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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788382/colonic-inhibition-of-phosphatase-and-tensin-homolog-increases-colitogenic-bacteria-causing-development-of-colitis-in-il10-mice
#1
Jonathon Mitchell, Su Jin Kim, Georgios Koukos, Alexandra Seelmann, Brendan Veit, Brooke Shepard, Sara Blumer-Schuette, Harland S Winter, Dimitrios Iliopoulos, Charalabos Pothoulakis, Eunok Im, Sang Hoon Rhee
Background: Phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) is capable of mediating microbe-induced immune responses in the gut. Thus, Pten deficiency in the intestine accelerates colitis development in Il10-/- mice. As some ambient pollutants inhibit Pten function and exposure to ambient pollutants may increase inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) incidence, it is of interest to examine how Pten inhibition could affect colitis development in genetically susceptible hosts. Methods: With human colonic mucosa biopsies from pediatric ulcerative colitis and non-IBD control subjects, we assessed the mRNA levels of the PTEN gene and the gene involved in IL10 responses...
May 18, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787870/oral-hydroxysafflor-yellow-a-reduces-obesity-in-mice-by-modulating-the-gut-microbiota-and-serum-metabolism
#2
Juan Liu, Shijun Yue, Zhirui Yan, Wuwen Feng, Xintong Meng, Aiting Wang, Cheng Peng, Changyun Wang, Dan Yan
Given the high and increasing prevalence of obesity, the safe and effective treatment of obesity would be beneficial. Here, we examined whether oral hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), an active compound from the dried florets of Carthamus tinctorius L., can reduce high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 J mice. Our results showed that the average body weight of HF group treated by HSYA was significantly lower than that of the HF group (P < 0.01). HSYA also reduced fat accumulation, ameliorated insulin resistance, restored glucose homeostasis, reduced inflammation, enhanced intestinal integrity, and increased short-chain fatty acids ((SCFAs)) production in HF diet-fed mice...
May 19, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774508/the-bacterial-and-archaeal-community-structures-and-methanogenic-potential-of-the-cecal-microbiota-of-goats-fed-with-hay-and-high-grain-diets
#3
Wei Jin, Yin Li, Yanfen Cheng, Shengyong Mao, Weiyun Zhu
The cecum plays an important role in the feed fermentation of ruminants. However, information is very limited regarding the cecal microbiota and their methane production. In the present study, the cecal content from twelve local Chinese goats, fed with either a hay diet (0% grain) or a high-grain diet (71.5% grain), were used to investigate the bacterial and archaeal community and their methanogenic potential. Microbial community analysis was determined using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and real-time PCR, and the methanogenesis potential was assessed by in vitro fermentation with ground corn or hay as substrates...
May 17, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773876/early-salmonella-typhimurium-infection-in-pigs-disrupts-microbiome-composition-and-functionality-principally-at-the-ileum-mucosa
#4
Héctor Argüello, Jordi Estellé, Sara Zaldívar-López, Ángeles Jiménez-Marín, Ana Carvajal, Mª Asunción López-Bascón, Fiona Crispie, Orla O'Sullivan, Paul D Cotter, Feliciano Priego-Capote, Luis Morera, Juan J Garrido
Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen which successfully infects animal species for human consumption such as swine. The pathogen has a battery of virulence factors which it uses to colonise and persist within the host. The host microbiota may play a role in resistance to, and may also be indirectly responsible from some of the consequences of, Salmonella infection. To investigate this, we used 16S rRNA metagenomic sequencing to determine the changes in the gut microbiota of pigs in response to infection by Salmonella Typhimurium at three locations: ileum mucosa, ileum content and faeces...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772753/dietary-polysaccharide-from-enteromorpha-clathrata-modulates-gut-microbiota-and-promotes-the-growth-of-akkermansia-muciniphila-bifidobacterium-spp-and-lactobacillus-spp
#5
Qingsen Shang, Ya Wang, Lin Pan, Qingfeng Niu, Chao Li, Hao Jiang, Chao Cai, Jiejie Hao, Guoyun Li, Guangli Yu
Recently, accumulating evidence has suggested that Enteromorpha clathrata polysaccharide (ECP) could contribute to the treatment of diseases. However, as a promising candidate for marine drug development, although ECP has been extensively studied, less consideration has been given to exploring its effect on gut microbiota. In this light, given the critical role of gut microbiota in health and disease, we investigated here the effect of ECP on gut microbiota using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. As revealed by bioinformatic analyses, ECP considerably changed the structure of the gut microbiota and significantly promoted the growth of probiotic bacteria in C57BL/6J mice...
May 17, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769431/integrative-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-composition-host-colonic-gene-expression-and-intraluminal-metabolites-in-aging-c57bl-6j-mice
#6
Benthe van der Lugt, Fenni Rusli, Carolien Lute, Andreas Lamprakis, Ethel Salazar, Mark V Boekschoten, Guido J Hooiveld, Michael Müller, Jacques Vervoort, Sander Kersten, Clara Belzer, Dieuwertje E G Kok, Wilma T Steegenga
The aging process is associated with diminished colonic health. In this study, we applied an integrative approach to reveal potential interactions between determinants of colonic health in aging C57BL/6J mice. Analysis of gut microbiota composition revealed an enrichment of various potential pathobionts, including Desulfovibrio spp . , and a decline of the health-promoting Akkermansia spp . and Lactobacillus spp. during aging. Intraluminal concentrations of various metabolites varied between ages and we found evidence for an increased gut permeability at higher age...
May 16, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769268/pbdes-altered-gut-microbiome-and-bile-acid-homeostasis-in-male-c57bl-6-mice
#7
Cindy Yanfei Li, Joseph L Dempsey, Dongfang Wang, SooWan Lee, Kris M Weigel, Qiang Fei, Deepak Kumar Bhatt, Bhagwat Prasad, Daniel Raftery, Haiwei Gu, Julia Yue Cui
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent environmental contaminants with well-characterized toxicities in host organs. Gut microbiome is increasingly recognized as an important regulator of xenobiotic biotransformation; however, little is known about its interactions with PBDEs. Primary bile acids (BAs) are metabolized by the gut microbiome into more lipophilic secondary BAs that may be absorbed and interact with certain host receptors. The goal of this study was to test our hypothesis that PBDEs cause dysbiosis and aberrant regulation of BA homeostasis...
May 16, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766722/effects-of-whole-grain-rice-and-wheat-on-composition-of-gut-microbiota-and-short-chain-fatty-acids-in-rats
#8
Fei Han, Yong Wang, Yangyang Han, Jianxin Zhao, Fenli Han, Ge Song, Ping Jiang, Haijiang Miao
Diets rich in whole grain (WG) cereals bring lower disease risks compared with refined grain-based diets. We investigated the effects of polished rice (PR), refined wheat (RW), unpolished rice (UPR), and whole wheat (WW) on short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and gut microbiota in ileal, cecal, and colonic digesta of normal rats. Animals fed with UPR and WW diets exhibited higher total SCFA in cecal and colonic digesta compared with those fed with PR and RW diets. Wheat diets contributed higher total SCFA than rice diets...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764499/gestational-diabetes-is-associated-with-change-in-the-gut-microbiota-composition-in-third-trimester-of-pregnancy-and-postpartum
#9
Mie Korslund Wiinblad Crusell, Tue Haldor Hansen, Trine Nielsen, Kristine Højgaard Allin, Malte C Rühlemann, Peter Damm, Henrik Vestergaard, Christina Rørbye, Niklas Rye Jørgensen, Ole Bjarne Christiansen, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Andre Franke, Torben Hansen, Jeannet Lauenborg, Oluf Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Imbalances of gut microbiota composition are linked to a range of metabolic perturbations. In the present study, we examined the gut microbiota of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and normoglycaemic pregnant women in late pregnancy and about 8 months postpartum. METHODS: Gut microbiota profiles of women with GDM (n = 50) and healthy (n = 157) pregnant women in the third trimester and 8 months postpartum were assessed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of the V1-V2 region...
May 15, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760909/changes-in-intestinal-microbiota-across-an-altitudinal-gradient-in-the-lizard-phrynocephalus-vlangalii
#10
Wenya Zhang, Na Li, Xiaolong Tang, Naifa Liu, Wei Zhao
High altitude is an important driving force in animal evolution. However, the effect of altitude on gut microbial communities in reptiles has not been examined in detail. Here, we investigated the intestinal microbiota of three populations of the lizard Phrynocephalus vlangalii living at different altitudes using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla. Bacteroides , Odoribacter , and Parabacteroides were the most abundant genera. Significant differences in the intestinal microbiota composition were found among the three populations from different altitudes...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754312/cloning-purification-and-biochemical-characterisation-of-a-gh35-beta-1-3-beta-1-6-galactosidase-from-the-mucin-degrading-gut-bacterium-akkermansia-muciniphila
#11
Bi-Shan Guo, Feng Zheng, Lucy Crouch, Zhi-Peng Cai, Meng Wang, David N Bolam, Li Liu, Josef Voglmeir
A putative GH35 β-galactosidase gene from the mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila was successfully cloned and further investigated. The recombinant enzyme with the molecular mass of 74 kDa was purified to homogeneity and biochemically characterised. The optimum temperature of the enzyme was 42 °C, and the optimum pH was determined to be pH 3.5. The addition of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) reduced the enzyme's activity significantly. The addition of Mg2+ -ions decreased the activity of the β-galactosidase, whereas other metal ions or EDTA showed no inhibitory effect...
May 12, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737097/-quantitative-detection-of-akkermansia-muciniphila-in-fecal-samples-by-real-time-pcr
#12
Qian-Qian Qin, Ling Zhang, Guo-Qing Wang
OBJECTIVE: To develop a real-time fluorescence PCR assay for quantitative detection of Akkermansia muciniphila (A. muciniphila) in fecal samples,providing technical support for quantitative detection and deep research of A.muciniphila. METHODS: The quantitative detection method for A.muciniphila were established by using SYBR Green Ⅰ; The standard curve was made using A.muciniphila standards; The sensitivity,specificity,anti-interference and repeatability of this assay were analyzed; 30 human fecal samples were detected by the established method...
January 2018: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734011/the-ability-of-human-intestinal-anaerobes-to-metabolize-different-oligosaccharides-novel-means-for-microbiota-modulation
#13
Riichi Ose, Katsuaki Hirano, Shintaro Maeno, Junichi Nakagawa, Seppo Salminen, Takumi Tochio, Akihito Endo
Prebiotic oligosaccharides are known to have significant impacts on gut microbiota and are thus widely used to program healthy microbiota composition and activity from infants to the elderly. Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli are among the major target microorganisms of oligosaccharides, but the metabolic properties of oligosaccharides in other predominant gut microbes have not been well characterized. In the present study, we demonstrated the metabolic properties of six oligosaccharides in 31 key gut anaerobes...
May 4, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710384/resveratrol-prevents-the-development-of-hypertension-programmed-by-maternal-plus-post-weaning-high-fructose-consumption-through-modulation-of-oxidative-stress-nutrient-sensing-signals-and-gut-microbiota
#14
You-Lin Tain, Wei-Chia Lee, Kay L H Wu, Steve Leu, Julie Y H Chan
SCOPE: High-fructose (HF) intake, oxidative stress, nutrient-sensing signals, and gut microbiota dysbiosis are closely related to the development of hypertension. We investigated whether resveratrol can prevent hypertension induced by maternal plus post-weaning HF diets in adult offspring via the above-mentioned mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats received either a normal (ND) or 60% high-fructose (HF) diet during gestation and lactation...
April 30, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710029/gender-difference-and-dietary-supplemental-vitamin-b-6-impact-on-colon-luminal-environment
#15
Dwi Eva Nirmagustina, Yongshou Yang, Thanutchaporn Kumrungsee, Noriyuki Yanaka, Norihisa Kato
Colon diseases can be affected by several factors such as gender difference and dietary supplemental vitamin B6 (B6 ). The nutritional status of B6 is affected by gender difference, leading us to hypothesize that gender difference affects colon luminal environment, which is dependent on B6 status. To investigate this hypothesis, we fed male and female rats a diet containing 1 mg, 7 mg, or 35 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg diet for 6 wk. We found significantly higher fecal mucin levels in female rats compared to those in male rats...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705422/influence-of-bactrian-camel-milk-on-the-gut-microbiota
#16
Zhaoxia Wang, Wenyi Zhang, Bini Wang, Fuxin Zhang, Yuyu Shao
Bactrian camel milk has become popular in the market as an important source of nutrients with diverse functional effects. In this study, the influence of Bactrian camel milk on the gut microbiota of mice was studied using metagenomic-based sequencing of the V3 and V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Bioinformatics analysis showed that Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the predominant phyla, accounting for more than 80% of the bacteria present. At the genus level, Allobaculum, Akkermansia, Romboutsia, Bifidobacterium, and Lactobacillus were most abundant in the gut microbiota; of these, Allobaculum and Akkermansia were the predominant genera, representing 40...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705028/food-microbiome-and-colorectal-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Lukas Niederreiter, Timon E Adolph, Herbert Tilg
You are what you eat. This adage has been confirmed by many studies demonstrating the high impact of nutrition on risk of cardiovascular diseases, many malignancies and other diseases. Dietary factors are of major relevance in the evolution of colorectal carcinoma. Various aspects are involved in colorectal carcinoma pathogenesis including genetics, lifestyle, age, chronic inflammation and others. It has only recently been recognized that the gut microbiota might reflect an important missing link in the interaction between diet and subsequent colorectal carcinoma development...
April 3, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703936/ketogenic-diet-enhances-neurovascular-function-with-altered-gut-microbiome-in-young-healthy-mice
#18
David Ma, Amy C Wang, Ishita Parikh, Stefan J Green, Jared D Hoffman, George Chlipala, M Paul Murphy, Brent S Sokola, Björn Bauer, Anika M S Hartz, Ai-Ling Lin
Neurovascular integrity, including cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) function, plays a major role in determining cognitive capability. Recent studies suggest that neurovascular integrity could be regulated by the gut microbiome. The purpose of the study was to identify if ketogenic diet (KD) intervention would alter gut microbiome and enhance neurovascular functions, and thus reduce risk for neurodegeneration in young healthy mice (12-14 weeks old). Here we show that with 16 weeks of KD, mice had significant increases in CBF and P-glycoprotein transports on BBB to facilitate clearance of amyloid-beta, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701959/prebiotic-mannan-oligosaccharides-augment-the-hypoglycemic-effects-of-metformin-in-correlation-with-modulating-gut-microbiota
#19
Jialin Zheng, Heng Li, Xiaojuan Zhang, Min Jiang, Chunqin Luo, Zhenming Lu, Zheng-Hong Xu, Jin-Song Shi
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) induced by obesity and high-fat diet is significantly associated with gut microbiota dysbacteriosis. Due to the first line clinical medicine of metformin has several intestinal drawbacks, combination usage of metformin with a prebiotic of konjac mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) was conceived and implemented aiming to investigate whether there was some intestinal synergetic effects and how MOS would function. Composite treatment of metformin and MOS demonstrated synergistic effects on ameliorating insulin resistance and glucose tolerance, and repairing islet and hepatic histology...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692798/the-presence-of-genotoxic-and-or-pro-inflammatory-bacterial-genes-in-gut-metagenomic-databases-and-their-possible-link-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#20
Abiel Roche-Lima, Kelvin Carrasquillo-Carrión, Ramón Gómez-Moreno, Juan M Cruz, Dayanara M Velázquez-Morales, Igor B Rogozin, Abel Baerga-Ortiz
Background: The human gut microbiota is a dynamic community of microorganisms that mediate important biochemical processes. Differences in the gut microbial composition have been associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and other intestinal disorders. In this study, we quantified and compared the frequencies of eight genotoxic and/or pro-inflammatory bacterial genes found in metagenomic Whole Genome Sequences (mWGSs) of samples from individuals with IBD vs. a cohort of healthy human subjects. Methods: The eight selected gene sequences were clbN, clbB, cif, cnf-1, usp, tcpC from Escherichia coli, gelE from Enterococcus faecalis and murB from Akkermansia muciniphila ...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
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