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Sandra Infante Villamil, Roger Huerlimann, Christina Morianos, Zoltan Sarnyai, Gregory E Maes
Obesity and other lifestyle diseases in modern society can be related to historical dietary changes from diets balanced in omega-6 and omega-3 to the unbalanced "Western-type" diet. It is recognized that diet influences the murine and human gut microbiome, and most research indicates that microbial diversity and composition are altered by high-fat diets (HFDs). However, good knowledge about the effects of early exposure to HFD on the maturation and structure of the bacterial community is limited. Using mice as model, we hypothesized that an HFD alters the early dynamic of the gut bacterial community toward an unstable/unhealthy state...
February 2018: Nutrition Research
Concetta Panebianco, Kaarel Adamberg, Madis Jaagura, Massimiliano Copetti, Andrea Fontana, Signe Adamberg, Kaia Kolk, Raivo Vilu, Angelo Andriulli, Valerio Pazienza
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represents the fourth cause of cancer-related death. We aimed to evaluate whether gemcitabine treatment shapes the gut microbiota in a model of PDAC xenografted mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pancreatic cancer xenograft mice were subjected to gemcitabine injection once per week for 3 weeks to assess the tumor volume as compared to control mice injected with normal saline solution. The composition of fecal microbiota, the activation of NF-kB pathway in cancer tissues and the serum metabolomics were further analyzed...
February 22, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Chaithanya Chelakkot, Youngwoo Choi, Dae-Kyum Kim, Hyun T Park, Jaewang Ghim, Yonghoon Kwon, Jinseong Jeon, Min-Seon Kim, Young-Koo Jee, Yong S Gho, Hae-Sim Park, Yoon-Keun Kim, Sung H Ryu
The gut microbiota has an important role in the gut barrier, inflammation and metabolic functions. Studies have identified a close association between the intestinal barrier and metabolic diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recently, Akkermansia muciniphila has been reported as a beneficial bacterium that reduces gut barrier disruption and insulin resistance. Here we evaluated the role of A. muciniphila-derived extracellular vesicles (AmEVs) in the regulation of gut permeability. We found that there are more AmEVs in the fecal samples of healthy controls compared with those of patients with T2D...
February 23, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Shermel Sherman, Nadeen Sarsour, Marziyeh Salehi, Allen Schroering, Blair Mell, Bina Joe, Jennifer W Hill
BACKGROUND: Conditions of excess androgen in women, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), often exhibit intergenerational transmission. One way in which the risk for PCOS may be increased in daughters of affected women is through exposure to elevated androgens in utero. Hyperandrogenemic conditions have serious health consequences, including increased risk for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Recently, gut dysbiosis has been found to induce hypertension in rats, such that blood pressure can be normalized through fecal microbial transplant...
February 22, 2018: Gut Microbes
Loo Wee Chia, Bastian V H Hornung, Steven Aalvink, Peter J Schaap, Willem M de Vos, Jan Knol, Clara Belzer
Host glycans are paramount in regulating the symbiotic relationship between humans and their gut bacteria. The constant flux of host-secreted mucin at the mucosal layer creates a steady niche for bacterial colonization. Mucin degradation by keystone species subsequently shapes the microbial community. This study investigated the transcriptional response during mucin-driven trophic interaction between the specialised mucin-degrader Akkermansia muciniphila and a butyrogenic gut commensal Anaerostipes caccae. A...
February 19, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Xi Shen, Junjie Miao, Qun Wan, Shuyue Wang, Ming Li, Fangfang Pu, Guoqing Wang, Wei Qian, Qian Yu, Francesco Marotta, Fang He
Background: The present study was conducted to investigate the possible association between gut microbes and immunity among healthy middle-aged and elderly individuals in southwest China. A total of 148 healthy adults aged ≥ 50 years were divided into two age groups: middle-aged group (50-59 years; n = 67, 54.13 ± 3.32) and elderly group (≥ 60 years; n = 81, 64.70 ± 3.93). Blood samples were collected to measure serum immune and biochemical indices. Gut microbiota compositions of the groups were characterized on the basis of faecal DNA using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Tariq Jamal Khan, Youssri M Ahmed, Mazin A Zamzami, Aisha M Siddiqui, Imran Khan, Othman A S Baothman, Mohamed G Mehanna, Abudukadeer Kuerban, Mohammed Kaleemuddin, Muhammad Yasir
Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most important risk factors for development of cardiovascular diseases. The composition of gut microbiota (total microbes residing in the gut) impacts on cholesterol and lipid metabolism. On the contrary, alterations in gut microbiota in response to hypercholesterolemia or drug treatment with atorvastatin (a cholesterol-lowering agent) are rarely investigated. We performed 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing to evaluate the gut bacterial community of 15 untreated hypercholesterolemic patients (HP) and 27 atorvastatin-treated hypercholesterolemic patients (At-HP) and compared with 19 healthy subjects (HS)...
February 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Karin B Fieten, Joan E E Totté, Evgeni Levin, Marta Reyman, Yolanda Meijer, André Knulst, Frank Schuren, Suzanne G M A Pasmans
BACKGROUND: Exposure to microbes may be important in the development of atopic disease. Atopic diseases have been associated with specific characteristics of the intestinal microbiome. The link between intestinal microbiota and food allergy has rarely been studied, and the gold standard for diagnosing food allergy (double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge [DBPCFC]) has seldom been used. We aimed to distinguish fecal microbial signatures for food allergy in children with atopic dermatitis (AD)...
January 25, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Kristine H Allin, Valentina Tremaroli, Robert Caesar, Benjamin A H Jensen, Mads T F Damgaard, Martin I Bahl, Tine R Licht, Tue H Hansen, Trine Nielsen, Thomas M Dantoft, Allan Linneberg, Torben Jørgensen, Henrik Vestergaard, Karsten Kristiansen, Paul W Franks, Torben Hansen, Fredrik Bäckhed, Oluf Pedersen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Individuals with type 2 diabetes have aberrant intestinal microbiota. However, recent studies suggest that metformin alters the composition and functional potential of gut microbiota, thereby interfering with the diabetes-related microbial signatures. We tested whether specific gut microbiota profiles are associated with prediabetes (defined as fasting plasma glucose of 6.1-7.0 mmol/l or HbA1c of 42-48 mmol/mol [6.0-6.5%]) and a range of clinical biomarkers of poor metabolic health...
January 29, 2018: Diabetologia
Kees C H van der Ark, Steven Aalvink, Maria Suarez-Diez, Peter J Schaap, Willem M de Vos, Clara Belzer
The abundance of the human intestinal symbiont Akkermansia muciniphila has found to be inversely correlated with several diseases, including metabolic syndrome and obesity. A. muciniphila is known to use mucin as sole carbon and nitrogen source. To study the physiology and the potential for therapeutic applications of this bacterium, we designed a defined minimal medium. The composition of the medium was based on the genome-scale metabolic model of A. muciniphila and the composition of mucin. Our results indicate that A...
January 26, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Min-Jung Lee, Mi-Jin Kang, So-Yeon Lee, Eun Lee, Kangjin Kim, Sungho Won, Dong In Suh, Kyung Won Kim, Youn Ho Sheen, Kangmo Ahn, Bong-Soo Kim, Soo-Jong Hong
BACKGROUND: Perturbations of the infant gut microbiota can shape the development of the immune system and link to the risk of allergic diseases. OBJECTIVE: To understand the role of the gut microbiome in atopic dermatitis, the metagenome of the infant gut microbiome was analyzed according to feeding types. METHODS: The composition of gut microbiota was analyzed in fecal samples from 129 infants (6-month-old) by pyrosequencing, including 66 healthy infants and 63 infants with atopic dermatitis...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Jing He, Li Yi, Le Hai, Liang Ming, Wanting Gao, Rimutu Ji
The bacterial community plays important roles in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of animals. However, our understanding of the microbial communities in the GIT of Bactrian camels remains limited. Here, we describe the bacterial communities from eight different GIT segments (rumen, reticulum, abomasum, duodenum, ileum, jejunum, caecum, colon) and faeces determined from 11 Bactrian camels using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Twenty-seven bacterial phyla were found in the GIT, with Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia and Bacteroidetes predominating...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dragana Stanley, Robert J Moore, Connie H Y Wong
Recent work from our laboratory has provided evidence that indicates selective bacterial translocation from the host gut microbiota to peripheral tissues (i.e. lung) plays a key role in the development of post-stroke infections. Despite this, it is currently unknown whether mucosal bacteria that live on and interact closely with the host intestinal epithelium contribute in regulating bacterial translocation after stroke. Here, we found that the microbial communities within the mucosa of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were significantly different between sham-operated and post-stroke mice at 24 h following surgery...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mihai Cirstea, Nina Radisavljevic, B Brett Finlay
Our expanding knowledge of microbial mechanisms is challenging the notion of "good" versus "bad" microbes and encouraging a better understanding of their roles in various contexts before their widespread therapeutic and clinical application. The intestinal microbe Akkermansia muciniphila, a promising probiotic with an emerging cautionary tale, best highlights this challenge.
January 10, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Ying Shi, Xi Zhao, Zhao Jianxin, Zhang Hao, Qixiao Zhai, Arjan Narbad, Wei Chen
AIMS: This study evaluated the antibiotic-induced changes in microbial ecology, intestinal dysbiosis and low-grade inflammation; and the combined effect of four different Lactobacillus species on recovery of microbiota composition and improvement of gut barrier function in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Administration of the antibiotic ampicillin for 2 weeks decreased microbial community diversity, induced caecum tumefaction and increased gut permeability in mice. Application of a probiotic cocktail of four Lactobacillus species (JUP-Y4) modulated the microbiota community structure and promoted the abundance of potentially beneficial bacteria such as Akkermansia...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Jose F Garcia-Mazcorro, Nara N Lage, Susanne Mertens-Talcott, Stephen Talcott, Boon Chew, Scot E Dowd, Jorge R Kawas, Giuliana D Noratto
Cherries are fruits containing fiber and bioactive compounds (e.g., polyphenolics) with the potential of helping patients with diabetes and weight disorders, a phenomenon likely related to changes in the complex host-microbiota milieu. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cherry supplementation on the gut bacterial composition, concentrations of caecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and biomarkers of gut health using an in vivo model of obesity. Obese diabetic (db/db) mice received a supplemented diet with 10% cherry powder (supplemented mice, n = 12) for 12 weeks; obese (n = 10) and lean (n = 10) mice served as controls and received a standard diet without cherry...
2018: PeerJ
Meng Wang, Xiao-Yang Zhang, Rui-Rui Guo, Zhi-Peng Cai, Xiao-Chun Hu, Huan Chen, Shuang Wei, Josef Voglmeir, Li Liu
Two genes encoding the β-N-acetylhexosaminidases Am2301 and Am2446 were cloned successfully from the mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila. The recombinant enzymes with molecular masses of 61 kDa and 78 kDa were isolated and biochemically characterised. The optimum temperature of both enzymes was 37 °C, and the optimum pH was determined to be pH 5.0 for Am2301 and pH 6.5 for Am2446. The addition of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) reduced the enzymes' activity significantly. Cu2+-ions decreased the activity of Am2301 by 70%, while the activity of Am2446 was significantly reduced by Fe3+-ions...
December 23, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
X-K Guo, J Ou, S Liang, X Zhou, X Hu
Recent advancements suggest that in addition to its roles in developmental processes, transcription repressor hairy and enhancer of split 1 (Hes1) also acts as a key regulator of inflammatory responses. A healthy gut microbiota ecology is critical for establishment of tissue homeostasis. However, the role of epithelial Hes1 in regulating intestinal microbiota ecology and intestinal homeostasis remains unexplored. Here we show that epithelial Hes1 deficiency leads to intestinal microbial dysbiosis and disturbed homeostasis...
January 3, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
Yan Cao, Ying Sun, Siwei Zou, Bingchao Duan, Mengying Sun, Xiaojuan Xu
Inflammation in visceral adipose tissues (VATs) contributes to the pathology of diabetes. This study focused on the inflammatory regulation in VATs by a yeast β-1,3-glucan (BYG) orally administered to ob/ob mice. BYG decreased pro-inflammatory modulators of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, CCL2, and SAA3, and increased anti-inflammatory factors of Azgp1 (2.53±0.02 fold change) at protein and/or mRNA levels (p<0.05). Remarkably, BYG decreased the degree of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) infiltration to 82.5±8...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Nerea Arias-Jayo, Laura Alonso-Saez, Andoni Ramirez-Garcia, Miguel A Pardo
The human intestine hosts a vast and complex microbial community that is vital for maintaining several functions related with host health. The processes that determine the gut microbiome composition are poorly understood, being the interaction between species, the external environment, and the relationship with the host the most feasible. Animal models offer the opportunity to understand the interactions between the host and the microbiota. There are different gnotobiotic mice or rat models colonized with the human microbiota, however, to our knowledge, there are no reports on the colonization of germ-free zebrafish with a complex human intestinal microbiota...
December 20, 2017: Zebrafish
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