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Akkermansia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142285/blockade-of-cb1-cannabinoid-receptor-alters-gut-microbiota-and-attenuates-inflammation-and-diet-induced-obesity
#1
Pegah Mehrpouya-Bahrami, Kumaraswamy Naidu Chitrala, Mitra S Ganewatta, Chuanbing Tang, E Angela Murphy, Reilly T Enos, Kandy T Velazquez, Jamie McCellan, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash Nagarkatti
Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade, systemic inflammation, altered gut microbiota, and gut barrier disruption. Additionally, obesity is associated with increased activity of endocannabinoid system (eCB). However, the clear connection between gut microbiota and the eCB system in the regulation of energy homeostasis and adipose tissue inflammation and metabolism, remains to be established. We investigated the effect of treatment of mice with a cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonist on Diet-Induced Obesity (DIO), specifically whether such a treatment that blocks endocannabinoid activity can induce changes in gut microbiota and anti-inflammatory state in adipose tissue...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142244/body-size-phenotypes-comprehensively-assess-cardiometabolic-risk-and-refine-the-association-between-obesity-and-gut-microbiota
#2
J de la Cuesta-Zuluaga, V Corrales-Agudelo, J A Carmona, J M Abad, J S Escobar
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota associates with obesity and related disorders, but recent meta-analyses have found that this association is, at best, of small effect. We argue that such analyses are flawed by the use of BMI as sole proxy for disease, and explore a classification method that distinguishes the cardiometabolic health status of individuals to look for more comprehensive associations between gut microbes and health. METHODS: We analyzed a 441 community-dwelling cohort on which we obtained demographic and health information, anthropometry and blood biochemistry data that served to categorize participants according to BMI, cardiometabolic health status and body size phenotypes...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131494/antimicrobial-emulsifier-glycerol-monolaurate-induces-metabolic-syndrome-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-and-systemic-low-grade-inflammation-in-low-fat-diet-fed-mice
#3
Zengliang Jiang, Minjie Zhao, Hui Zhang, Yang Li, Mengyun Liu, Fengqin Feng
SCOPE: Glycerol monolaurate (GML) was widely consumed worldwide in food industry, and considered as safe, yet for chronic diseases, supporting scientific data remain sparse. This study was to investigate whether dietary GML induces metabolic syndrome, gut microbiota dysbiosis and systemic low-grade inflammation. METHODS AND RESULTS: GML-induced occurrence of metabolic syndrome, gut microbiota alterations and systemic low-grade inflammation were investigated. Our results demonstrated that GML induced metabolic syndrome by significantly increasing the body weight, weight gain, food intake, body fat, fat droplet size and percentage of epididymal fat, serum triglycerides (TG), LDL and atherogenic index, and decreasing the body muscle ratio, liver weight and HDL, compared to the CON group...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130553/the-akkermansia-muciniphila-is-a-gut-microbiota-signature-in-psoriasis
#4
LiRong Tan, Shuang Zhao, Wu Zhu, Lisha Wu, Jie Li, MinXue Sheng, Li Lei, Xiang Chen, Cong Peng
Psoriasis is an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory skin disease. Although its pathogenesis is not fully understood, Th17 cells and the cytokines they produce, such as IL-17, IL-22 and IL-23, play critical roles in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Evidence has demonstrated that psoriasis has some common features, including immune responses (due to Th17 cells) and inflammatory cytokine profiles, with systematic diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) and obesity. Recently, studies have demonstrated that the gut microbiota plays a crucial role in host homeostasis and immune response, particular in Th17 cells, but the role of the gut microbiota in psoriasis remains unclear...
November 11, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121700/difference-in-the-gut-microbiome-between-ovariectomy-induced-obesity-and-diet-induced-obesity
#5
Sungmi Choi, Yu-Jin Hwang, Min-Jeong Shin, Hana Yi
During menopausal transition, the imbalance of estrogen causes body weight gain. Although gut microbiome dysbiosis has been reported in postmenopausal obesity, it is not clear whether there is any difference in the microbiome profile between dietary-induced obesity and postmenopausal obesity. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed intestinal samples from ovariectomized mice and compared them to those of mice with high fat diet-induced obesity. To further evaluate the presence of menopause-specific bacteria-gene interactions, we also analyzed the liver transcriptome...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108861/a-slippery-slope-on-the-origin-role-and-physiology-of-mucus
#6
Farhan Taherali, Felipe Varum, Abdul W Basit
The mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, eyes, nose, lungs, cervix and vagina is lined by epithelium interspersed with mucus-secreting goblet cells, all of which contribute to their unique functions. This mucus provides an integral defence to the epithelium against noxious agents and pathogens. However, it can equally act as a barrier to drugs and delivery systems targeting epithelial passive and active transport mechanisms. This review highlights the various mucins expressed at different mucosal surfaces on the human body, and their role in creating a mucoid architecture to protect epithelia with specialized functions...
November 3, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106956/supplementation-of-pancreatic-digestive-enzymes-alters-the-composition-of-intestinal-microbiota-in-mice
#7
Hiroki Nishiyama, Tomoyuki Nagai, Masatoshi Kudo, Yoshihisa Okazaki, Yoshinao Azuma, Tomohiro Watanabe, Susumu Goto, Hiroyuki Ogata, Toshiharu Sakurai
Although pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) is effective in the alleviation of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI)-related symptoms in patients with chronic pancreatitis, its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that the intestinal microbiota is associated with the pathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis. Therefore, we hypothesized that PERT exerts its effect by modifying the intestinal microbiota in addition to its presumed role in promoting fat and protein absorption...
October 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097494/gut-microbiome-influences-efficacy-of-pd-1-based-immunotherapy-against-epithelial-tumors
#8
Bertrand Routy, Emmanuelle Le Chatelier, Lisa Derosa, Connie P M Duong, Maryam Tidjani Alou, Romain Daillère, Aurélie Fluckiger, Meriem Messaoudene, Conrad Rauber, Maria P Roberti, Marine Fidelle, Caroline Flament, Vichnou Poirier-Colame, Paule Opolon, Christophe Klein, Kristina Iribarren, Laura Mondragón, Nicolas Jacquelot, Bo Qu, Gladys Ferrere, Céline Clémenson, Laura Mezquita, Jordi Remon Masip, Charles Naltet, Solenn Brosseau, Coureche Kaderbhai, Corentin Richard, Hira Rizvi, Florence Levenez, Nathalie Galleron, Benoit Quinquis, Nicolas Pons, Bernhard Ryffel, Véronique Minard-Colin, Patrick Gonin, Jean-Charles Soria, Eric Deutsch, Yohann Loriot, François Ghiringhelli, Gérard Zalcman, François Goldwasser, Bernard Escudier, Matthew D Hellmann, Alexander Eggermont, Didier Raoult, Laurence Albiges, Guido Kroemer, Laurence Zitvogel
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis induce sustained clinical responses in a sizeable minority of cancer patients. Here, we show that primary resistance to ICI can be due to abnormal gut microbiome composition. Antibiotics (ATB) inhibited the clinical benefit of ICI in patients with advanced cancer. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from cancer patients who responded to ICI (but not from non-responding patients) into germ-free or ATB-treated mice ameliorated the antitumor effects of PD-1 blockade...
November 2, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094115/lactobacillus-plantarum-hnu082-derived-improvements-in-the-intestinal-microbiome-prevent-the-development-of-hyperlipidaemia
#9
Yuyu Shao, Dongxue Huo, Qiannan Peng, Yuyang Pan, Shuaiming Jiang, Bin Liu, Jiachao Zhang
Restricted by research techniques, the probiotic-derived changes in the microbiome and microbial metabolites correlated with the potential prevention of hyperlipidaemia have remained undiscovered. In the present research, a metagenomic approach was applied to describe Lactobacillus plantarum HNU082 consumption-derived changes in the intestinal microbiome and their correlation with the occurrence and development of hyperlipidaemia. Principal coordinate analysis based on UniFrac distances indicated that the intestinal microbiota was profoundly altered in the hyperlipidaemia group, and probiotic consumption regulated the bias in the intestinal microbial structure in hyperlipidaemia...
November 2, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093639/rapid-assessment-of-microbiota-changes-in-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-using-bacteria-derived-membrane-vesicles-in-urine
#10
Yunjin Lee, Jin-Young Park, Eun-Hwa Lee, Jinho Yang, Bo-Ri Jeong, Yoon-Keun Kim, Ju-Young Seoh, SoHyun Lee, Pyung-Lim Han, Eui-Jung Kim
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have altered gut microbiota, which appears to regulate ASD symptoms via gut microbiota-brain interactions. Rapid assessment of gut microbiota profiles in ASD individuals in varying physiological contexts is important to understanding the role of the microbiota in regulating ASD symptoms. Microbiomes secrete extracellular membrane vesicles (EVs) to communicate with host cells and secreted EVs are widely distributed throughout the body including the blood and urine...
October 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084388/anti-obesity-effect-of-exopolysaccharides-isolated-from-kefir-grains
#11
Juha Lim, Madhuvanti Kale, Dong-Hyeon Kim, Hong Seok Kim, Jung-Whan Chon, Kun-Ho Seo, Hyeon Gyu Lee, Wallace Yokoyama, Hyunsook Kim
Physiological properties of water-soluble exopolysaccharides (EPS) and residues after EPS removal (Res) from the probiotic kefir were determined in high-fat (HF) diet-fed C57BL/6J mice. EPS solutions showed rheological properties and lower viscosity compared to Β-glucan (BG). EPS significantly suppressed the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Mice were fed HF diets containing 5% EPS, 5% BG, 8% Res, or 5% microcrystalline cellulose (control) for 4 weeks. Compared with the control, EPS supplementation significantly reduced HF diet-induced body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, and plasma very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration (P < 0...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065411/gut-microbiota-and-host-metabolism-what-relationship
#12
Gilles Mithieux
A large number of genomic studies have reported associations between the gut microbiota composition and metabolic diseases such as obesity or type 2 diabetes. This led to the widespread idea that a causal relationship could exist between intestinal microbiota and metabolic diseases. At odds with this idea, some compelling studies reported that global changes in microbiota composition have no effect on the host metabolism in obese mice or humans. However, specific bacteria are able to confer host metabolic benefits, such as Akkermansia muciniphila or Prevotella copri, when they are given by gavage in obese mice...
October 24, 2017: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062308/akkermansia-muciniphila-may-determine-chondroitin-sulfate-ameliorating-or-aggravating-osteoarthritis
#13
Qi Wang, Shui-Qing Huang, Chang-Qing Li, Qin Xu, Qing-Ping Zeng
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) has shown either ameliorating or aggravating effects on osteoarthritis (OA) in separately conducted clinical trials. Because CS is usually administered orally, it should be affected by or would impact on the individual gut microbiota. Evidence is accumulating that CS can nourish sulfatase-secreting bacteria (SSB) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). To decipher how can an individual gut microbiota determine the clinical values of CS for treatment on OA, we suggest here that CS would give distinct outcomes for OA treatment depending on Akkermansia muciniphila, a gut commensal probiotic bacterial species as optimal presence albeit also behaving as mucus-eroding bacteria (MEB) when abundant presence...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061705/polyphenol-and-caffeine-rich-post-fermented-pu-er-tea-improves-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-by-remodeling-intestinal-homeostasis-in-mice
#14
Xiaoyu Gao, Qiuhong Xie, Ping Kong, Ling Liu, Sheng Sun, Boyu Xiong, Baojia Huang, Liang Yan, Jun Sheng, Hongyu Xiang
Post-fermented Pu-er tea (PE) protects against metabolic syndrome (MS), but little is known regarding its underlying mechanisms. Animal experiments were performed to determine whether gut microbiota mediated the improvement in diet-induced MS by PE and its main active components (PEAC). We confirmed that PE altered the body composition and energy efficiency; attenuated metabolic endotoxemia and systemic and multiple-tissue inflammation; and improved the glucose and lipid metabolism disorder in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice via multiple pathways...
October 23, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056887/dietary-coconut-water-vinegar-for-improvement-of-obesity-associated-inflammation-in-high-fat-diet-treated-mice
#15
Nurul Elyani Mohamad, Swee Keong Yeap, Huynh Ky, Wan Yong Ho, Sook Yee Boo, Joelle Chua, Boon-Kee Beh, Shaiful Adzni Sharifuddin, Kamariah Long, Noorjahan Banu Alitheen
Obesity has become a serious health problem worldwide. Various types of healthy food, including vinegar, have been proposed to manage obesity. However, different types of vinegar may have different bioactivities. This study was performed to evaluate the anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects of coconut water vinegar on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Changes in the gut microbiota of the mice were also evaluated. To induce obesity, C57/BL mice were continuously fed an HFD for 33 weeks. Coconut water vinegar (0...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052237/the-taxonomic-composition-of-the-donor-intestinal-microbiota-is-a-major-factor-influencing-the-efficacy-of-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-therapy-refractory-ulcerative-colitis
#16
P Kump, P Wurm, H P Gröchenig, H Wenzl, W Petritsch, B Halwachs, M Wagner, V Stadlbauer, A Eherer, K M Hoffmann, A Deutschmann, G Reicht, L Reiter, P Slawitsch, G Gorkiewicz, C Högenauer
BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation is an experimental approach for the treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis. Although there is growing evidence that faecal microbiota transplantation is effective in this disease, factors affecting its response are unknown. AIMS: To establish a faecal microbiota transplantation treatment protocol in ulcerative colitis patients, and to investigate which patient or donor factors are responsible for the treatment success...
October 20, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047329/genome-sequencing-of-39-akkermansia-muciniphila-isolates-reveals-its-population-structure-genomic-and-functional-diverisity-and-global-distribution-in-mammalian-gut-microbiotas
#17
Xianfeng Guo, Shenghui Li, Jiachun Zhang, Feifan Wu, Xiangchun Li, Dan Wu, Min Zhang, Zihao Ou, Zhuye Jie, Qiulong Yan, Peng Li, Jiangfeng Yi, Yongzheng Peng
BACKGROUND: Akkermansia muciniphila is one of the most dominant bacteria that resides on the mucus layer of intestinal tract and plays key role in human health, however, little is known about its genomic content. RESULTS: Herein, we for the first time characterized the genomic architecture of A. muciniphila based on whole-genome sequencing, assembling, and annotating of 39 isolates derived from human and mouse feces. We revealed a flexible open pangenome of A. muciniphila currently consisting of 5644 unique proteins...
October 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033923/emerging-trends-in-smart-probiotics-functional-consideration-for-the-development-of-novel-health-and-industrial-applications
#18
REVIEW
Racha El Hage, Emma Hernandez-Sanabria, Tom Van de Wiele
The link between gut microbiota and human health is well-recognized and described. This ultimate impact on the host has contributed to explain the mutual dependence between humans and their gut bacteria. Gut microbiota can be manipulated through passive or active strategies. The former includes diet, lifestyle, and environment, while the latter comprise antibiotics, pre- and probiotics. Historically, conventional probiotic strategies included a phylogenetically limited diversity of bacteria and some yeast strains...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033903/protective-effect-of-akkermansia-muciniphila-against-immune-mediated-liver-injury-in-a-mouse-model
#19
Wenrui Wu, Longxian Lv, Ding Shi, Jianzhong Ye, Daiqiong Fang, Feifei Guo, Yating Li, Xingkang He, Lanjuan Li
Accumulating evidence indicates that gut microbiota participates in the pathogenesis and progression of liver diseases. The severity of immune-mediated liver injury is associated with different microbial communities. Akkermansia muciniphila can regulate immunologic and metabolic functions. However, little is known about its effects on gut microbiota structure and function. This study investigated the effect of A. muciniphila on immune-mediated liver injury and potential underlying mechanisms. Twenty-two C57BL/6 mice were assigned to three groups (N = 7-8 per group) and continuously administrated A...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025734/dietary-copper-fructose-interactions-alter-gut-microbial-activity-in-male-rats
#20
Ming Song, Xiaohong Li, Xiang Zhang, Hongxue Shi, Miriam B Vos, Xiaoli Wei, Yuhua Wang, Hong Gao, Eric C Rouchka, Xinmin Yin, Zhanxiang Zhou, Russell A Prough, Matthew C Cave, Craig J McClain
Dietary copper-fructose interactions contribute to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Gut microbiota play critical roles in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different dietary doses of copper and their interactions with high fructose on gut microbiome. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets with adequate copper (6 ppm, CuA), marginal copper (1.5 ppm, CuM) (low-copper) or supplemented copper (20 ppm, CuS) (high-copper) for 4 weeks...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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