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Akkermansia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339259/perturbations-of-the-gut-microbiome-genes-in-infants-with-atopic-dermatitis-according-to-feeding-type
#1
Min-Jung Lee, Mi-Jin Kang, So-Yeon Lee, Eun Lee, Kangjin Kim, Sungho Won, Dong In Suh, Kyung Won Kim, Youn Ho Sheen, Kangmo Ahn, Bong-Soo Kim, Soo-Jong Hong
BACKGROUND: Perturbations of the infant gut microbiota can shape the development of the immune system and link to the risk of allergic diseases. OBJECTIVE: To understand the role of the gut microbiome in atopic dermatitis, the metagenome of the infant gut microbiome was analyzed according to feeding types. METHODS: The composition of gut microbiota was analyzed in fecal samples from 129 infants (6-month-old) by pyrosequencing, including 66 healthy infants and 63 infants with atopic dermatitis...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330494/characterizing-the-bacterial-microbiota-in-different-gastrointestinal-tract-segments-of-the-bactrian-camel
#2
Jing He, Li Yi, Le Hai, Liang Ming, Wanting Gao, Rimutu Ji
The bacterial community plays important roles in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of animals. However, our understanding of the microbial communities in the GIT of Bactrian camels remains limited. Here, we describe the bacterial communities from eight different GIT segments (rumen, reticulum, abomasum, duodenum, ileum, jejunum, caecum, colon) and faeces determined from 11 Bactrian camels using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Twenty-seven bacterial phyla were found in the GIT, with Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia and Bacteroidetes predominating...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330443/an-insight-into-intestinal-mucosal-microbiota-disruption-after-stroke
#3
Dragana Stanley, Robert J Moore, Connie H Y Wong
Recent work from our laboratory has provided evidence that indicates selective bacterial translocation from the host gut microbiota to peripheral tissues (i.e. lung) plays a key role in the development of post-stroke infections. Despite this, it is currently unknown whether mucosal bacteria that live on and interact closely with the host intestinal epithelium contribute in regulating bacterial translocation after stroke. Here, we found that the microbial communities within the mucosa of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were significantly different between sham-operated and post-stroke mice at 24 h following surgery...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324224/good-bug-bad-bug-breaking-through-microbial-stereotypes
#4
Mihai Cirstea, Nina Radisavljevic, B Brett Finlay
Our expanding knowledge of microbial mechanisms is challenging the notion of "good" versus "bad" microbes and encouraging a better understanding of their roles in various contexts before their widespread therapeutic and clinical application. The intestinal microbe Akkermansia muciniphila, a promising probiotic with an emerging cautionary tale, best highlights this challenge.
January 10, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314490/a-mixture-of-lactobacillus-species-isolated-from-traditional-fermented-foods-promote-recovery-from-antibiotic-induced-intestinal-disruption-in-mice
#5
Ying Shi, Xi Zhao, Zhao Jianxin, Zhang Hao, Qixiao Zhai, Arjan Narbad, Wei Chen
AIMS: This study evaluated the antibiotic-induced changes in microbial ecology, intestinal dysbiosis and low-grade inflammation; and the combined effect of four different Lactobacillus species on recovery of microbiota composition and improvement of gut barrier function in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Administration of the antibiotic ampicillin for 2 weeks decreased microbial community diversity, induced caecum tumefaction and increased gut permeability in mice. Application of a probiotic cocktail of four Lactobacillus species (JUP-Y4) modulated the microbiota community structure and promoted the abundance of potentially beneficial bacteria such as Akkermansia...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312822/effect-of-dark-sweet-cherry-powder-consumption-on-the-gut-microbiota-short-chain-fatty-acids-and-biomarkers-of-gut-health-in-obese-db-db-mice
#6
Jose F Garcia-Mazcorro, Nara N Lage, Susanne Mertens-Talcott, Stephen Talcott, Boon Chew, Scot E Dowd, Jorge R Kawas, Giuliana D Noratto
Cherries are fruits containing fiber and bioactive compounds (e.g., polyphenolics) with the potential of helping patients with diabetes and weight disorders, a phenomenon likely related to changes in the complex host-microbiota milieu. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cherry supplementation on the gut bacterial composition, concentrations of caecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and biomarkers of gut health using an in vivo model of obesity. Obese diabetic (db/db) mice received a supplemented diet with 10% cherry powder (supplemented mice, n = 12) for 12 weeks; obese (n = 10) and lean (n = 10) mice served as controls and received a standard diet without cherry...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304441/cloning-purification-and-biochemical-characterization-of-two-%C3%AE-n-acetylhexosaminidases-from-the-mucin-degrading-gut-bacterium-akkermansia-muciniphila
#7
Meng Wang, Xiao-Yang Zhang, Rui-Rui Guo, Zhi-Peng Cai, Xiao-Chun Hu, Huan Chen, Shuang Wei, Josef Voglmeir, Li Liu
Two genes encoding the β-N-acetylhexosaminidases Am2301 and Am2446 were cloned successfully from the mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila. The recombinant enzymes with molecular masses of 61 kDa and 78 kDa were isolated and biochemically characterised. The optimum temperature of both enzymes was 37 °C, and the optimum pH was determined to be pH 5.0 for Am2301 and pH 6.5 for Am2446. The addition of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) reduced the enzymes' activity significantly. Cu2+-ions decreased the activity of Am2301 by 70%, while the activity of Am2446 was significantly reduced by Fe3+-ions...
December 23, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297498/epithelial-hes1-maintains-gut-homeostasis-by-preventing-microbial-dysbiosis
#8
X-K Guo, J Ou, S Liang, X Zhou, X Hu
Recent advancements suggest that in addition to its roles in developmental processes, transcription repressor hairy and enhancer of split 1 (Hes1) also acts as a key regulator of inflammatory responses. A healthy gut microbiota ecology is critical for establishment of tissue homeostasis. However, the role of epithelial Hes1 in regulating intestinal microbiota ecology and intestinal homeostasis remains unexplored. Here we show that epithelial Hes1 deficiency leads to intestinal microbial dysbiosis and disturbed homeostasis...
January 3, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285925/yeast-%C3%AE-glucan-suppresses-the-chronic-inflammation-and-improves-the-microenvironment-in-adipose-tissues-of-ob-ob-mice
#9
Yan Cao, Ying Sun, Siwei Zou, Bingchao Duan, Mengying Sun, Xiaojuan Xu
Inflammation in visceral adipose tissues (VATs) contributes to the pathology of diabetes. This study focused on the inflammatory regulation in VATs by a yeast β-1,3-glucan (BYG) orally administered to ob/ob mice. BYG decreased pro-inflammatory modulators of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, CCL2, and SAA3, and increased anti-inflammatory factors of Azgp1 (2.53±0.02 fold change) at protein and/or mRNA levels (p<0.05). Remarkably, BYG decreased the degree of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) infiltration to 82.5±8...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261035/zebrafish-axenic-larvae-colonization-with-human-intestinal-microbiota
#10
Nerea Arias-Jayo, Laura Alonso-Saez, Andoni Ramirez-Garcia, Miguel A Pardo
The human intestine hosts a vast and complex microbial community that is vital for maintaining several functions related with host health. The processes that determine the gut microbiome composition are poorly understood, being the interaction between species, the external environment, and the relationship with the host the most feasible. Animal models offer the opportunity to understand the interactions between the host and the microbiota. There are different gnotobiotic mice or rat models colonized with the human microbiota, however, to our knowledge, there are no reports on the colonization of germ-free zebrafish with a complex human intestinal microbiota...
December 20, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218037/wuji-wan-formula-ameliorates-diarrhea-and-disordered-colonic-motility-in-post-inflammation-irritable-bowel-syndrome-rats-by-modulating-the-gut-microbiota
#11
Ying Chen, Shuiming Xiao, Zipeng Gong, Xiaoxin Zhu, Qing Yang, Yujie Li, Shuangrong Gao, Yu Dong, Zhe Shi, Yajie Wang, Xiaogang Weng, Qi Li, Weiyan Cai, Weijie Qiang
Emerging evidence suggests that gut microbiota contribute to the treatment of post-inflammatory irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS). Our previous studies have demonstrated that a Chinese formula, Wuji Wan, has the ability to mitigate abdominal pain and diarrhea in PI-IBS rats. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism and whether the gut microbiota mediate the effect of Wuji Wan on PI-IBS. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether Wuji Wan mitigated PI-IBS by modifying the gut microbiota...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213261/antibiotic-induced-alterations-in-gut-microbiota-are-associated-with-changes-in-glucose-metabolism-in-healthy-mice
#12
Richard R Rodrigues, Renee L Greer, Xiaoxi Dong, Karen N DSouza, Manoj Gurung, Jia Y Wu, Andrey Morgun, Natalia Shulzhenko
The gut microbiome plays an important role in health and disease. Antibiotics are known to alter gut microbiota, yet their effects on glucose tolerance in lean, normoglycemic mice have not been widely investigated. In this study, we aimed to explore mechanisms by which treatment of lean mice with antibiotics (ampicillin, metronidazole, neomycin, vancomycin, or their cocktail) influences the microbiome and glucose metabolism. Specifically, we sought to: (i) study the effects on body weight, fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, and fasting insulin, (ii) examine the changes in expression of key genes of the bile acid and glucose metabolic pathways in the liver and ileum, (iii) identify the shifts in the cecal microbiota, and (iv) infer interactions between gene expression, microbiome, and the metabolic parameters...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202334/berberine-treatment-increases-akkermansia-in-the-gut-and-improves-high-fat-diet-induced-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-mice
#13
Lin Zhu, Danying Zhang, Hong Zhu, Jimin Zhu, Shuqiang Weng, Ling Dong, Taotao Liu, Yu Hu, Xizhong Shen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gut microbiota plays a major role in metabolic disorders. Berberine is used to treat obesity, diabetes and atherosclerosis. The mechanism underlying the role of berberine in modulating metabolic disorders is not fully clear because berberine has poor oral bioavailability. Thus, we evaluated whether the antiatherosclerotic effect of berberine is related to alterations in gut microbial structure and if so, whether specific bacterial taxa contribute to the beneficial effects of berberine...
November 24, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195961/encapsulation-of-the-therapeutic-microbe-akkermansia-muciniphila-in-a-double-emulsion-enhances-survival-in-simulated-gastric-conditions
#14
Kees C H van der Ark, Avis Dwi Wahyu Nugroho, Claire Berton-Carabin, Che Wang, Clara Belzer, Willem M de Vos, Karin Schroen
There is considerable attention for developing Akkermansia muciniphila as a new therapeutic microbe since it has shown to prevent diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes in mice. However, A. muciniphila is sensitive to gastric conditions such as low pH and oxygen. Therefore, we explored the possibility of encapsulating A. muciniphila in a water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) double emulsion, to allow for protection during gastric passage and subsequent release in the small intestine. The bacteria were efficiently encapsulated in the inner emulsion droplets and remained entrapped during in vitro gastric digestion...
December 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167659/balancing-herbal-medicine-and-functional-food-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-cardiometabolic-diseases-through-modulating-gut-microbiota
#15
REVIEW
Ming Lyu, Yue-Fei Wang, Guan-Wei Fan, Xiao-Ying Wang, Shuang-Yong Xu, Yan Zhu
It has become apparent that gut microbiota is closely associated with cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs), and alteration in microbiome compositions is also linked to the host environment. Next generation sequencing (NGS) has facilitated in-depth studies on the effects of herbal medicine and functional food on gut microbiota. Both herbal medicine and functional food contain fiber, polyphenols and polysaccharides, exerting prebiotics-like activities in the prevention and treatment of CMDs. The administrations of herbal medicine and functional food lead to increased the abundance of phylum Bacteroidetes, and genus Akkermansia, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Prevotella, while reducing phylum Firmicutes and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in gut...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163474/aged-gut-microbiota-contributes-to-systemical-inflammaging-after-transfer-to-germ-free-mice
#16
Floris Fransen, Adriaan A van Beek, Theo Borghuis, Sahar El Aidy, Floor Hugenholtz, Christa van der Gaast-de Jongh, Huub F J Savelkoul, Marien I De Jonge, Mark V Boekschoten, Hauke Smidt, Marijke M Faas, Paul de Vos
Advanced age is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, which is usually referred to as inflammaging. Elderly are also known to have an altered gut microbiota composition. However, whether inflammaging is a cause or consequence of an altered gut microbiota composition is not clear. In this study, gut microbiota from young or old conventional mice was transferred to young germ-free (GF) mice. Four weeks after gut microbiota transfer immune cell populations in spleen, Peyer's patches, and mesenteric lymph nodes from conventionalized GF mice were analyzed by flow cytometry...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157127/modulation-of-the-gut-microbiota-by-metformin-improves-metabolic-profiles-in-aged-obese-mice
#17
Heetae Lee, Youngjoo Lee, Jiyeon Kim, Jinho An, Sungwon Lee, Hyunseok Kong, Youngcheon Song, Chong-Kil Lee, Kyungjae Kim
The gut microbiota is a contributing factor in obesity-related metabolic disorders. The effect of metformin on the gut microbiota has been reported; however, the relationship between the gut microbiota and the mechanism of action of metformin in elderly individuals is unclear. In this study, the effect of metformin on the gut microbiota was investigated in aged obese mice. The abundance of the genera Akkermansia, Bacteroides, Butyricimonas, and Parabacteroides was significantly increased by metformin in mice fed a high-fat diet...
November 20, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152632/a-combination-of-quercetin-and-resveratrol-reduces-obesity-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats-by-modulation-of-gut-microbiota
#18
Le Zhao, Qi Zhang, Weini Ma, Feng Tian, Hongyi Shen, Mingmei Zhou
Resveratrol and quercetin, widely found in foods and vegetables, are plant polyphenols reported to have a wide range of biological activities. Despite their limited bioavailabilities, both resveratrol and quercetin are known to exhibit anti-inflammation and anti-obesity effects. We hypothesized that gut microbiota may be a potential target for resveratrol and quercetin to prevent the development of obesity. The aim of this research was to confirm whether a combination of quercetin and resveratrol (CQR) could restore the gut microbiota dysbiosis induced by a high-fat diet (HFD)...
November 20, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152256/consumption-of-kiwifruit-capsules-increases-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-abundance-in-functionally-constipated-individuals-a-randomised-controlled-human-trial
#19
Paul Blatchford, Halina Stoklosinski, Sarah Eady, Alison Wallace, Christine Butts, Richard Gearry, Glenn Gibson, Juliet Ansell
This study investigated the impact of ACTAZIN™ green (2400 and 600 mg) and Livaux™ (2400 mg) gold kiwifruit supplements on faecal microbial composition and metabolites in healthy and functionally constipated (FC) participants. The participants were recruited into the healthy group (n 20; one of whom did not complete the study) and the FC group (n 9), each of whom consumed all the treatments and a placebo (isomalt) for 4 weeks in a randomised cross-over design interspersed with 2-week washout periods. Modification of faecal microbiota composition and metabolism was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and GC, and colonic pH was calculated using SmartPill® wireless motility capsules...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142285/blockade-of-cb1-cannabinoid-receptor-alters-gut-microbiota-and-attenuates-inflammation-and-diet-induced-obesity
#20
Pegah Mehrpouya-Bahrami, Kumaraswamy Naidu Chitrala, Mitra S Ganewatta, Chuanbing Tang, E Angela Murphy, Reilly T Enos, Kandy T Velazquez, Jamie McCellan, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash Nagarkatti
Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade, systemic inflammation, altered gut microbiota, and gut barrier disruption. Additionally, obesity is associated with increased activity of endocannabinoid system (eCB). However, the clear connection between gut microbiota and the eCB system in the regulation of energy homeostasis and adipose tissue inflammation and metabolism, remains to be established. We investigated the effect of treatment of mice with a cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonist on Diet-Induced Obesity (DIO), specifically whether such a treatment that blocks endocannabinoid activity can induce changes in gut microbiota and anti-inflammatory state in adipose tissue...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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