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Akkermansia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893994/gut-microbiota-from-multiple-sclerosis-patients-enables-spontaneous-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-in-mice
#1
Kerstin Berer, Lisa Ann Gerdes, Egle Cekanaviciute, Xiaoming Jia, Liang Xiao, Zhongkui Xia, Chuan Liu, Luisa Klotz, Uta Stauffer, Sergio E Baranzini, Tania Kümpfel, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Gurumoorthy Krishnamoorthy, Hartmut Wekerle
There is emerging evidence that the commensal microbiota has a role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), a putative autoimmune disease of the CNS. Here, we compared the gut microbial composition of 34 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for MS. While there were no major differences in the overall microbial profiles, we found a significant increase in some taxa such as Akkermansia in untreated MS twins. Furthermore, most notably, when transplanted to a transgenic mouse model of spontaneous brain autoimmunity, MS twin-derived microbiota induced a significantly higher incidence of autoimmunity than the healthy twin-derived microbiota...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893978/gut-bacteria-from-multiple-sclerosis-patients-modulate-human-t-cells-and-exacerbate-symptoms-in-mouse-models
#2
Egle Cekanaviciute, Bryan B Yoo, Tessel F Runia, Justine W Debelius, Sneha Singh, Charlotte A Nelson, Rachel Kanner, Yadira Bencosme, Yun Kyung Lee, Stephen L Hauser, Elizabeth Crabtree-Hartman, Ilana Katz Sand, Mar Gacias, Yungjiao Zhu, Patrizia Casaccia, Bruce A C Cree, Rob Knight, Sarkis K Mazmanian, Sergio E Baranzini
The gut microbiota regulates T cell functions throughout the body. We hypothesized that intestinal bacteria impact the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disorder of the CNS and thus analyzed the microbiomes of 71 MS patients not undergoing treatment and 71 healthy controls. Although no major shifts in microbial community structure were found, we identified specific bacterial taxa that were significantly associated with MS. Akkermansia muciniphila and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, both increased in MS patients, induced proinflammatory responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in monocolonized mice...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871143/dysbiosis-contributes-to-chronic-constipation-development-via-regulation-of-serotonin-transporter-in-the-intestine
#3
Hailong Cao, Xiang Liu, Yingying An, Guoqiong Zhou, Yanrong Liu, Mengque Xu, Wenxiao Dong, Sinan Wang, Fang Yan, Kui Jiang, Bangmao Wang
Chronic constipation is a prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder accompanied with intestinal dysbiosis. However, causal relationship between dysbiosis and constipation remains poorly understood. Serotonin transporter (SERT) is a transmembrane transport protein which re-uptakes excessive 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) from effective location to terminate its physiological effects and involves in regulating gastrointestinal motility. In this study, fecal microbiota from patients with constipation and healthy controls were transplanted into the antibiotic depletion mice model...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870194/a-yeast-fermentate-improves-gastrointestinal-discomfort-and-constipation-by-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiome-results-from-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-pilot-trial
#4
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Iris Pinheiro, Larry Robinson, An Verhelst, Massimo Marzorati, Björn Winkens, Pieter Van den Abbeele, Sam Possemiers
BACKGROUND: Constipation and symptoms of gastrointestinal discomfort such as bloating are common among otherwise healthy individuals, but with significant impact on quality of life. Despite the recognized contribution of the gut microbiome to this pathology, little is known about which group(s) of microorganism(s) are playing a role. A previous study performed in vitro suggests that EpiCor® fermentate has prebiotic-like properties, being able to favorably modulate the composition of the gut microbiome...
September 4, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864945/fecal-microbiota-of-lambs-fed-purple-prairie-clover-dalea-purpurea-vent-and-alfalfa-medicago-sativa
#5
Qianqian Huang, Devin B Holman, Trevor Alexander, Tianming Hu, Long Jin, Zhongjun Xu, Tim A McAllister, Surya Acharya, Guoqi Zhao, Yuxi Wang
The present study assessed the effect of purple prairie clover (PPC) and PPC condensed tannins (CT) on the fecal microbiota of lambs using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. A total of 18 individual lambs were randomly divided into three groups and fed either green chop alfalfa (Alf), a 40:60 (DM basis; Mix) mixture of Alf and PPC, or Mix supplemented with polyethylene glycol (Mix-P) for 18 days. Fecal samples were collected on days 13 through 18 using digital rectal retrieval. The DNA of fecal samples was extracted and the microbial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were sequenced using 454 pyrosequencing...
September 1, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862999/innovation-in-microbiome-based-strategies-for-promoting-metabolic-health
#6
Marina Romaní-Pérez, Ana Agusti, Yolanda Sanz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Update on the development of microbiome-based interventions and dietary supplements to combat obesity and related comorbidities, which are leading causes of global mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: The role of intestinal dysbiosis, partly resulting from unhealthy diets, in the development of obesity and metabolic disorders, is well documented by recent translational research. Human experimental trials with whole-faecal transplants are ongoing, and their results will be crucial as proof of concept that interventions intended to modulate the microbiome composition and function could be alternatives for the management of obesity and related comorbidities...
August 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843021/the-nasal-and-gut-microbiome-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-idiopathic-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder
#7
Anna Heintz-Buschart, Urvashi Pandey, Tamara Wicke, Friederike Sixel-Döring, Annette Janzen, Elisabeth Sittig-Wiegand, Claudia Trenkwalder, Wolfgang H Oertel, Brit Mollenhauer, Paul Wilmes
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence connects the gut microbiota and the onset and/or phenotype of Parkinson's disease (PD). Differences in the abundances of specific bacterial taxa have been reported in PD patients. It is, however, unknown whether these differences can be observed in individuals at high risk, for example, with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, a prodromal condition of α-synuclein aggregation disorders including PD. OBJECTIVES: To compare microbiota in carefully preserved nasal wash and stool samples of subjects with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, manifest PD, and healthy individuals...
August 26, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842897/initial-gut-microbiota-structure-affects-sensitivity-to-dss-induced-colitis-in-a-mouse-model
#8
Min Li, Yanqiu Wu, Yingxin Hu, Liping Zhao, Chenhong Zhang
The dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model is a widely applied mouse model, but controversial results have been obtained from experiments using the same mouse strain under the same conditions. Because the gut microbiota play an important role in DSS-induced colitis, it is essential to evaluate the influence of the initial gut microbiota in this model. Here, we identified significant variations in the initial gut microbiota of different batches of mice and found that the initial intestinal microbiota had a profound influence on DSS-induced colitis...
August 15, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835659/changes-in-the-intestinal-microbiota-following-the-administration-of-azithromycin-in-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial-among-infants-in-south-india
#9
Edward P K Parker, Ira Praharaj, Jacob John, Saravanakumar Puthupalayam Kaliappan, Beate Kampmann, Gagandeep Kang, Nicholas C Grassly
Macrolides are among the most widely prescribed antibiotics worldwide. However, their impact on the gut's bacterial microbiota remains uncertain. We characterised the intestinal microbiota in 6-11 month-old infants in India who received a 3-day course of azithromycin or placebo during a randomised trial of oral poliovirus vaccine immunogenicity (CTRI/2014/05/004588). In 60 infants per study arm, we sequenced the V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene in stool samples collected before and 12 days after finishing treatment...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832994/c4b-gene-influences-intestinal-microbiota-through-complement-activation-in-patients-with-pediatric-onset-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#10
Eija Nissilä, Katri Korpela, A Inkeri Lokki, Riitta Paakkanen, Sakari Jokiranta, Willem de Vos, Marja-Liisa Lokki, Kaija-Leena Kolho, Seppo Meri
Complement C4 genes are linked to pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (PIBD), but the mechanisms have remained unclear. We examined the influence of C4B gene number on intestinal microbiota and in vitro serum complement activation by intestinal microbes in PIBD patients. Complement C4A and C4B gene numbers were determined by genomic RT-PCR from 64 patients with PIBD (Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis). The severity of the disease course was determined from fecal calprotectin levels. Intestinal microbiota was assessed using the HITChip microarray...
August 23, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799667/coadministration-of-isomalto-oligosaccharides-augments-metabolic-health-benefits-of-cinnamaldehyde-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#11
Dhirendra Pratap Singh, Pragyanshu Khare, Vandana Bijalwan, Ritesh Kumar Baboota, Jagdeep Singh, Kanthi Kiran Kondepudi, Kanwaljit Chopra, Mahendra Bishnoi
Bacteriostatic properties of a potential anti-obesity agent cinnamaldehyde (CMN) may present untoward effects on the resident gut microbiota. Here, we evaluated whether the combination of Isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMOs) with CMN prevents unwanted effects of CMN on gut microbiota and associated metabolic outcomes in HFD-fed mice. Male Swiss albino mice divided into four groups (n = 10), were fed on normal chow, or HFD (58% fat kcal), HFD + CMN (10 mg kg(-1) ) and HFD + CMN (10 mg kg(-1) ) + IMOs (1 g kg(-1) ) for 12 weeks...
August 11, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798745/commentary-dietary-polyphenols-promote-growth-of-the-gut-bacterium-akkermansia-muciniphila-and-attenuate-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome
#12
COMMENT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797298/community-characteristics-of-the-gut-microbiomes-of-competitive-cyclists
#13
Lauren M Petersen, Eddy J Bautista, Hoan Nguyen, Blake M Hanson, Lei Chen, Sai H Lek, Erica Sodergren, George M Weinstock
BACKGROUND: Changes in diet and exercise can alter the gut microbiome of humans and mice; however, few studies to date have assessed the microbiomes of highly fit athletes. In this pilot study, we used metagenomic whole genome shotgun (mWGS) and metatranscriptomic (RNA-Seq) sequencing to show what organisms are both present and active in the gut microbiomes of both professional and amateur level competitive cyclists and to determine if any significant differences exist between these two groups...
August 10, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791008/free-fatty-acids-profiles-are-related-to-gut-microbiota-signatures-and-short-chain-fatty-acids
#14
Javier Rodríguez-Carrio, Nuria Salazar, Abelardo Margolles, Sonia González, Miguel Gueimonde, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Ana Suárez
A growing body of evidence highlights the relevance of free fatty acids (FFA) for human health, and their role in the cross talk between the metabolic status and immune system. Altered serum FFA profiles are related to several metabolic conditions, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies have highlighted the link between gut microbiota and host metabolism. However, although most of the studies have focused on different clinical conditions, evidence on the role of these mediators in healthy populations is lacking...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771569/disruption-in-the-cecal-microbiota-of-chickens-challenged-with-clostridium-perfringens-and-other-factors-was-alleviated-by-bacillus-licheniformis-supplementation
#15
Yicen Lin, Shuai Xu, Dong Zeng, Xueqin Ni, Mengjia Zhou, Yan Zeng, Hesong Wang, Yi Zhou, Hui Zhu, Kangcheng Pan, Guangyao Li
Clostridium perfringens can induce necrotic enteritis of chickens, which causes large economic losses every year. Bacillus licheniformis, a probiotic, can inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Clostridium perfringens, thereby improving the health status of chickens. However, from a microbial ecology perspective, the mechanisms by which alterations to the gut microbiota improve health remain unknown. In this study, we used Illumina MiSeq sequencing to investigate the cecal microbiota of a negative control group (NC), a C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741460/discovery-and-biochemical-characterization-of-udp-glucose-dehydrogenase-from-akkermansia-muciniphila
#16
Shuang Wei, Xiao-Yang Zhang, Yue Sun, Louis Patrick Conway, Li Liu
We report the discovery and characterization of a UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (AmUGD) from Akkermansia muciniphila, a bacterium originally isolated from human faeces in an anaerobic medium containing gastric mucin as the sole carbon source. The recombinant form of the protein was expressed in E. coli and the purified enzyme exhibited optimum levels of activity at 37°C and pH 9.0. While the enzyme is active in the absence of metal ions, the presence of Zn2+ ions results in markedly enhanced levels of catalysis...
July 24, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740343/distinct-gut-microbiota-profiles-in-patients-with-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-and-ulcerative-colitis
#17
Lukas Bajer, Miloslav Kverka, Martin Kostovcik, Peter Macinga, Jiri Dvorak, Zuzana Stehlikova, Jan Brezina, Pavel Wohl, Julius Spicak, Pavel Drastich
AIM: To characterize the gut bacterial microbiota of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: Stool samples were collected and relevant clinical data obtained from 106 study participants, 43 PSC patients with (n = 32) or without (n = 11) concomitant inflammatory bowel disease, 32 UC patients, and 31 healthy controls. The V3 and V4 regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene were sequenced on Illumina MiSeq platform to cover low taxonomic levels...
July 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726512/human-milk-oligosaccharide-categories-define-the-microbiota-composition-in-human-colostrum
#18
J Aakko, H Kumar, S Rautava, A Wise, C Autran, L Bode, E Isolauri, S Salminen
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are structurally diverse unconjugated glycans with a composition unique to each lactating mother. While HMOs have been shown to have an impact on the development of infant gut microbiota, it is not well known if HMOs also already affect milk microbial composition. To address this question, we analysed eleven colostrum samples for HMO content by high-pressure liquid chromatography and microbiota composition by quantitative PCR. Higher total HMO concentration was associated with higher counts of Bifidobacterium spp...
August 24, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724546/high-protein-diet-promotes-sensitivity-to-cholecystokinin-and-shifts-the-cecal-microbiome-without-altering-brain-inflammation-in-diet-induced-obesity-in-rats
#19
Lixin Wang, Jonathan P Jacobs, Venu Lagishetty, Pu-Qing Yuan, Shuping Vincent Wu, Mulugeta Million, Joseph R Reeve, Joseph R Pisegna, Yvette Taché
High protein diet (HPD) curtails obesity and/or fat mass but it is unknown whether it reverses neuroinflammation, altered glucose levels, cholecystokinin (CCK) sensitivity and gut microbiome in rats fed a Western diet (WD)-induced obesity (DIO). Male rats fed a WD (high fat and sugar) for 12 weeks were switched to a HPD for 6 weeks. Body composition, food intake, meal pattern, sensitivity to intraperitoneal CCK-8S, blood glucose, brain signaling, and cecal microbiota were assessed. Compared to normal diet, WD increased body weight (9...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718724/black-raspberries-and-their-anthocyanin-and-fiber-fractions-alter-the-composition-and-diversity-of-gut-microbiota-in-f-344-rats
#20
Pan Pan, Vy Lam, Nita Salzman, Yi-Wen Huang, Jianhua Yu, Jianying Zhang, Li-Shu Wang
Natural compounds can alter the diversity and composition of the gut microbiome, potentially benefiting our health. We previously demonstrated chemopreventive effects of black raspberries (BRBs) in colorectal cancer, which is associated with gut dysbiosis. To investigate the effects of whole BRBs and their fractions on gut microbiota, we fed F-344 rats a control diet, 5% BRBs, the BRB anthocyanin fraction, or the BRB residue fraction for 6 weeks. Feces were collected at baseline and at weeks 3 and 6, and bacterial sequence counts were analyzed...
July 18, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
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