to defend access to food resources, a seemingly paradoxical behaviour, given that this resource does not usually limit male fitness directly. We investigated the mechanism(s) driving apparent male food defence in wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops pygerythrus) by testing the effect that female resource access, and female audience size and activity had on the response of focal males during simulated intergroup encounters. Males do not appear to defend food to increase the reproductive success of female group members because their response was not influenced by the presence of provisioning boxes that only females could access...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Geoffrey Blondelle, Mathieu Hainselin, Yannick Gounden, Laurent Heurley, Hélène Voisin, Olga Megalakaki, Estelle Bressous, Véronique Quaglino
BACKGROUND: Regularity effect can affect performance in prospective memory (PM), but little is known on the cognitive processes linked to this effect. Moreover, its impacts with regard to aging remain unknown. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine regularity effect in PM in a lifespan perspective, with a sample of young, intermediate, and older adults. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Our study examined the regularity effect in PM in three groups of participants: 28 young adults (18-30), 16 intermediate adults (40-55), and 25 older adults (65-80)...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
Eliza Pelrine, Sara Diana Pasik, Leyla Bayat, Debora Goldschmiedt, Elizabeth P Bauer
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely prescribed to treat anxiety and depression, yet they paradoxically increase anxiety during initial treatment. Acute administration of these drugs prior to learning can also enhance Pavlovian cued fear conditioning. This potentiation has been previously reported to depend upon the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Here, using temporary inactivation, we confirmed that the BNST is not necessary for the acquisition of cued or contextual fear memory...
October 20, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Cristina Mendes de Oliveira, José Eduardo Levi
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the etiologic agents of cervical cancer, the unique human neoplasia that has one single necessary cause. The diversity of HPVs is well described, with 200 HPV types existing as distinct taxonomic units and each receiving an Arabic number. On a clinical basis, they are usually grouped by their site of occurrence and disease associations. Those types inhabiting the anogenital mucosa are more intensively studied and further divided into cancer-associated HPVs, which are termed 'high risk', while those linked to benign proliferative lesions are assigned as 'low risk'...
October 22, 2016: Acta Cytologica
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