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Akkermansia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924082/duodenal-endoluminal-barrier-sleeve-alters-gut-microbiota-of-zdf-rats
#1
T Kim, C L Holleman, T Ptacek, C D Morrow, K M Habegger
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The combination of energy dense diets and reduced energy expenditure in modern society has escalated the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related comorbidities. Among these disease-states, type-2 diabetics (T2D) are disproportionately associated with obesity, suggesting a shared etiology. In conjunction with defects in hormonal and inflammatory states, obesity and T2D are also characterized by dysbiosis. METHODS: We have recently described the beneficial effects of duodenal nutrient exclusion, as induced by the duodenal endoluminal sleeve (DES); including body weight loss, prevented fat mass accumulation, and improved glucose tolerance in the ZDF rat, a rodent model of obesity and type-2 diabetes (T2D)...
December 7, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903747/improved-glucose-homeostasis-in-obese-mice-treated-with-resveratrol-is-associated-with-alterations-in-the-gut-microbiome
#2
Miranda M Sung, Ty T Kim, Emmanuel Denou, Carrie-Lynn M Soltys, Shereen M Hamza, Nikole J Byrne, Grant Masson, Heekuk Park, David S Wishart, Karen L Madsen, Jonathan D Schertzer, Jason R B Dyck
Oral administration of resveratrol is able to improve glucose homeostasis in obese individuals. Herein we show that resveratrol ingestion produces taxonomic and predicted functional changes in the gut microbiome of obese mice. In particular, changes in the gut microbiome were characterized by a decreased relative abundance of Turicibacteraceae, Moryella, Lachnospiraceae, and Akkermansia and increased relative abundance of Bacteroides and Parabacteroides Moreover, fecal transfer from healthy resveratrol-fed donor mice is sufficient to improve glucose homeostasis in obese mice, suggesting that the resveratrol-mediated changes in the gut microbiome may play an important role in the mechanism of action of resveratrol...
November 30, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895587/vitamin-d-signaling-through-induction-of-paneth-cell-defensins-maintains-gut-microbiota-and-improves-metabolic-disorders-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-animal-models
#3
Danmei Su, Yuanyang Nie, Airu Zhu, Zishuo Chen, Pengfei Wu, Li Zhang, Mei Luo, Qun Sun, Linbi Cai, Yuchen Lai, Zhixiong Xiao, Zhongping Duan, Sujun Zheng, Guihui Wu, Richard Hu, Hidekazu Tsukamoto, Aurelia Lugea, Zhenqui Liu, Stephen J Pandol, Yuan-Ping Han
Metabolic syndrome (MetS), characterized as obesity, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD), is associated with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency in epidemiological studies, while the underlying mechanism is poorly addressed. On the other hand, disorder of gut microbiota, namely dysbiosis, is known to cause MetS and NAFLD. It is also known that systemic inflammation blocks insulin signaling pathways, leading to insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, which are the driving force for hepatic steatosis...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892954/a-purified-membrane-protein-from-akkermansia-muciniphila-or-the-pasteurized-bacterium-improves-metabolism-in-obese-and-diabetic-mice
#4
Hubert Plovier, Amandine Everard, Céline Druart, Clara Depommier, Matthias Van Hul, Lucie Geurts, Julien Chilloux, Noora Ottman, Thibaut Duparc, Laeticia Lichtenstein, Antonis Myridakis, Nathalie M Delzenne, Judith Klievink, Arnab Bhattacharjee, Kees C H van der Ark, Steven Aalvink, Laurent O Martinez, Marc-Emmanuel Dumas, Dominique Maiter, Audrey Loumaye, Michel P Hermans, Jean-Paul Thissen, Clara Belzer, Willem M de Vos, Patrice D Cani
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with low-grade inflammation and specific changes in gut microbiota composition. We previously demonstrated that administration of Akkermansia muciniphila to mice prevents the development of obesity and associated complications. However, the underlying mechanisms of this protective effect remain unclear. Moreover, the sensitivity of A. muciniphila to oxygen and the presence of animal-derived compounds in its growth medium currently limit the development of translational approaches for human medicine...
November 28, 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824274/in-vitro-colonisation-of-the-distal-colon-by-akkermansia-muciniphila-is-largely-mucin-and-ph-dependent
#5
F Van Herreweghen, P Van den Abbeele, T De Mulder, R De Weirdt, A Geirnaert, E Hernandez-Sanabria, R Vilchez-Vargas, R Jauregui, D H Pieper, C Belzer, W M De Vos, T Van de Wiele
Host mucin is the main constituent of the mucus layer that covers the gut epithelium of the host, and an important source of glycans for the bacteria colonising the intestine. Akkermansia muciniphila is a mucin-degrading bacterium, abundant in the human gut, that is able to produce acetate and propionate during this degradation process. A. muciniphila has been correlated with human health in previous studies, but a mechanistic explanation is lacking. In this study, the main site of colonisation was characterised alongside additional conditions, such as differences in colon pH, prebiotic supplementation and variable mucin supply...
November 8, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821438/akkermansia-muciniphila-improves-metabolic-profiles-by-reducing-inflammation-in-chow-diet-fed-mice
#6
Shaoqian Zhao, Wen Liu, Jiqiu Wang, Juan Shi, Yingkai Sun, Weiqing Wang, Guang Ning, Ruixin Liu, Jie Hong
Abnormal shifts in the composition of gut microbiota contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The crosstalk between gut microbes and the host affects the inflammatory status and glucose tolerance of the individuals, but the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated completely. In this study, we treated the lean chow diet-fed mice with Akkermansia muciniphila, which is thought to be inversely correlated with inflammation status and body weight in rodents and humans, and we found that A...
January 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812583/the-modulatory-effect-of-infusions-of-green-tea-oolong-tea-and-black-tea-on-gut-microbiota-in-high-fat-induced-obese-mice
#7
Zhibin Liu, Zhichao Chen, Hongwen Guo, Dongping He, Huiru Zhao, Zhiyao Wang, Wen Zhang, Lan Liao, Chen Zhang, Li Ni
Tea consumption has been identified to have an anti-obesity effect. Whether it is associated with gut microbiota modulation is investigated in this study. Phenolic profiles of infusions of green tea, oolong tea and black tea were comprehensively compared first, by utilizing ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOFMS). Subsequently, high-fat-diet induced obese C57BL/6J mice were orally administered these three types of tea infusions for 13 weeks to evaluate their anti-obesity and gut microbiota modulatory effects...
November 4, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812181/altered-gut-microbiota-composition-associated-with-eczema-in-infants
#8
Huajun Zheng, Hong Liang, Yuezhu Wang, Maohua Miao, Tao Shi, Fen Yang, Enuo Liu, Wei Yuan, Zai-Si Ji, De-Kun Li
Eczema is frequently the first manifestation of an atopic diathesis and alteration in the diversity of gut microbiota has been reported in infants with eczema. To identify specific bacterial communities associated with eczema, we conducted a case-control study of 50 infants with eczema (cases) and 51 healthy infants (controls). We performed high-throughput sequencing for V3-V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA genes from the gut fecal material. A total of 12,386 OTUs (operational taxonomic units) at a 97% similarity level were obtained from the two groups, and we observed a difference in taxa abundance, but not the taxonomic composition, of gut microbiota between the two groups...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812119/daesiho-tang-is-an-effective-herbal-formulation-in-attenuation-of-obesity-in-mice-through-alteration-of-gene-expression-and-modulation-of-intestinal-microbiota
#9
Ahtesham Hussain, Mukesh Kumar Yadav, Shambhunath Bose, Jing-Hua Wang, Dongwoo Lim, Yun-Kyung Song, Seong-Gyu Ko, Hojun Kim
BACKGROUND: Obesity has become a major global health challenge due to its increasing prevalence, and the associated health risk. It is the main cause of various metabolic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, stroke and certain forms of cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present study we evaluated the anti-obesity property of Daesiho-tang (DSHT), an herbal medicine, using high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice as a model. Our results showed that DSHT ameliorated body weight gain, decreased total body fat, regulated expression of leptin and adiponectin genes of adipose tissue and exerted an anti-diabetic effect by attenuating fasting glucose level and serum insulin level in HFD-fed animals...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805918/early-changes-in-microbial-community-structure-are-associated-with-sustained-remission-after-nutritional-treatment-of-pediatric-crohn-s-disease
#10
Katherine A Dunn, Jessica Moore-Connors, Brad MacIntyre, Andrew W Stadnyk, Nikhil A Thomas, Angela Noble, Gamal Mahdi, Mohsin Rashid, Anthony R Otley, Joseph P Bielawski, Johan Van Limbergen
BACKGROUND: Clinical remission achieved by exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is associated with marked microbiome changes. In this prospective study of exclusive enteral nutrition, we employ a hierarchical model of microbial community structure to distinguish between pediatric Crohn's disease patients who achieved sustained remission (SR) and those who relapsed early (non-SR), after restarting a normal diet. METHODS: Fecal samples were obtained from 10 patients (age 10-16) and from 5 healthy controls (age 9-14)...
December 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768776/in-vivo-effects-of-pichia-pastoris-expressed-antimicrobial-peptide-hepcidin-on-the-community-composition-and-metabolism-gut-microbiota-of-rats
#11
Lanfang Tian, Siyuan Chen, Haiyan Liu, Mingzhang Guo, Wentao Xu, Xiaoyun He, Yunbo Luo, Xiaozhe Qi, Hongxia Luo, Kunlun Huang
Hepcidin, one kind of antimicrobial peptides, is one of the promising alternatives to antibiotics with broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Hepcidins cloned from different kinds of fishes have been produced using exogenous expression systems, and their in vitro antimicrobial effects have been verified. However their in vivo effects on gut microbiota and gut health of hosts remain unclear. Here we performed a safety study of hepcidin so that it can be used to reduce microbial contaminations in the food and feed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757389/the-monoclonal-antitoxin-antibodies-actoxumab-bezlotoxumab-treatment-facilitates-normalization-of-the-gut-microbiota-of-mice-with-clostridium-difficile-infection
#12
Mária Džunková, Giuseppe D'Auria, Hua Xu, Jun Huang, Yinghua Duan, Andrés Moya, Ciarán P Kelly, Xinhua Chen
Antibiotics have significant and long-lasting impacts on the intestinal microbiota and consequently reduce colonization resistance against Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Standard therapy using antibiotics is associated with a high rate of disease recurrence, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies that target toxins, the major virulence factors, rather than the organism itself. Human monoclonal antibodies MK-3415A (actoxumab-bezlotoxumab) to C. difficile toxin A and toxin B, as an emerging non-antibiotic approach, significantly reduced the recurrence of CDI in animal models and human clinical trials...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753990/ed-05-2-interaction-of-gut-dysbiosis-and-innate-immune-dysfunction-in-the-development-of-metabolic-syndrome
#13
Myung-Shik Lee
Low-grade systemic inflammation in adipose tissues or liver, is an important etiologic factor in insulin resistance. LPS is an important element causing such metabolic inflammation, and intestinal flora is considered a major source of systemic LPS. We studied changes of intestinal microbiota associated with high-fat diet (HFD) that causes insulin resistance and metabolic stress. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that HFD significantly decreased the abundance of a mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to control diet...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733402/protein-and-zinc-deficient-diets-modulate-the-murine-microbiome-and-metabolic-phenotype
#14
Jordi Mayneris-Perxachs, David T Bolick, Joy Leng, Greg L Medlock, Glynis L Kolling, Jason A Papin, Jonathan R Swann, Richard L Guerrant
BACKGROUND: Environmental enteropathy, which is linked to undernutrition and chronic infections, affects the physical and mental growth of children in developing areas worldwide. Key to understanding how these factors combine to shape developmental outcomes is to first understand the effects of nutritional deficiencies on the mammalian system including the effect on the gut microbiota. OBJECTIVE: We dissected the nutritional components of environmental enteropathy by analyzing the specific metabolic and gut-microbiota changes that occur in weaned-mouse models of zinc or protein deficiency compared with well-nourished controls...
November 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716140/longitudinal-survey-of-clostridium-difficile-presence-and-gut-microbiota-composition-in-a-belgian-nursing-home
#15
Cristina Rodriguez, Bernard Taminiau, Nicolas Korsak, Véronique Avesani, Johan Van Broeck, Philippe Brach, Michel Delmée, Georges Daube
BACKGROUND: Increasing age, several co-morbidities, environmental contamination, antibiotic exposure and other intestinal perturbations appear to be the greatest risk factors for C. difficile infection (CDI). Therefore, elderly care home residents are considered particularly vulnerable to the infection. The main objective of this study was to evaluate and follow the prevalence of C. difficile in 23 elderly care home residents weekly during a 4-month period. A C. difficile microbiological detection scheme was performed along with an overall microbial biodiversity study of the faeces content by 16S rRNA gene analysis...
October 1, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709286/effects-of-deep-sea-water-and-lactobacillus-paracasei-subsp-paracasei-ntu-101-on-hypercholesterolemia-hamsters-gut-microbiota
#16
Chih-Hui Lin, Yu-Hsin Chen, Tsung-Yu Tsai, Tzu-Ming Pan
Hypercholesterolemia is a common metabolic syndrome in modern human society. Despite that the alteration of host gut microbiota has been linked to hypercholesterolemia in previous studies, the key host-microbiota interaction of hypercholesterolemia remains elusive. Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101 (NTU 101) and deep sea water (DSW) were known for cholesterol-lowering potential. The impact of NTU 101 and DSW on hamster gut microbiota was investigated side-by-side using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and metagenomic analysis in this study...
October 5, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678062/aguamiel-concentrate-from-agave-salmiana-and-its-extracted-saponins-attenuated-obesity-and-hepatic-steatosis-and-increased-akkermansia-muciniphila-in-c57bl6-mice
#17
Ana María Leal-Díaz, Lilia G Noriega, Ivan Torre-Villalvazo, Nimbe Torres, Gabriela Alemán-Escondrillas, Patricia López-Romero, Mónica Sánchez-Tapia, Miriam Aguilar-López, Janette Furuzawa-Carballeda, Laura A Velázquez-Villegas, Azalia Avila-Nava, Guillermo Ordáz, Janet A Gutiérrez-Uribe, Sergio O Serna-Saldivar, Armando R Tovar
Obesity and its comorbidities are a severe public health problem worldwide. The use of bioactive compounds found in some foods has been demonstrated to ameliorate the metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the bioactive compounds present in aguamiel concentrate (AC) from Agave salmiana could attenuate glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high fat (HF) diet. HPLC-ELSD analysis showed that AC contained several saponins. The consumption of an AC extract rich in saponins reduced weight gain and fat mass and lowered serum glucose, insulin and LDL-cholesterol levels in mice fed a HF diet...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663027/adaptation-of-akkermansia-muciniphila-to-the-oxic-anoxic-interface-of-the-mucus-layer
#18
Janneke P Ouwerkerk, Kees C H van der Ark, Mark Davids, Nico J Claassens, Teresa Robert Finestra, Willem M de Vos, Clara Belzer
: Akkermansia muciniphila colonizes the mucus layer of the gastrointestinal tract where the organism can be exposed to the oxygen that diffuses from epithelial cells. To understand how A. muciniphila is able to survive and grow at this oxic-anoxic interface, its oxygen tolerance, response and reduction capacities were studied. A. muciniphila was found to be oxygen-tolerant. On top of this, under aerated conditions, A. muciniphila showed significant oxygen reduction capacities and its growth rate and yield were increased as compared to strict anaerobic conditions...
September 23, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642901/ed-05-2-interaction-of-gut-dysbiosis-and-innate-immune-dysfunction-in-the-development-of-metabolic-syndrome
#19
Myung-Shik Lee
Low-grade systemic inflammation in adipose tissues or liver, is an important etiologic factor in insulin resistance. LPS is an important element causing such metabolic inflammation, and intestinal flora is considered a major source of systemic LPS. We studied changes of intestinal microbiota associated with high-fat diet (HFD) that causes insulin resistance and metabolic stress. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that HFD significantly decreased the abundance of a mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to control diet...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635781/insulin-sensitivity-enhancing-activity-of-phlorizin-is-associated-with-lipopolysaccharide-decrease-and-gut-microbiota-changes-in-obese-and-type-2-diabetes-db-db-mice
#20
Xueran Mei, Xiaoyu Zhang, Zhanguo Wang, Ziyang Gao, Gang Liu, Huiling Hu, Liang Zou, Xueli Li
Phlorizin exists in a number of fruits and foods and exhibits many bioactivities. The mechanism of its antidiabetic effect has been known as it can competitively inhibit sodium-glucose symporters (SGLTs). However, phlorizin has a wide range of two-phase metabolism in systemic circulation and shows poor oral bioavailability. An alternative mechanism may involve gut microbiota in intestine. Sixteen obese mice with type 2 diabetes (db/db) and eight age-matched control mice (db/+) were divided into three groups: diabetic group treated with phlorizin (DMT group), vehicle-treated diabetic group (DM group), and normal control group (CC group)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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