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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742507/severe-neurological-abnormalities-in-a-young-boy-with-impaired-thyroid-hormone-sensitivity-due-to-a-novel-mutation-in-the-mct8-gene
#1
Teresa Rego, Carmen Gomez Lado, Paloma Cabanas Rodríguez, Francisco Sousa Santos, Francisco Barros Angueira, Lidia Castro-Feijóo, Jesús Barreiro Conde, Manuel Castro-Gago
Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is an active and specific thyroid hormone transporter into neurons. MCT8 mutations cause an X-linked condition known as Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome and are characterized by impaired psychomotor development and typical abnormal thyroid function. We describe a 10-year-old boy with severe cognitive disability, axial hypotonia, spastic quadriplegia and sporadic dyskinetic episodes. He initially presented with thyroid dysfunction (high FT3, low rT3, low FT4 and normal TSH) and generalized retardation of the cerebral and cerebellar myelination in brain magnetic resonance imaging...
April 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742216/the-fetuses-at-risk-approach-survival-analysis-from-a-fetal-perspective
#2
K S Joseph, Michael S Kramer
Several phenomena in contemporary perinatology create challenges for analyzing pregnancy outcomes. These include recent increases in iatrogenic delivery at late preterm and early term gestation which are incongruent with the belief that stillbirth and neonatal death risk decrease exponentially with advancing gestational age. Perinatal epidemiologists have also puzzled over the paradox of intersecting birth weight- and gestational age-specific perinatal mortality curves for decades. For example, neonatal mortality rates among preterm infants of women who smoke are substantially lower than neonatal mortality rates among preterm infants of non-smoking women, whereas the reverse pattern occurs at term gestation...
July 25, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740820/compared-to-high-and-low-cannabis-use-moderate-use-is-associated-with-fewer-cognitive-deficits-in-psychosis
#3
Ashley M Schnakenberg Martin, Kelsey A Bonfils, Beshaun J Davis, Elizabeth A Smith, Kelly Schuder, Paul H Lysaker
Literature on the relationship of cannabis use and cognition in schizophrenia provides the paradoxical view that cannabis use is sometimes linked with less severe impairment in neurocognition. This paper explored the possibility that this is a reflection of a dose related response between lifetime cannabis use and two forms of cognition, neurocognition and metacognition, in schizophrenia. It was hypothesized that three groups of patients could be differentiated, those with (1) little to no cannabis use with poor levels of cognition, (2) moderate cannabis use and relatively better levels of cognition and (3) high cannabis use with relatively poorer levels of cognition...
December 2016: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740753/a-laid-back-trip-through-the-hennigian-forests
#4
Evgeny V Mavrodiev, Christopher Dell, Laura Schroder
BACKGROUND: This paper is a comment on the idea of matrix-free Cladistics. Demonstration of this idea's efficiency is a major goal of the study. Within the proposed framework, the ordinary (phenetic) matrix is necessary only as "source" of Hennigian trees, not as a primary subject of the analysis. Switching from the matrix-based thinking to the matrix-free Cladistic approach clearly reveals that optimizations of the character-state changes are related not to the real processes, but to the form of the data representation...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740367/-open-mesh-or-strictly-selected-population-recruitment-the-experience-of-the-randomized-controlled-mememe-trial
#5
Mauro Cortellini, Franco Berrino, Patrizia Pasanisi
Among randomized controlled trials (RCTs), trials for primary prevention require large samples and long follow-up to obtain a high-quality outcome; therefore the recruitment process and the drop-out rates largely dictate the adequacy of the results. We are conducting a Phase III trial on persons with metabolic syndrome to test the hypothesis that comprehensive lifestyle changes and/or metformin treatment prevents age-related chronic diseases (the MeMeMe trial, EudraCT number: 2012-005427-32, also registered on ClinicalTrials...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739838/unravelling-migrants-health-paradoxes-a-transdisciplinary-research-agenda
#6
REVIEW
Maria Roura
The Social Determinants of Health literature has consistently found that a higher socioeconomic status is associated with better health outcomes even after adjusting for traditional risk factors. However, research findings in the field of Migrants' Health suggest that the socioeconomic/health gradient does not always behave as expected for migrants and their descendants. The mismatch of findings in these two long-standing parallel research traditions is exemplified by frequent reports of paradoxical findings in the scientific literature: the healthy migrant paradox, the ethnic density paradox and the diminishing returns paradox...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739029/il-9-and-th9-cells-in-health-and-diseases-from-tolerance-to-immunopathology
#7
REVIEW
Junhui Li, Shuqiu Chen, Xiang Xiao, Yong Zhao, Wenjun Ding, Xian C Li
CD4+ T cells have the capacity to differentiate into various T helper (Th) cell subsets after activation, and by acquiring distinct cytokine profiles and effector functions, they regulate the nature as well as the outcomes of immune responses. Th9 cells are a relatively new member in the Th cell family. The signature cytokine for Th9 cells is IL-9, a cytokine in the IL-2Rγc-chain family. Over the past few years, there has been an explosion of knowledge on the roles of Th9 cells in immunity and immunopathology, but the exact mechanisms in the control of Th9 cells remain poorly defined...
July 17, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738735/clinician-perspectives-on-cross-education-in-stroke-rehabilitation
#8
William Russell, Lesley Pritchard-Wiart, Patricia J Manns
PURPOSE: Cross-education is a neural phenomenon where strength of an untrained muscle improves after unilateral training of the opposite homologous muscle. It has been extensively studied in healthy populations and shows promise for post-stroke rehabilitation. The purpose of this study is to understand current post-stroke upper extremity rehabilitation practice; clinician's perspectives on cross-education and; facilitators and barriers to implementation of a cross-education intervention...
July 24, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737715/latency-integration-and-reactivation-of-human-herpesvirus-6
#9
REVIEW
Shara N Pantry, Peter G Medveczky
Human herpesvirus-6A (HHV-6A) and human herpesvirus-6B (HHV-6B) are two closely related viruses that infect T-cells. Both HHV-6A and HHV-6B possess telomere-like repeats at the terminal regions of their genomes that facilitate latency by integration into the host telomeres, rather than by episome formation. In about 1% of the human population, human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) integration into germline cells allows the viral genome to be passed down from one generation to the other; this condition is called inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (iciHHV-6)...
July 24, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737221/development-of-paradoxical-inflammatory-disorders-during-treatment-of-psoriasis-with-tnf-inhibitors-a-review-of-published-cases
#10
REVIEW
Martin Havmose, Simon Francis Thomsen
BACKGROUND: TNF inhibitors have proven to be effective and relatively safe in the management of psoriasis. While infections and certain malignancies are established as acknowledged side effects, paradoxical inflammatory, non-neoplastic, noninfectious adverse events are being recognized less frequently. We aimed to identify published, peer-reviewed cases of paradoxical inflammatory, non-neoplastic, noninfectious adverse events in psoriasis patients during TNF inhibitor therapy. METHODS: A literature search in MEDLINE was performed for articles published from inception through the 8th of June 2016 that reported suspected incidents fulfilling a predefined search strategy...
July 24, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736653/hemispheric-differences-in-electrical-and-hemodynamic-responses-during-hemifield-visual-stimulation-with-graded-contrasts
#11
Juanning Si, Xin Zhang, Yujin Zhang, Tianzi Jiang
A multimodal neuroimaging technique based on electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used with horizontal hemifield visual stimuli with graded contrasts to investigate the retinotopic mapping more fully as well as to explore hemispheric differences in neuronal activity, the hemodynamic response, and the neurovascular coupling relationship in the visual cortex. The fNIRS results showed the expected activation over the contralateral hemisphere for both the left and right hemifield visual stimulations...
April 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736615/pulmonary-arteriovenous-malformations-complicated-by-splenic-infarction-and-abscess
#12
Jun Naito, Hajime Kasai, Masaki Suga, Toshihiko Sugiura, Nobuhiro Tanabe, Koichiro Tatsumi
Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) is an abnormal blood vessel connecting a pulmonary artery and a vein, and is accompanied by paradoxical embolism to other organs due to a right-to-left shunt. We report the case of a 66-year-old woman with PAVM complicated by splenic infarction and abscess. Although the PAVM had been detected on a chest image 2 years previously, and she had been advised to have further investigations, she decided not to follow this further at the time. She then visited our hospital complaining of worsening dyspnoea on exertion...
September 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736278/efficacy-paradox-and-proportional-contextual-effect-pce
#13
Weiya Zhang, Michael Doherty
The "efficacy paradox" is when the effect of a treatment tested in an RCT, or evidence-based guideline advice, differs markedly from treatment benefits observed in clinical practice. This arises because in RCT reporting and guideline development treatment efficacy is judged by the separation of the treatment group from the placebo group (the specific treatment effect) whereas in clinical practice it is the overall treatment effect, which includes both specific and contextual responses, that patients experience...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736271/b-cells-and-their-cytokine-activities-implications-in-human-diseases
#14
Simon Fillatreau
B cells are the only cell type that can give rise to antibody-producing cells, and the only cell type whose selective depletion can, today, lead to an improvement of a wide range of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, including disorders not primarily driven by autoantibodies. Here, I discuss this paradoxical observation, and propose that the capacity of B cells to act as cytokine-producing cells explains how they can control monocyte activity and subsequently disease pathogenesis. Together with current data on the effect of anti-CD20 B cell-depleting reagents in the clinic, this novel knowledge on B cell heterogeneity opens the way for novel safer and more efficient strategies to target B cells...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736170/overlap-among-spatial-memories-triggers-repulsion-of-hippocampal-representations
#15
Avi J H Chanales, Ashima Oza, Serra E Favila, Brice A Kuhl
Across the domains of spatial navigation and episodic memory, the hippocampus is thought to play a critical role in disambiguating (pattern separating) representations of overlapping events. However, it is not fully understood how and why hippocampal patterns become separated. Here, we test the idea that event overlap triggers a "repulsion" among hippocampal representations that develops over the course of learning. Using a naturalistic route-learning paradigm and spatiotemporal pattern analysis of human fMRI data, we found that hippocampal representations of overlapping routes gradually diverged with learning to the point that they became less similar than representations of non-overlapping events...
July 15, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736135/theta-neurofeedback-effects-on-motor-memory-consolidation-and-performance-accuracy-an-apparent-paradox
#16
Miriam Reiner, Dror D Lev, Amit Rosen
Previous studies have shown that theta neurofeedback enhances motor memory consolidation on an easy-to-learn finger tapping task. However, the simplicity of the finger tapping task precludes evaluating the putative effects of elevated theta on performance accuracy. Mastering a motor sequence is classically assumed to entail faster performance with fewer errors. The speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT) principle states thatas action speed increases, motor performance accuracy decreases. The current study investigated whether theta neurofeedback could improve both performance speed and performance accuracy, or would only enhance performance speed at the cost of reduced accuracy...
July 20, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735450/prescription-drug-price-paradox-cost-analysis-of-canadian-online-pharmacies-versus-us-medicare-beneficiaries-for-the-top-100-drugs
#17
Sean Hyungwoo Kim, Young Joo Ryu, Na-Eun Cho, Andy Eunwoo Kim, Jongwha Chang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the introduction of Medicare Part D (MPD) and 2012 Affordable Care Act (ACA), patients have a cost burden due to increases in drug prices. To overcome cost barriers, some patients purchase their medications from Canadian online pharmacies as Canadian prescription drug prices are believed to be lower than US prescription drug prices. The objective of this study was to determine which top 100 Medicare drugs can be imported to the USA legally, and to determine which type of prescription drug would be more beneficial to be purchased from Canadian online pharmacies...
July 22, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734777/inhibitor-mechanisms-in-the-s1-binding-site-of-the-dopamine-transporter-defined-by-multi-site-molecular-tethering-of-photoactive-cocaine-analogs
#18
Danielle Krout, Akula Bala Pramod, Rejwi Acharya Dahal, Michael J Tomlinson, Babita Sharma, James D Foster, Mu-Fa Zou, Comfort Boatang, Amy Hauck Newman, John R Lever, Roxanne A Vaughan, L Keith Henry
Dopamine transporter (DAT) blockers like cocaine and many other abused and therapeutic drugs bind and stabilize an inactive form of the transporter inhibiting reuptake of extracellular dopamine (DA). The resulting increases in DA lead to the ability of these drugs to induce psychomotor alterations and addiction, but paradoxical findings in animal models indicate that not all DAT antagonists induce cocaine-like behavioral outcomes. How this occurs is not known, but one possibility is that uptake inhibitors may bind at multiple locations or in different poses to stabilize distinct conformational transporter states associated with differential neurochemical endpoints...
July 19, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734592/publishing-with-objective-charisma-breaking-science-s-paradox
#19
Zoë A Doubleday, Sean D Connell
Good writing takes time, but in a research environment where speed is master, is it a superfluous pursuit? Scientists spend most of their working life writing, yet our writing style obstructs its key purpose: communication. We advocate more accessible prose that boosts the influence of our publications. For those who change, the proof of their success will be science that is read, understood, and remembered.
July 19, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734026/falling-into-a-routine-from-habits-to-situated-practices
#20
Simon Cohn, Rebecca Lynch
In line with the concept of 'nudging' people to change their behaviour, there has been increased attention on habit as a focus for psychologically-based health interventions. It is hoped that behaviours initiated by interventions not only become so regular that they are normalised into people's everyday lives, but that through repetition they may eventually become fixed and habitual. In this paper we draw on people's accounts of participating in a trial designed to encourage greater physical activity, and attend to the ways they describe their engagement with interventions within wider narratives of their everyday lives...
July 21, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
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