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Akkermansia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799667/coadministration-of-isomalto-oligosaccharides-augments-metabolic-health-benefits-of-cinnamaldehyde-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#1
Dhirendra Pratap Singh, Pragyanshu Khare, Vandana Bijalwan, Ritesh Kumar Baboota, Jagdeep Singh, Kanthi Kiran Kondepudi, Kanwaljit Chopra, Mahendra Bishnoi
Bacteriostatic properties of a potential anti-obesity agent cinnamaldehyde (CMN) may present untoward effects on the resident gut microbiota. Here, we evaluated whether the combination of Isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMOs) with CMN prevents unwanted effects of CMN on gut microbiota and associated metabolic outcomes in HFD-fed mice. Male Swiss albino mice divided into four groups (n = 10), were fed on normal chow, or HFD (58% fat kcal), HFD + CMN (10 mg kg(-1) ) and HFD + CMN (10 mg kg(-1) ) + IMOs (1 g kg(-1) ) for 12 weeks...
August 11, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798745/commentary-dietary-polyphenols-promote-growth-of-the-gut-bacterium-akkermansia-muciniphila-and-attenuate-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome
#2
COMMENT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797298/community-characteristics-of-the-gut-microbiomes-of-competitive-cyclists
#3
Lauren M Petersen, Eddy J Bautista, Hoan Nguyen, Blake M Hanson, Lei Chen, Sai H Lek, Erica Sodergren, George M Weinstock
BACKGROUND: Changes in diet and exercise can alter the gut microbiome of humans and mice; however, few studies to date have assessed the microbiomes of highly fit athletes. In this pilot study, we used metagenomic whole genome shotgun (mWGS) and metatranscriptomic (RNA-Seq) sequencing to show what organisms are both present and active in the gut microbiomes of both professional and amateur level competitive cyclists and to determine if any significant differences exist between these two groups...
August 10, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791008/free-fatty-acids-profiles-are-related-to-gut-microbiota-signatures-and-short-chain-fatty-acids
#4
Javier Rodríguez-Carrio, Nuria Salazar, Abelardo Margolles, Sonia González, Miguel Gueimonde, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Ana Suárez
A growing body of evidence highlights the relevance of free fatty acids (FFA) for human health, and their role in the cross talk between the metabolic status and immune system. Altered serum FFA profiles are related to several metabolic conditions, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies have highlighted the link between gut microbiota and host metabolism. However, although most of the studies have focused on different clinical conditions, evidence on the role of these mediators in healthy populations is lacking...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771569/disruption-in-the-cecal-microbiota-of-chickens-challenged-with-clostridium-perfringens-and-other-factors-was-alleviated-by-bacillus-licheniformis-supplementation
#5
Yicen Lin, Shuai Xu, Dong Zeng, Xueqin Ni, Mengjia Zhou, Yan Zeng, Hesong Wang, Yi Zhou, Hui Zhu, Kangcheng Pan, Guangyao Li
Clostridium perfringens can induce necrotic enteritis of chickens, which causes large economic losses every year. Bacillus licheniformis, a probiotic, can inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Clostridium perfringens, thereby improving the health status of chickens. However, from a microbial ecology perspective, the mechanisms by which alterations to the gut microbiota improve health remain unknown. In this study, we used Illumina MiSeq sequencing to investigate the cecal microbiota of a negative control group (NC), a C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741460/discovery-and-biochemical-characterization-of-udp-glucose-dehydrogenase-from-akkermansia-muciniphila
#6
Shuang Wei, Xiao-Yang Zhang, Yue Sun, Louis Patrick Conway, Li Liu
We report the discovery and characterization of a UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (AmUGD) from Akkermansia muciniphila, a bacterium originally isolated from human faeces in an anaerobic medium containing gastric mucin as the sole carbon source. The recombinant form of the protein was expressed in E. coli and the purified enzyme exhibited optimum levels of activity at 37°C and pH 9.0. While the enzyme is active in the absence of metal ions, the presence of Zn2+ ions results in markedly enhanced levels of catalysis...
July 24, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740343/distinct-gut-microbiota-profiles-in-patients-with-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-and-ulcerative-colitis
#7
Lukas Bajer, Miloslav Kverka, Martin Kostovcik, Peter Macinga, Jiri Dvorak, Zuzana Stehlikova, Jan Brezina, Pavel Wohl, Julius Spicak, Pavel Drastich
AIM: To characterize the gut bacterial microbiota of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: Stool samples were collected and relevant clinical data obtained from 106 study participants, 43 PSC patients with (n = 32) or without (n = 11) concomitant inflammatory bowel disease, 32 UC patients, and 31 healthy controls. The V3 and V4 regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene were sequenced on Illumina MiSeq platform to cover low taxonomic levels...
July 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726512/human-milk-oligosaccharide-categories-define-the-microbiota-composition-in-human-colostrum
#8
J Aakko, H Kumar, S Rautava, A Wise, C Autran, L Bode, E Isolauri, S Salminen
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are structurally diverse unconjugated glycans with a composition unique to each lactating mother. While HMOs have been shown to have an impact on the development of infant gut microbiota, it is not well known if HMOs also already affect milk microbial composition. To address this question, we analysed eleven colostrum samples for HMO content by high-pressure liquid chromatography and microbiota composition by quantitative PCR. Higher total HMO concentration was associated with higher counts of Bifidobacterium spp...
July 20, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724546/high-protein-diet-promotes-sensitivity-to-cholecystokinin-and-shifts-the-cecal-microbiome-without-altering-brain-inflammation-in-diet-induced-obesity-in-rats
#9
Lixin Wang, Jonathan P Jacobs, Venu Lagishetty, Pu-Qing Yuan, Shuping Vincent Wu, Mulugeta Million, Joseph R Reeve, Joseph R Pisegna, Yvette Taché
High protein diet (HPD) curtails obesity and/or fat mass but it is unknown whether it reverses neuroinflammation, altered glucose levels, cholecystokinin (CCK) sensitivity and gut microbiome in rats fed a Western diet (WD)-induced obesity (DIO). Male rats fed a WD (high fat and sugar) for 12 weeks were switched to a HPD for 6 weeks. Body composition, food intake, meal pattern, sensitivity to intraperitoneal CCK-8S, blood glucose, brain signaling, and cecal microbiota were assessed. Compared to normal diet, WD increased body weight (9...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718724/black-raspberries-and-their-anthocyanin-and-fiber-fractions-alter-the-composition-and-diversity-of-gut-microbiota-in-f-344-rats
#10
Pan Pan, Vy Lam, Nita Salzman, Yi-Wen Huang, Jianhua Yu, Jianying Zhang, Li-Shu Wang
Natural compounds can alter the diversity and composition of the gut microbiome, potentially benefiting our health. We previously demonstrated chemopreventive effects of black raspberries (BRBs) in colorectal cancer, which is associated with gut dysbiosis. To investigate the effects of whole BRBs and their fractions on gut microbiota, we fed F-344 rats a control diet, 5% BRBs, the BRB anthocyanin fraction, or the BRB residue fraction for 6 weeks. Feces were collected at baseline and at weeks 3 and 6, and bacterial sequence counts were analyzed...
July 18, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717237/fat-binding-capacity-and-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiota-both-determine-the-effect-of-wheat-bran-fractions-on-adiposity
#11
Francesco Suriano, Laure B Bindels, Joran Verspreet, Christophe M Courtin, Kristin Verbeke, Patrice D Cani, Audrey M Neyrinck, Nathalie M Delzenne
The aim of this study was to determine the impact of different wheat bran fractions on the gut microbiota and fat binding capacity to explain their differential effects on metabolic and inflammatory disorders induced by a western diet (WD) in mice. Wheat bran derived arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS), a crude fraction of wheat bran (WB), or the same wheat bran with reduced particle size (WBs) were added to the WD of mice for 8 weeks. AXOS shifted the gut microbiota composition, blunted Clostridium and Turicibacter genera and strongly promoted Bifidobacterium and Butyricicoccus genera, independently of changes in gut antimicrobial peptide expression...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713349/the-gut-microbiota-of-healthy-chilean-subjects-reveals-a-high-abundance-of-the-phylum-verrucomicrobia
#12
Sayaka Fujio-Vejar, Yessenia Vasquez, Pamela Morales, Fabien Magne, Patricia Vera-Wolf, Juan A Ugalde, Paola Navarrete, Martin Gotteland
The gut microbiota is currently recognized as an important factor regulating the homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract and influencing the energetic metabolism of the host as well as its immune and central nervous systems. Determining the gut microbiota composition of healthy subjects is therefore necessary to establish a baseline allowing the detection of microbiota alterations in pathologic conditions. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to characterize the gut microbiota of healthy Chilean subjects using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705785/determination-of-certain-bacterial-groups-in-gut-microbiota-and-endotoxin-levels-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#13
Ceren Özkul, Meltem Yalınay, Tarkan Karakan, Güldal Yılmaz
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In recent years, the role of the gut microbiota has emerged in several diseases. Herein we aimed to determine the fecal microbiota, endotoxin levels, and inflammation markers in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 46 NASH patients and 38 healthy controls were included. NASH patients were diagnosed according to the steatosis, activity, and fibrosis score/fatty liver inhibition of progression algorithm...
July 13, 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705171/formula-diet-driven-microbiota-shifts-tryptophan-metabolism-from-serotonin-to-tryptamine-in-neonatal-porcine-colon%C3%AF
#14
Manish Kumar Saraf, Brian D Piccolo, Anne K Bowlin, Kelly E Mercer, Tanya LeRoith, Sree V Chintapalli, Kartik Shankar, Thomas M Badger, Laxmi Yeruva
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota of breast-fed and formula-fed infants differ significantly, as do the risks for allergies, gut dysfunction, and upper respiratory tract infections. The connections between breast milk, various formulas, and the profiles of gut bacteria to these childhood illnesses, as well as the mechanisms underlying the effects, are not well understood. METHODS: We investigated distal colon microbiota by 16S RNA amplicon sequencing, morphology by histomorphometry, immune response by cytokine expression, and tryptophan metabolism in a pig model in which piglets were sow-fed, or fed soy or dairy milk-based formula from postnatal day (PND) 2 to 21...
July 14, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704522/assessment-of-gut-microbiota-populations-in-lean-and-obese-zucker-rats
#15
Reza Hakkak, Soheila Korourian, Steven L Foley, Bruce D Erickson
Obesity has been on the rise in the US and worldwide for the last several decades. Obesity has been associated with chronic disease development, such as certain types of cancer, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and liver diseases. Previously, we reported that obesity promotes DMBA-induced mammary tumor development using the obese Zucker rat model. The intestinal microbiota is composed of a diverse population of obligate and facultative anaerobic microorganisms, and these organisms carry out a broad range of metabolic activities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687644/genome-scale-model-and-omics-analysis-of-metabolic-capacities-of-akkermansia-muciniphila-reveal-a-preferential-mucin-degrading-lifestyle
#16
Noora Ottman, Mark Davids, Maria Suarez-Diez, Sjef Boeren, Peter J Schaap, Vitor A P Martins Dos Santos, Hauke Smidt, Clara Belzer, Willem M de Vos
The composition and activity of the microbiota in the human gastrointestinal tract is primarily shaped by nutrients derived either from food or the host. Bacteria colonizing the mucus layer have evolved to use mucin as a carbon and energy source. One of the members of the mucosa-associated microbiota is Akkermansia muciniphila, which is capable of producing an extensive repertoire of mucin-degrading enzymes. To further study substrate utilization abilities of A. muciniphila, we constructed a genome-scale metabolic model to test amino acid auxotrophy, vitamin biosynthesis, and sugar degrading capacities...
July 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682226/la-g%C3%A3-n%C3%A3-tique-de-l%C3%A2-h%C3%A3-te-influe-sur-les-%C3%A3-cosyst%C3%A3-mes-microbiens-par-l%C3%A2-interm%C3%A3-diaire-du-syst%C3%A3-me-immunitaire-de-l%C3%A2-h%C3%A3-te
#17
Hela El Kafsy, Guy Gorochov, Martin Larsen
Genetic evolution of multicellular organisms occurred as a response to environmental challenges, in particular competition for nutrients, climatic change, physical and chemical stressors and pathogens. However organism fitness depends on both the efficiency of its defences and its capacities for benefiting from its symbiotic organisms. Indeed microbes not only engender pathogenies, but enable efficient uptake of host non-self biodegradable nutriments. Furthermore, microbes play an important role in the development of host immunity...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668709/isomalto-oligosaccharides-a-prebiotic-functionally-augment-green-tea-effects-against-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-alterations-via-preventing-gut-dysbacteriosis-in-mice
#18
Dhirendra Pratap Singh, Jagdeep Singh, Ravneet Kaur Boparai, JianHua Zhu, Shrikant Mantri, Pragyanshu Khare, Romesh Khardori, Kanthi Kiran Kondepudi, Kanwaljit Chopra, Mahendra Bishnoi
High fat diet (HFD)-induced alterations in gut microbiota and resultant 'leaky gut' phenomenon promotes metabolic endotoxemia, ectopic fat deposition, and low-grade systemic inflammation. Here we evaluated the effects of a combination of green tea extract (GTE) with isomalto-oligosaccharide (IMOs) on HFD-induced alterations in mice. Male Swiss albino mice were fed with HFD (58% fat kcal) for 12 weeks. Systemic adiposity, gut derangement parameters and V3-V4 region based 16S rRNA metagenomic sequencing, ectopic fat deposition, liver metabolome analysis, systemic and tissue inflammation, and energy homeostasis markers along with gene expression analysis in multiple tissues were done in mice supplemented with GTE, IMOs or their combination...
June 28, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668239/association-of-altered-gut-microbiota-composition-with-chronic-urticaria
#19
Edris Nabizadeh, Nima Hosseini Jazani, Morteza Bagheri, Shahram Shahabi
BACKGROUND: An altered gut microbiota composition has recently been linked to some types of allergies. OBJECTIVE: To compare the relative amounts of Akkermansia muciniphila, Clostridium leptum, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and Enterobacteriaceae as members of gut microbiota among patients with chronic urticaria (CU) and healthy controls. METHODS: A total of 20 patients with CU and 20 healthy individuals matched by age and sex participated in the study...
July 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661454/chlorogenic-acid-ameliorates-experimental-colitis-by-promoting-growth-of-akkermansia-in-mice
#20
Zhan Zhang, Xinyue Wu, Shuyuan Cao, Meghan Cromie, Yonghua Shen, Yiming Feng, Hui Yang, Lei Li
Chlorogenic acid (ChA)-one of the most abundant polyphenol compounds in the human diet-exerts anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ChA on gut microbiota in ulcerative colitis (UC). Colitis was induced by 2.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in C57BL/6 mice, which were on a control diet or diet with ChA (1 mM). The histopathological changes and inflammation were evaluated. Fecal samples were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. ChA attenuated several effects of DSS-induced colitis, including weight loss, increased disease activity index, and improved mucosal damage...
June 29, 2017: Nutrients
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