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Akkermansia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199741/melatonin-prevents-obesity-through-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#1
Pengfei Xu, Jialin Wang, Fan Hong, Sheng Wang, Xi Jin, Tingting Xue, Li Jia, Yonggong Zhai
Excess weight and obesity are severe public health threats worldwide. Recent evidence demonstrates that gut microbiota dysbiosis contributes to obesity and its comorbidities. The body weight-reducing and energy balancing effects of melatonin have been reported in several studies, but to date, no investigations toward examining whether the beneficial effects of melatonin are associated with gut microbiota have been carried out. In this study, we show that melatonin reduces body weight, liver steatosis, and low-grade inflammation as well as improving insulin resistance in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191503/differences-in-gut-metabolites-and-microbial-composition-and-functions-between-egyptian-and-u-s-children-are-consistent-with-their-diets
#2
V Shankar, M Gouda, J Moncivaiz, A Gordon, N V Reo, L Hussein, O Paliy
Previous studies indicated that populations consuming a Mediterranean diet rich in fiber, vegetables, and fruits have a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases than populations of industrialized societies consuming diets enriched in processed carbohydrates, animal proteins, and fats. To explore the potential contributions of gut microbiota to the observed diet-related metabolic effects, we conducted an integrative analysis of distal gut microbiota composition and functions and intestinal metabolites in Egyptian and U...
January 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187199/differences-in-gut-microbiota-profile-between-women-with-active-lifestyle-and-sedentary-women
#3
Carlo Bressa, María Bailén-Andrino, Jennifer Pérez-Santiago, Rocío González-Soltero, Margarita Pérez, Maria Gregoria Montalvo-Lominchar, Jose Luis Maté-Muñoz, Raúl Domínguez, Diego Moreno, Mar Larrosa
Physical exercise is a tool to prevent and treat some of the chronic diseases affecting the world's population. A mechanism through which exercise could exert beneficial effects in the body is by provoking alterations to the gut microbiota, an environmental factor that in recent years has been associated with numerous chronic diseases. Here we show that physical exercise performed by women to at least the degree recommended by the World Health Organization can modify the composition of gut microbiota. Using high-throughput sequencing of the 16s rRNA gene, eleven genera were found to be significantly different between active and sedentary women...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180212/kodo-millet-whole-grain-and-bran-supplementation-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-derangements-in-a-lipid-profile-inflammatory-status-and-gut-bacteria-in-mice
#4
Siddhartha M Sarma, Pragyanshu Khare, Sneha Jagtap, Dhirendra P Singh, Ritesh K Baboota, Koteswaraiah Podili, Ravneet K Boparai, Jaspreet Kaur, Kamlesh K Bhutani, Mahendra Bishnoi, Kanthi Kiran Kondepudi
The protective role of kodo millet whole grain and bran supplementation in diet induced obesity has not been investigated. Here we have studied the role of kodo millet supplementation in age matched Swiss albino mice that were randomly divided into groups and fed their respective diets for 16 weeks. A high fat diet increased weight gain, reduced glucose tolerance, increased serum lipids, altered hepatic and adipocyte gene expression and caused dysbiosis in the intestinal beneficial bacteria. Kodo millet supplementation did not affect weight gain but it improved glucose tolerance and prevented an increase in the serum cholesterol and lipid parameters (P ≤ 0...
February 9, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153961/novel-insight-into-the-role-of-microbiota-in-colorectal-surgery
#5
REVIEW
Radu Bachmann, Daniel Leonard, Nathalie Delzenne, Alex Kartheuser, Patrice D Cani
Recent literature undeniably supports the idea that the microbiota has a strong influence on the healing process of an intestinal anastomosis. Understanding the mechanisms by which the bacterial community of the gut influences intestinal healing could open the door for new preventive and therapeutic approaches. Among the different mechanisms, data have shown that the production of specific reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activation of specific formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) regulate intestinal wound healing...
February 2, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134261/characterization-of-faecal-microbial-communities-of-dairy-cows-fed-diets-containing-ensiled-moringa-oleifera-fodder
#6
Jiajie Sun, Bin Zeng, Zujing Chen, Shijuan Yan, Wenjie Huang, Baoli Sun, Qian He, Xiaoyang Chen, Ting Chen, Qingyan Jiang, Qianyun Xi, Yongliang Zhang
Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) is a remarkable species with high nutritional value and good biomass production, which can be used as livestock fodder. In this study, we examined changes in the faecal microbiota of thirty dairy cows in response to alternative M. oleifera diets and their effects on nutrient digestion, milk traits and the faecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids. No differences in milk yield and constituents were found between the control and the M. oleifera alternative groups. Cows fed M...
January 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116930/preparation-and-preservation-of-viable-akkermansia-muciniphila-cells-for-therapeutic-interventions
#7
J P Ouwerkerk, S Aalvink, C Belzer, W M De Vos
The anaerobic gut bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila is a well-characterised member of the mucosal microbiota and has shown to be a gut symbiont in human. A. muciniphila has been negatively associated with obesity and its associated metabolic disorders in various human cohorts while treatment with A. muciniphila cells reversed highfat diet-induced obesity and its associated metabolic disorders in mouse models. Therefore, administration of A. muciniphila has been suggested as a possible new therapeutic treatment for these omnipresent diseases...
January 24, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115375/ursodeoxycholic-acid-and-its-taurine-glycine-conjugated-species-reduce-colitogenic-dysbiosis-and-equally-suppress-experimental-colitis-in-mice
#8
Lien Van den Bossche, Pieter Hindryckx, Lindsey Devisscher, Sarah Devriese, Sophie Van Welden, Tom Holvoet, Ramiro Vilchez-Vargas, Marius Vital, Dietmar H Pieper, Julie Vanden Bussche, Lynn Vanhaecke, Tom Van de Wiele, Martine De Vos, Debby Laukens
: The promising results with secondary bile acids in experimental colitis suggest that they may represent an attractive and safe class of drugs for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, the exact mechanism by which bile acid therapy confers protection from colitogenesis is currently unknown. Since the gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of IBD, and exogenous bile acid administration may affect the community structure of the microbiota, we examined the impact of the secondary bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its taurine/glycine conjugates on the fecal microbial community structure during experimental colitis...
January 23, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070563/gut-microbiome-of-the-canadian-arctic-inuit
#9
Catherine Girard, Nicolas Tromas, Marc Amyot, B Jesse Shapiro
Diet is a major determinant of community composition in the human gut microbiome, and "traditional" diets have been associated with distinct and highly diverse communities, compared to Western diets. However, most traditional diets studied have been those of agrarians and hunter-gatherers consuming fiber-rich diets. In contrast, the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic have been consuming a traditional diet low in carbohydrates and rich in animal fats and protein for thousands of years. We hypothesized that the Inuit diet and lifestyle would be associated with a distinct microbiome...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057747/complete-genome-sequence-of-akkermansia-glycaniphila-strain-pytt-a-mucin-degrading-specialist-of-the-reticulated-python-gut
#10
Janneke P Ouwerkerk, Jasper J Koehorst, Peter J Schaap, Jarmo Ritari, Lars Paulin, Clara Belzer, Willem M de Vos
Akkermansia glycaniphila is a novel Akkermansia species that was isolated from the intestine of the reticulated python and shares the capacity to degrade mucin with the human strain Akkermansia muciniphila Muc(T) Here, we report the complete genome sequence of strain Pyt(T) of 3,074,121 bp. The genomic analysis reveals genes for mucin degradation and aerobic respiration.
January 5, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035686/interaction-between-atypical-antipsychotics-and-the-gut-microbiome-in-a-bipolar-disease-cohort
#11
Stephanie A Flowers, Simon J Evans, Kristen M Ward, Melvin G McInnis, Vicki L Ellingrod
OBJECTIVES: The atypical antipsychotic (AAP) class is often associated with metabolic disease, but the mechanistic underpinnings of this risk are not understood. Due to reports linking gut bacteria function to metabolic disease, we hypothesize that AAP-treatment in adults results in gut dysbiosis potentiating metabolic criteria. This report describes recent findings linking AAP-treatment with differences in gut microbiota communities in a human cohort with bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: In a cross- sectional design, we obtained 16S ribosomal sequences from 117 BD patients (49 AAP-treated, 68 non-AAP treated)...
December 30, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008148/dysbiosis-of-urinary-microbiota-is-positively-correlated-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#12
Fengping Liu, Zongxin Ling, Yonghong Xiao, Longxian Lv, Qing Yang, Baohong Wang, Haifeng Lu, Li Zheng, Ping Jiang, Wei Wang, Lanjuan Li
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may be associated with altered urinary microbiota in female patients. We investigated alterations of urinary microbiota in Chinese female T2DM patients, and explored the associations between urinary microbiota and a patient's fasting blood glucose (FBG), urine glucose (UGLU), age, menstrual status, and body mass index (BMI). Midstream urine was collected from 70 female T2DM patients and 70 healthy females. Microbial diversity and composition were analyzed using the Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform by targeting the hypervariable V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene...
December 19, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999002/metformin-is-associated-with-higher-relative-abundance-of-mucin-degrading-akkermansia-muciniphila-and-several-short-chain-fatty-acid-producing-microbiota-in-the-gut
#13
Jacobo de la Cuesta-Zuluaga, Noel T Mueller, Vanessa Corrales-Agudelo, Eliana P Velásquez-Mejía, Jenny A Carmona, José M Abad, Juan S Escobar
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggest the beneficial effects of metformin on glucose metabolism may be microbially mediated. We examined the association of type 2 diabetes, metformin, and gut microbiota in community-dwelling Colombian adults. On the basis of previous research, we hypothesized that metformin is associated with higher levels of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing and mucin-degrading microbiota. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants were selected from a larger cohort of 459 participants...
January 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982124/the-human-intestinal-microbiota-of-constipated-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome-patients-exhibits-anti-inflammatory-properties
#14
Alain P Gobert, Giulia Sagrestani, Eve Delmas, Keith T Wilson, Thomas G Verriere, Michel Dapoigny, Christophe Del'homme, Annick Bernalier-Donadille
The intestinal microbiota of patients with constipated-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (C-IBS) displays chronic dysbiosis. Our aim was to determine whether this microbial imbalance instigates perturbation of the host intestinal mucosal immune response, using a model of human microbiota-associated rats (HMAR) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis. The analysis of the microbiota composition revealed a decrease of the relative abundance of Bacteroides, Roseburia-Eubacterium rectale and Bifidobacterium and an increase of Enterobacteriaceae, Desulfovibrio sp...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980489/intestinal-microbiome-akkermansia-muciniphila-and-medical-nutrition-therapy
#15
EDITORIAL
Jeffrey Bland
The gastrointestinal microbiome has become a topic of great interest in medicine in recent years. Genomic sequencing can now be done at a fraction of the cost of a few years ago, and this has allowed for the development and compilation of an extensive amount of data related to the species diversity of the human gastrointestinal microbiome.1 Studies have demonstrated that the intestinal microbiome is sensitive to the composition of the diet.2 It is also recognized that the composition of the microbiome can be altered rapidly in response to dietary changes, stress, chemical exposure, and exercise...
October 2016: Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976725/modulation-of-gut-microbiota-and-delayed-immunosenescence-as-a-result-of-syringaresinol-consumption-in-middle-aged-mice
#16
Si-Young Cho, Juewon Kim, Ji Hae Lee, Ji Hyun Sim, Dong-Hyun Cho, Il-Hong Bae, Hyunbok Lee, Min A Seol, Hyun Mu Shin, Tae-Joo Kim, Dae-Yong Kim, Su-Hyung Lee, Song Seok Shin, Sin-Hyeog Lm, Hang-Rae Kim
Age-associated immunological dysfunction (immunosenescence) is closely linked to perturbation of the gut microbiota. Here, we investigated whether syringaresinol (SYR), a polyphenolic lignan, modulates immune aging and the gut microbiota associated with this effect in middle-aged mice. Compared with age-matched control mice, SYR treatment delayed immunosenescence by enhancing the numbers of total CD3(+) T cells and naïve T cells. SYR treatment induced the expression of Bim as well as activation of FOXO3 in Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs)...
December 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940244/pomegranate-ellagitannins-stimulate-the-growth-of-akkermansia-muciniphila-in%C3%A2-vivo
#17
Susanne M Henning, Paula H Summanen, Ru-Po Lee, Jieping Yang, Sydney M Finegold, David Heber, Zhaoping Li
Results from our previous human pomegranate extract (POM extract) intervention study demonstrated that about seventy percent of participants were able to form urolithin A from ellagitannins in the intestine (urolithin A producers). Urolithin A formation was associated with a high proportion of Akkermansia muciniphila in fecal bacterial samples as determined by 16S rRNA sequencing. Here we investigated whether A. muciniphila counts increased in stool samples collected after the POM extract intervention compared to baseline stool samples using real-time PCR...
December 7, 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924082/duodenal-endoluminal-barrier-sleeve-alters-gut-microbiota-of-zdf-rats
#18
T Kim, C L Holleman, T Ptacek, C D Morrow, K M Habegger
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The combination of energy dense diets and reduced energy expenditure in modern society has escalated the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related comorbidities. Among these disease states, type-2 diabetics (T2D) are disproportionately associated with obesity, suggesting a shared etiology. In conjunction with defects in hormonal and inflammatory states, obesity and T2D are also characterized by dysbiosis. METHODS: We have recently described the beneficial effects of duodenal nutrient exclusion, as induced by the duodenal endoluminal sleeve (DES); including body weight loss, prevented fat mass accumulation, and improved glucose tolerance in the ZDF rat, a rodent model of obesity and type-2 diabetes (T2D)...
January 3, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903747/improved-glucose-homeostasis-in-obese-mice-treated-with-resveratrol-is-associated-with-alterations-in-the-gut-microbiome
#19
Miranda M Sung, Ty T Kim, Emmanuel Denou, Carrie-Lynn M Soltys, Shereen M Hamza, Nikole J Byrne, Grant Masson, Heekuk Park, David S Wishart, Karen L Madsen, Jonathan D Schertzer, Jason R B Dyck
Oral administration of resveratrol is able to improve glucose homeostasis in obese individuals. Herein we show that resveratrol ingestion produces taxonomic and predicted functional changes in the gut microbiome of obese mice. In particular, changes in the gut microbiome were characterized by a decreased relative abundance of Turicibacteraceae, Moryella, Lachnospiraceae, and Akkermansia and increased relative abundance of Bacteroides and Parabacteroides Moreover, fecal transfer from healthy resveratrol-fed donor mice is sufficient to improve glucose homeostasis in obese mice, suggesting that the resveratrol-mediated changes in the gut microbiome may play an important role in the mechanism of action of resveratrol...
November 30, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895587/vitamin-d-signaling-through-induction-of-paneth-cell-defensins-maintains-gut-microbiota-and-improves-metabolic-disorders-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-animal-models
#20
Danmei Su, Yuanyang Nie, Airu Zhu, Zishuo Chen, Pengfei Wu, Li Zhang, Mei Luo, Qun Sun, Linbi Cai, Yuchen Lai, Zhixiong Xiao, Zhongping Duan, Sujun Zheng, Guihui Wu, Richard Hu, Hidekazu Tsukamoto, Aurelia Lugea, Zhenqui Liu, Stephen J Pandol, Yuan-Ping Han
Metabolic syndrome (MetS), characterized as obesity, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD), is associated with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency in epidemiological studies, while the underlying mechanism is poorly addressed. On the other hand, disorder of gut microbiota, namely dysbiosis, is known to cause MetS and NAFLD. It is also known that systemic inflammation blocks insulin signaling pathways, leading to insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, which are the driving force for hepatic steatosis...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
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