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Lanfang Tian, Siyuan Chen, Haiyan Liu, Mingzhang Guo, Wentao Xu, Xiaoyun He, Yunbo Luo, Xiaozhe Qi, Hongxia Luo, Kunlun Huang
Hepcidin, one kind of antimicrobial peptides, is one of the promising alternatives to antibiotics with broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Hepcidins cloned from different kinds of fishes have been produced using exogenous expression systems, and their in vitro antimicrobial effects have been verified. However their in vivo effects on gut microbiota and gut health of hosts remain unclear. Here we performed a safety study of hepcidin so that it can be used to reduce microbial contaminations in the food and feed...
2016: PloS One
Mária Džunková, Giuseppe D'Auria, Hua Xu, Jun Huang, Yinghua Duan, Andrés Moya, Ciarán P Kelly, Xinhua Chen
Antibiotics have significant and long-lasting impacts on the intestinal microbiota and consequently reduce colonization resistance against Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Standard therapy using antibiotics is associated with a high rate of disease recurrence, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies that target toxins, the major virulence factors, rather than the organism itself. Human monoclonal antibodies MK-3415A (actoxumab-bezlotoxumab) to C. difficile toxin A and toxin B, as an emerging non-antibiotic approach, significantly reduced the recurrence of CDI in animal models and human clinical trials...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Myung-Shik Lee
Low-grade systemic inflammation in adipose tissues or liver, is an important etiologic factor in insulin resistance. LPS is an important element causing such metabolic inflammation, and intestinal flora is considered a major source of systemic LPS. We studied changes of intestinal microbiota associated with high-fat diet (HFD) that causes insulin resistance and metabolic stress. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that HFD significantly decreased the abundance of a mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to control diet...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jordi Mayneris-Perxachs, David T Bolick, Joy Leng, Greg L Medlock, Glynis L Kolling, Jason A Papin, Jonathan R Swann, Richard L Guerrant
BACKGROUND: Environmental enteropathy, which is linked to undernutrition and chronic infections, affects the physical and mental growth of children in developing areas worldwide. Key to understanding how these factors combine to shape developmental outcomes is to first understand the effects of nutritional deficiencies on the mammalian system including the effect on the gut microbiota. OBJECTIVE: We dissected the nutritional components of environmental enteropathy by analyzing the specific metabolic and gut-microbiota changes that occur in weaned-mouse models of zinc or protein deficiency compared with well-nourished controls...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Cristina Rodriguez, Bernard Taminiau, Nicolas Korsak, Véronique Avesani, Johan Van Broeck, Philippe Brach, Michel Delmée, Georges Daube
BACKGROUND: Increasing age, several co-morbidities, environmental contamination, antibiotic exposure and other intestinal perturbations appear to be the greatest risk factors for C. difficile infection (CDI). Therefore, elderly care home residents are considered particularly vulnerable to the infection. The main objective of this study was to evaluate and follow the prevalence of C. difficile in 23 elderly care home residents weekly during a 4-month period. A C. difficile microbiological detection scheme was performed along with an overall microbial biodiversity study of the faeces content by 16S rRNA gene analysis...
October 1, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Chih-Hui Lin, Yu-Hsin Chen, Tsung-Yu Tsai, Tzu-Ming Pan
Hypercholesterolemia is a common metabolic syndrome in modern human society. Despite that the alteration of host gut microbiota has been linked to hypercholesterolemia in previous studies, the key host-microbiota interaction of hypercholesterolemia remains elusive. Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101 (NTU 101) and deep sea water (DSW) were known for cholesterol-lowering potential. The impact of NTU 101 and DSW on hamster gut microbiota was investigated side-by-side using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and metagenomic analysis in this study...
October 5, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ana María Leal-Díaz, Lilia G Noriega, Ivan Torre-Villalvazo, Nimbe Torres, Gabriela Alemán-Escondrillas, Patricia López-Romero, Mónica Sánchez-Tapia, Miriam Aguilar-López, Janette Furuzawa-Carballeda, Laura A Velázquez-Villegas, Azalia Avila-Nava, Guillermo Ordáz, Janet A Gutiérrez-Uribe, Sergio O Serna-Saldivar, Armando R Tovar
Obesity and its comorbidities are a severe public health problem worldwide. The use of bioactive compounds found in some foods has been demonstrated to ameliorate the metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the bioactive compounds present in aguamiel concentrate (AC) from Agave salmiana could attenuate glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high fat (HF) diet. HPLC-ELSD analysis showed that AC contained several saponins. The consumption of an AC extract rich in saponins reduced weight gain and fat mass and lowered serum glucose, insulin and LDL-cholesterol levels in mice fed a HF diet...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Janneke P Ouwerkerk, Kees C H van der Ark, Mark Davids, Nico J Claassens, Teresa Robert Finestra, Willem M de Vos, Clara Belzer
: Akkermansia muciniphila colonizes the mucus layer of the gastrointestinal tract where the organism can be exposed to the oxygen that diffuses from epithelial cells. To understand how A. muciniphila is able to survive and grow at this oxic-anoxic interface, its oxygen tolerance, response and reduction capacities were studied. A. muciniphila was found to be oxygen-tolerant. On top of this, under aerated conditions, A. muciniphila showed significant oxygen reduction capacities and its growth rate and yield were increased as compared to strict anaerobic conditions...
September 23, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Myung-Shik Lee
Low-grade systemic inflammation in adipose tissues or liver, is an important etiologic factor in insulin resistance. LPS is an important element causing such metabolic inflammation, and intestinal flora is considered a major source of systemic LPS. We studied changes of intestinal microbiota associated with high-fat diet (HFD) that causes insulin resistance and metabolic stress. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that HFD significantly decreased the abundance of a mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to control diet...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Xueran Mei, Xiaoyu Zhang, Zhanguo Wang, Ziyang Gao, Gang Liu, Huiling Hu, Liang Zou, Xueli Li
Phlorizin exists in a number of fruits and foods and exhibits many bioactivities. The mechanism of its antidiabetic effect has been known as it can competitively inhibit sodium-glucose symporters (SGLTs). However, phlorizin has a wide range of two-phase metabolism in systemic circulation and shows poor oral bioavailability. An alternative mechanism may involve gut microbiota in intestine. Sixteen obese mice with type 2 diabetes (db/db) and eight age-matched control mice (db/+) were divided into three groups: diabetic group treated with phlorizin (DMT group), vehicle-treated diabetic group (DM group), and normal control group (CC group)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Angela B Javurek, William G Spollen, Sarah A Johnson, Nathan J Bivens, Karen H Bromert, Scott A Givan, Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Gut dysbiosis may result in various diseases, such as metabolic and neurobehavioral disorders. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including bisphenol A (BPA) and ethinyl estradiol (EE), especially during development, may also increase the risk for such disorders. An unexplored possibility is that EDC-exposure might alter the gut microbial composition. Gut flora and their products may thus be mediating factors for the disease-causing effects of these chemicals. To examine the effects of EDCs on the gut microbiome, female and male monogamous and biparental California mice (Peromyscus californicus) were exposed to BPA (50 mg/kg feed weight) or EE (0...
September 13, 2016: Gut Microbes
Antonio Tursi, Paola Mastromarino, Daniela Capobianco, Walter Elisei, Alfredo Miccheli, Giorgio Capuani, Alberta Tomassini, Giuseppe Campagna, Marcello Picchio, GianMarco Giorgetti, Federica Fabiocchi, Giovanni Brandimarte
GOAL: The aim of this study was to assess fecal microbiota and metabolome in a population with symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD). BACKGROUND: Whether intestinal microbiota and metabolic profiling may be altered in patients with SUDD is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Stool samples from 44 consecutive women [15 patients with SUDD, 13 with asymptomatic diverticulosis (AD), and 16 healthy controls (HCs)] were analyzed. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify targeted microorganisms...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Giovanni Barbara, Eleonora Scaioli, Maria Raffaella Barbaro, Elena Biagi, Luca Laghi, Cesare Cremon, Giovanni Marasco, Antonio Colecchia, Gianfranco Picone, Nunzio Salfi, Francesco Capozzi, Patrizia Brigidi, Davide Festi
OBJECTIVE: The engagement of the gut microbiota in the development of symptoms and complications of diverticular disease has been frequently hypothesised. Our aim was to explore colonic immunocytes, gut microbiota and the metabolome in patients with diverticular disease in a descriptive, cross-sectional, pilot study. DESIGN: Following colonoscopy with biopsy and questionnaire phenotyping, patients were classified into diverticulosis or symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease; asymptomatic subjects served as controls...
September 12, 2016: Gut
Kei E Fujimura, Alexandra R Sitarik, Suzanne Havstad, Din L Lin, Sophia Levan, Douglas Fadrosh, Ariane R Panzer, Brandon LaMere, Elze Rackaityte, Nicholas W Lukacs, Ganesa Wegienka, Homer A Boushey, Dennis R Ownby, Edward M Zoratti, Albert M Levin, Christine C Johnson, Susan V Lynch
Gut microbiota bacterial depletions and altered metabolic activity at 3 months are implicated in childhood atopy and asthma. We hypothesized that compositionally distinct human neonatal gut microbiota (NGM) exist, and are differentially related to relative risk (RR) of childhood atopy and asthma. Using stool samples (n = 298; aged 1-11 months) from a US birth cohort and 16S rRNA sequencing, neonates (median age, 35 d) were divisible into three microbiota composition states (NGM1-3). Each incurred a substantially different RR for multisensitized atopy at age 2 years and doctor-diagnosed asthma at age 4 years...
October 2016: Nature Medicine
Christopher Newell, Marc R Bomhof, Raylene A Reimer, Dustin S Hittel, Jong M Rho, Jane Shearer
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal dysfunction and gut microbial composition disturbances have been widely reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examines whether gut microbiome disturbances are present in the BTBR(T + tf/j) (BTBR) mouse model of ASD and if the ketogenic diet, a diet previously shown to elicit therapeutic benefit in this mouse model, is capable of altering the profile. FINDINGS: Juvenile male C57BL/6 (B6) and BTBR mice were fed a standard chow (CH, 13 % kcal fat) or ketogenic diet (KD, 75 % kcal fat) for 10-14 days...
2016: Molecular Autism
Marlene Remely, Berit Hippe, Julia Zanner, Eva Aumueller, Helmuth Brath, Alexander G Haslberger
Beside the influence of nutritional habits and reduced physical activity, metabolic syndrome is associated with alterations in the structure of gut microbiota influencing the inflammatory immune responses. Gut microbiota and microbial metabolic activities are known to affect the lipid and glucose metabolism, satiety and chronic low-grade inflammation in the metabolic syndrome. The aim of the study was to identify genera or even species affecting host metabolism in obesity and type 2 diabetes beside the commonly used indicator: Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio...
August 30, 2016: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Ashfaqul Alam, Giovanna Leoni, Miguel Quiros, Huixia Wu, Chirayu Desai, Hikaru Nishio, Rheinallt M Jones, Asma Nusrat, Andrew S Neish
The mammalian intestine houses a complex microbial community, which influences normal epithelial growth and development, and is integral to the repair of damaged intestinal mucosa(1-3). Restitution of injured mucosa involves the recruitment of immune cells, epithelial migration and proliferation(4,5). Although microenvironmental alterations have been described in wound healing(6), a role for extrinsic influences, such as members of the microbiota, has not been reported. Here, we show that a distinct subpopulation of the normal mucosal-associated gut microbiota expands and preferentially colonizes sites of damaged murine mucosa in response to local environmental cues...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Angela B Javurek, William G Spollen, Sarah A Johnson, Nathan J Bivens, Karen H Bromert, Scott A Givan, Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Our prior work showed that a novel microbiome resides in the seminal vesicles of wild-type and oestrogen receptor α (Esr1) knock-out mice and is impacted by the presence of functional Esr1 genes. The seminal fluid microbiome (SFM) may influence the health and reproductive status of the male, along with that of his partner and offspring. A high-fat diet (HFD) alters metabolites and other factors within seminal fluid and might affect the SFM. Adult (~15 weeks old) male mice were placed for 4 weeks on a control or high-fat diet and seminal fluid and fecal samples were collected, bacterial DNA isolated and subjected to 16s rRNA sequencing...
August 29, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Zhan Yang, Simo Huang, Dayang Zou, Derong Dong, Xiaoming He, Ningwei Liu, Wei Liu, Liuyu Huang
The importance of gut microbiota to health has gained extensive attention and is strongly correlated with diet. Dietary supplementation with a branched-chain amino acid-enriched mixture (BCAAem) exerts a variety of beneficial effects in mice and humans. In mice, BCAAem supplementation can promote longevity, but its influence on the gut ecosystem and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. To address this issue, BALB/C mice were fed a BCAAem-supplemented diet and their gut microbiomes were analysed by 16S rDNA sequencing...
August 18, 2016: Amino Acids
Hela El Kafsi, Guy Gorochov, Martin Larsen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genetic evolution of multicellular organisms has occurred in response to environmental challenges, including competition for nutrients, climate change, physical and chemical stressors, and pathogens. However, fitness of an organism is dependent not only on defense efficacy, but also on the ability to take advantage of symbiotic organisms. Indeed, microbes not only encompass pathogenicity, but also enable efficient nutrient uptake from diets nondegradable by the host itself...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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