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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737858/the-effects-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-pcv7-and-pcv13-on-turkish-children-with-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-a-single-center-experience
#1
Halil Özdemir, Caner Yıldız, Selin Nar Ötgün, Hatice Erkol, Adem Karbuz, Bilge Aldemir Kocabaş, Tuğçe Tural Kara, Ayşegül Gözalan, Rıza Durmaz, Ergin Çiftçi, Derya Aysev, Erdal İnce
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this prospective single-center study was to determine the changings in incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), serotype distribution and the antimicrobial resistance patterns of S. pneumoniae in children with IPD after the period (1 to 7 years) of vaccination with PCV7 (2008) and PCV13 (2011). POPULATION AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 39 Turkish children with IPD between ages 1 month and 18 years in Ankara, Turkey. Streptococcus pneumoniae was identified using standard laboratory procedures from blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), pleural fluid, and other sterile body fluids and tissues...
August 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737622/changes-in-the-nature-and-severity-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-children-before-and-after-the-7-valent-and-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-programs-in-calgary-canada
#2
Leah J Ricketson, Nicholas G Conradi, Otto G Vanderkooi, James D Kellner
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence has decreased in children and the predominant serotypes causing disease have changed. This study describes changes in the clinical features of IPD in children (<18 years) before and after conjugate vaccine introduction. METHODS: The Calgary Area Streptococcus pneumoniae Epidemiology Research (CASPER) study collects information on all IPD cases in Calgary, Alberta, Canada...
July 20, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736993/molecular-characterization-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-particularly-serotype19a-st320-that-emerged-in-krasnoyarsk-russia
#3
Irina N Protasova, Tsai-Wen Wan, Natalya V Bakhareva, Wei-Chun Hung, Wataru Higuchi, Yasuhisa Iwao, Tatyana A Yelistratova, Natalya A Ilyenkova, Yelena S Sokolovskaya, Galina P Martynova, Ivan V Reva, Galina V Reva, Sergey V Sidorenko, Lee-Jene Teng, Olga V Peryanova, Alla B Salmina, Tatsuo Yamamoto
Streptococcus pneumoniae, a common human pathogen, colonizes the nasopharynx and causes diseases including acute otitis media (AOM). We herein report pneumococcal serotype distributions in children before and after PCV7 vaccination and in patients with pneumococcal disease in Siberian Russia (Krasnoyarsk). Analyses included antimicrobial susceptibility testing, ST typing, a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis, virulence-related surface protein gene (VSG) typing with novel primers, and a structural analysis by scanning electron microscopy...
July 23, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736948/evaluating-the-efficacy-of-hydrogen-peroxide-vapour-against-foot-mouth-disease-virus-within-a-bsl4-biosafety-facility
#4
B M Petit, F C Almeida, T R Uchiyama, F O C Lopes, K H Tino, J Chewins
An evaluation was made of the efficacy of 35% Hydrogen Peroxide Vapour (HPV) against FMDV in a biosafety facility. Biological indicators (BIs) were produced using three serotypes of FMDV, all with a titre of ≥10(6) TCID50 /ml. Fifteen BIs of each serotype were distributed across 5 locations, throughout a 30m(3) Air Lock chamber, producing a total of 45 BIs. 35% HPV was generated and applied using a Bioquell vaporisation module located in the centre of the chamber. After a dwell period of 40 minutes, the HPV was removed via the enclosures air handling system and the BIs were collected...
July 23, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736222/hypermucoviscosity-rmpa-and-aerobactin-are-associated-with-community-acquired-klebsiella-pneumoniae-bacteremic-isolates-causing-liver-abscess-in-singapore
#5
Thean Yen Tan, Melissa Ong, Yvonne Cheng, Lily Siew Yong Ng
INTRODUCTION: This retrospective study investigated the clinical etiology of community-acquired bacteremic Klebsiellapneumoniae infections, and characterized laboratory and genetic markers which may be associated with primary liver abscess (PLA). METHODS: Community-onset K. pneumoniae bacteremic episodes from 2010 to 2011 were identified from the laboratory information system. Isolates were retrieved for susceptibility testing, hypermucoviscosity testing, PCR-based serotyping (K1, K2 and K5) and PCR detection of virulence genes (rmpA, alls, kfu and aerobactin)...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736198/characterization-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-invasive-serotype-19a-isolates-from-argentina-1993-2014
#6
Paula Gagetti, Diego Faccone, Vanesa Reijtman, Sofia Fossati, Marisa Rodriguez, Omar Veliz, Paola Ceriana, Mabel Regueira, Alejandra Corso
The aim of this study was to characterize Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A isolates causing invasive pneumococcal disease in children, collected in Argentina between 1993 and 2014. A total of 176 isolates serotype 19A were analyzed. There was an increase in the proportion of serotype 19A isolates from 3% in 1993 to 6% in 2011, prior to the introduction of PCV13 in 2012, and from 2012 to 2014 its proportion gradually decreased. Penicillin resistance among serotype 19A isolates throughout the study period was 65...
July 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736074/a-novel-genetic-variant-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-11a-discovered-in-fiji
#7
Sam Manna, Belinda Ortika, Eileen M Dunne, Kathryn E Holt, Mike Kama, Fiona M Russell, Jason Hinds, Catherine Satzke
OBJECTIVES: As part of annual cross-sectional Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage surveys in Fiji (2012-2015), we detected pneumococci in over 100 nasopharyngeal swabs that serotyped as '11F-like' by microarray. We examined the genetic basis of this divergence in the 11F-like capsular polysaccharide (cps) locus, compared to the reference 11F cps sequence. The impact of this diversity on capsule phenotype, as well as serotyping results using genetic and serological methods, was determined...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735462/effect-of-decreased-bcaa-synthesis-through-disruption-of-ilvc-gene-on-the-virulence-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#8
Gyu-Lee Kim, Seungyeop Lee, Truc Thanh Luong, Cuong Thach Nguyen, Sang-Sang Park, Suhkneung Pyo, Dong-Kwon Rhee
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. It causes a variety of life-threatening infections such as pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis. In bacterial physiology, the metabolic pathway of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) plays an important role in virulence. Nonetheless, the function of IlvC, one of the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of BCAAs, in S. pneumoniae remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that downregulation of BCAA biosynthesis by ilvC ablation can diminish BCAA concentration and expression of pneumolysin (Ply) and LytA, and subsequently attenuate virulence...
July 22, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735461/pneumonia-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae-vaccine
#9
REVIEW
Gyu-Lee Kim, Seung-Han Seon, Dong-Kwon Rhee
Pneumonia is an inflammatory disease of the lung, responsible for high morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other microorganisms. Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive bacterium with over 90 serotypes, is the most common causative agent. Moreover, comorbid factors including heart failure, renal disease, and pulmonary disease could increase the risk of pneumococcal pneumonia. Since the advent of the pneumococcal vaccine in the 1980s, the incidence of pneumonia has decreased significantly...
July 22, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735328/molecular-characterization-of-enteroviruses-isolated-from-acute-flaccid-paralysis-cases-in-poland-1999-2014
#10
Magdalena Wieczorek, Arleta Krzysztoszek
Enteroviruses (EVs) are among viral pathogens that can cause acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). This study represents an overview of EVs isolated through AFP surveillance in Poland between 1999 and 2014. The presence of enteroviruses was studied in stool samples that were collected from 747 AFP cases and their asymptomatic contacts. Fifty five (6.12%) cases of AFP were associated with enterovirus isolation. Out of the 55 positive cases, 40 were associated with detection of enterovirus in patient, and 15 with detection of EV in healthy contact, without positive detection in paralytic patient...
January 2, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734763/uncleaved-2a-peptide-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-can-display-foreign-epitope-tag-at-the-virion-surface
#11
Jitendra K Biswal, Saravanan Subramaniam, Rajeev Ranjan, Bramhadev Pattnaik
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid precursor protein P1-2A is cleaved by viral-encoded 3C protease (3C(pro)) to generate VP0, VP3, VP1 and 2A proteins. It was reported earlier that substitution of a single amino acid residue within the 2A peptide sequence (L2P) blocked the 3C(pro) mediated VP1/2A cleavage and produced 'self-tagged' FMDV particles containing uncleaved 2A-peptide. To determine whether the uncleaved 2A-peptide can function as a target structure to harbour and display exogenous epitope on FMDV particles, a full-length FMDV cDNA clone containing a HA-tag within the uncleaved 2A-peptide sequence was constructed...
July 19, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734601/influence-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-fermentation-products-smartcare-in-milk-replacer-and-original-xpc-in-calf-starter-on-the-performance-and-health-of-preweaned-holstein-calves-challenged-with-salmonella-enterica-serotype-typhimurium
#12
T L Harris, Y Liang, K P Sharon, M D Sellers, I Yoon, M F Scott, J A Carroll, M A Ballou
This study was designed to investigate the effects of supplementing SmartCare (SC; Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA) in milk replacer and Original XPC (XPC; Diamond V) in calf starter on performance and health of preweaned calves following an oral challenge with Salmonella enterica. The study was performed in two 35-d periods with 30 Holstein bull calves (2 ± 1 d of age) per period. In each period, calves were blocked by location in the barn and randomly assigned to treatments that included control, base milk replacer and calf starter with no added Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products; SC, milk replacer with 1 g of SC/calf per day and base calf starter; and SC+XPC, milk replacer with 1 g of SC/calf per day and calf starter with 0...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733113/a-heterologous-prime-boost-ebola-virus-vaccine-regimen-induces-durable-neutralizing-antibody-response-and-prevents-ebola-virus-like-particle-entry-in-mice
#13
Tan Chen, Dapeng Li, Yufeng Song, Xi Yang, Qingwei Liu, Xia Jin, Dongming Zhou, Zhong Huang
Ebola virus (EBOV) is one of the most virulent pathogens known to humans. Neutralizing antibodies play a major role in the protection against EBOV infections. Thus, an EBOV vaccine capable of inducing a long-lasting neutralizing antibody response is highly desirable. We report here that a heterologous prime-boost vaccine regimen can elicit durable EBOV-neutralizing antibody response in mice. A chimpanzee serotype 7 adenovirus expressing EBOV GP (denoted AdC7-GP) was generated and used for priming. A truncated version of EBOV GP1 protein (denoted GP1t) was produced at high levels in Drosophila S2 cells and used for boosting...
July 18, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732495/carriage-and-serotype-distribution-of-streptococcus-agalactiae-in-third-trimester-pregnancy-in-southern-ghana
#14
Hans-Christian Slotved, Nicholas T K D Dayie, Josephine A N Banini, Niels Frimodt-Møller
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci, GBS) among healthy, pregnant women attending antenatal care at different study sites in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana. METHODS: Between 2010 and June 2013, recto-vaginal swab samples were collected from pregnant women attending antenatal care from two study sites in southern Ghana. The samples were collected within 35 and 37 weeks of the gestation period...
July 21, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730523/antibody-dependent-enhancement-of-serotype-ii-feline-enteric-coronavirus-infection-in-primary-feline-monocytes
#15
Tomomi Takano, Mamiko Nakaguchi, Tomoyoshi Doki, Tsutomu Hohdatsu
Feline coronavirus (FCoV) has been classified into two biotypes: avirulent feline coronavirus (feline enteric coronavirus: FECV) and virulent feline coronavirus (feline infectious peritonitis virus: FIPV). In FIPV infection, antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) has been reported and was shown to be associated with severe clinical disease. On the other hand, the potential role of ADE in FECV infection has not been examined. In this study, using laboratory strains of serotype II FIPV WSU 79-1146 (FIPV 79-1146) and serotype II FECV WSU 79-1683 (FECV 79-1683), we investigated the relationship between ADE and induction of inflammatory cytokines, which are pathogenesis-related factors, for each strain...
July 20, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729954/clinical-streptococcal-isolates-distinct-from-streptococcus-pneumoniae-but-containing-the-%C3%AE-glucosyltransferase-tts-gene-and-expressing-serotype-37-capsular-polysaccharide
#16
Carmen L Sheppard, Georgia Kapatai, Karen Broughton, Ulf Schaefer, Matthew Hannah, David J Litt, Norman K Fry
The major virulence factor of the pneumococcus, and target for conjugate vaccines, is the polysaccharide capsule, which is usually encoded by the highly variable cps locus. Serotype 37 is an unusual pneumococcal type in which the single β-glucosyltransferase gene responsible for serotype capsule production (tts) is located outside of the capsular operon region. Using a previously described automated whole genome sequence (WGS)-based serotyping bioinformatics tool, PneumoCaT, we identified and investigated seven clinical isolates (three from blood cultures) of non-pneumococcal streptococci containing a highly homologous tts and included them in a study panel of 20 isolates which included a 11 further clinical isolates of S...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729207/first-two-cases-of-severe-multifocal-infections-caused-by-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-switzerland-characterization-of-an-atypical-non-k1-k2-serotype-strain-causing-liver-abscess-and-endocarditis
#17
Baharak Babouee Flury, Valentina Donà, Niccolo Buetti, Hansjakob Furrer, Andrea Endimiani
BACKGROUND: We describe the first two multifocal invasive infections due to Klebsiella pneumoniae recently observed in Switzerland. METHODS: Phenotypic (MIC assays and string test) and molecular analyses (PCR/Sequencing for bla, virulence factor genes and whole genome sequencing for one strain) were performed to characterize the causative K. pneumoniae isolates. RESULTS: Both K. pneumoniae isolates (Kp1 and Kp2) were pan-susceptible to antibiotics and produced narrow-spectrum SHV β-lactamases...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729050/an-infant-with-concurrent-serotype-6c-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-and-infectious-mononucleosis
#18
Naoko Nishikawa-Nakamura, Takafumi Okada, Keiko Nishimura, Tsuyako Iwai, Kimiko Ubukata, Satoshi Iwata, Asayuki Iwai
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a main causative agent of serious invasive bacterial infections. However, concurrent infection with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and viral infectious mononucleosis (IM) is rare. We report an infant with serotype 6C infection causing IPD occurring simultaneously with IM. A previously healthy 11-month-old girl referred to our hospital because of fever, leukopenia, and elevated C-reactive protein presented to us with disturbance of consciousness, tachycardia, tachypnea and agranulocytosis...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729019/safety-reactogenicity-and-immunogenicity-of-two-investigational-pneumococcal-protein-based-vaccines-results-from-a-randomized-phase-ii-study-in-infants
#19
Roman Prymula, Leszek Szenborn, Sven-Arne Silfverdal, Jacek Wysocki, Piotr Albrecht, Magali Traskine, Asparuh Gardev, Yue Song, Dorota Borys
INTRODUCTION: Vaccination with formulations containing pneumococcal protein antigens such as pneumolysin toxoid (dPly) and histidine-triad protein D (PhtD) may extend serotype-related protection of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) against Streptococcus pneumoniae. METHODS: This phase II, multi-center, observer-blind trial conducted in Europe (NCT01204658) assessed 2 investigational vaccines containing 10 serotype-specific polysaccharide conjugates of PHiD-CV and either 10 or 30µg of dPly and PhtD each...
July 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729018/sustained-reduction-in-vaccine-type-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-despite-waning-effects-of-a-catch-up-campaign-in-kilifi-kenya-a-mathematical-model-based-on-pre-vaccination-data
#20
John Ojal, Stefan Flasche, Laura L Hammitt, Donald Akech, Moses C Kiti, Tatu Kamau, Ifedayo Adetifa, Markku Nurhonen, J Anthony G Scott, Kari Auranen
BACKGROUND: In 2011, Kenya introduced the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine together with a catch-up campaign for children aged <5years in Kilifi County. In a post-vaccination surveillance study based in Kilifi, there was a substantial decline in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). However, given the continued circulation of the vaccine serotypes it is possible that vaccine-serotype disease may re-emerge once the effects of the catch-up campaign wear off. METHODS: We developed a compartmental, age-structured dynamic model of pneumococcal carriage and invasive disease for three serotype groups: the 10-valent vaccine serotypes and two groups of non-vaccine serotypes based on their susceptibility to mutual competition...
July 17, 2017: Vaccine
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