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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239855/immune-priming-specificity-within-and-across-generations-reveals-the-range-of-pathogens-affecting-evolution-of-immunity-in-an-insect
#1
Julien Dhinaut, Manon Chogne, Yannick Moret
1.Many organisms can improve their immune response as a function of their immunological experience or that of their parents. This phenomenon, called immune priming, has likely evolved from repetitive challenges by the same pathogens during the host lifetime or across generation. 2.All pathogens may not expose host to the same probability of re-infection and immune priming is expected to evolve from pathogens exposing the host to the greatest probability of re-infection. Under this hypothesis, the priming response to these pathogens should be specifically more efficient and less costly than to others...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239512/exploring-the-continuum-of-vaccine-hesitancy-between-african-american-and-white-adults-results-of-a-qualitative-study
#2
Sandra Quinn, Amelia Jamison, Donald Musa, Karen Hilyard, Vicki Freimuth
Vaccine delay and refusal present very real threats to public health. Since even a slight reduction in vaccination rates could produce major consequences as herd immunity is eroded, it is imperative to understand the factors that contribute to decision-making about vaccines. Recent scholarship on the concept of "vaccine hesitancy" emphasizes that vaccine behaviors and beliefs tend to fall along a continuum from refusal to acceptance. Most research on hesitancy has focused on parental decision-making about childhood vaccines, but could be extended to explore decision-making related to adult immunization against seasonal influenza...
December 29, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239184/sex-specific-offspring-discrimination-reflects-respective-risks-and-costs-of-misdirected-care-in-a-poison-frog
#3
Eva Ringler, Andrius Pašukonis, Max Ringler, Ludwig Huber
The ability to differentiate between one's own and foreign offspring ensures the exclusive allocation of costly parental care to only related progeny. The selective pressure to evolve offspring discrimination strategies is largely shaped by the likelihood and costs of offspring confusion. We hypothesize that males and females with different reproductive and spatial behaviours face different risks of confusing their own with others' offspring, and this should favour differential offspring discrimination strategies in the two sexes...
April 2016: Animal Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238529/innovations-in-endovascular-treatment-strategies-for-large-carotid-cavernous-aneurysms-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-a-flow-diverter
#4
Shigeru Miyachi, Hiroyuki Ohnishi, Ryo Hiramatsu, Takashi Izumi, Noriaki Matsubara, Toshihiko Kuroiwa
BACKGROUND: The efficacy for the treatment of large carotid cavernous aneurysms (CCAs) was compared between conventional endovascular treatments, stent-assisted coiling (SAC), parent artery occlusion (PAO), and the flow diverter (FD). METHODS: Between January 2001 and December 2015, 49 patients with large, broad-necked, unruptured CCA underwent endovascular treatment at our institution. We performed PAO in 22 patients, SAC in 18 patients, and FD in 9 patients. Safety and efficacy were assessed in all patients by periodic clinical and radiological examinations during a 6-month follow-up...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236796/cost-effectiveness-of-a-protocol-using-palivizumab-in-preterm-infants
#5
Yolanda Hernández-Gago, Marina Lombardero-Pin, Casilda Ortega de la Cruz, Pablo A Maciuniak, Alicia Díez Del Pino
OBJECTIVE: The main objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of protocol use of palivizumab in premature established by consensus in our Hospital comparing it based on the recommendations of various Scientific Societies. As a secondary objective risk factors and severity of hospitalized patients attending the established protocol in our Hospital were analyzed. METHODS: The study period was 4 seasons with the expanded protocol (retrospective data) versus 2 with restricted or agreed protocol (prospective data)...
March 1, 2017: Farmacia Hospitalaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229105/early-life-adversity-lasting-consequences-for-emotional-learning
#6
REVIEW
Harm J Krugers, J Marit Arp, Hui Xiong, Sofia Kanatsou, Sylvie L Lesuis, Aniko Korosi, Marian Joels, Paul J Lucassen
The early postnatal period is a highly sensitive time period for the developing brain, both in humans and rodents. During this time window, exposure to adverse experiences can lastingly impact cognitive and emotional development. In this review, we briefly discuss human and rodent studies investigating how exposure to adverse early life conditions - mainly related to quality of parental care - affects brain activity, brain structure, cognition and emotional responses later in life. We discuss the evidence that early life adversity hampers later hippocampal and prefrontal cortex functions, while increasing amygdala activity, and the sensitivity to stressors and emotional behavior later in life...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225473/information-needs-and-preferences-of-parents-considering-treatment-of-child-anxiety
#7
Leanne Mak, John R Walker, Diane Hiebert-Murphy, Gary Altman
OBJECTIVE: To assess the information needs and preferences of parents who were making decisions concerning treatment for their child's anxiety. METHODS: Ninety-three parents were recruited from hospital-based clinics, a parent group, and a public information meeting. They completed a survey about preference for decision-making involvement, information needs, and preferences concerning source and amount of information. RESULTS: Most (69%) parents indicated that they prefer a collaborative decision-making role...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224099/using-quality-improvement-methods-to-increase-use-of-pain-prevention-strategies-for-childhood-vaccination
#8
Jennifer Verrill Schurman, Amanda D Deacy, Rebecca J Johnson, Jolynn Parker, Kristi Williams, Dustin Wallace, Mark Connelly, Lynn Anson, Kevin Mroczka
AIM: To increase evidence-based pain prevention strategy use during routine vaccinations in a pediatric primary care clinic using quality improvement methodology. METHODS: Specific intervention strategies (i.e., comfort positioning, nonnutritive sucking and sucrose analgesia, distraction) were identified, selected and introduced in three waves, using a Plan-Do-Study-Act framework. System-wide change was measured from baseline to post-intervention by: (1) percent of vaccination visits during which an evidence-based pain prevention strategy was reported as being used; and (2) caregiver satisfaction ratings following the visit...
February 8, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222689/family-centred-interventions-by-primary-healthcare-services-for-indigenous-early-childhood-wellbeing-in-australia-canada-new-zealand-and-the-united-states-a-systematic-scoping-review
#9
Janya McCalman, Marion Heyeres, Sandra Campbell, Roxanne Bainbridge, Catherine Chamberlain, Natalie Strobel, Alan Ruben
BACKGROUND: Primary healthcare services in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States have embraced the concept of family-centred care as a promising approach to supporting and caring for the health of young Indigenous children and their families. This scoping review assesses the quality of the evidence base and identifies the published literature on family- centred interventions for Indigenous early childhood wellbeing. METHODS: Fourteen electronic databases, grey literature sources and the reference lists of Indigenous maternal and child health reviews were searched to identify relevant publications from 2000 to 2015...
February 21, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222101/costs-and-effects-of-a-state-wide-health-promotion-program-in-primary-schools-in-germany-the-baden-w%C3%A3-rttemberg-study-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Dorothea Kesztyüs, Romy Lauer, Tibor Kesztyüs, Reinhold Kilian, Jürgen M Steinacker
AIM: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the state-wide implementation of the health promotion program "Join the Healthy Boat" in primary schools in Germany. METHODS: Cluster-randomized intervention trial with wait-list control group. Anthropometric data of 1733 participating children (7.1 ± 0.6 years) were taken by trained staff before and after a one year intervention period in the academic year 2010/11. Parents provided information about the health status, and the health behaviour of their children and themselves, parental anthropometrics, and socio-economic background variables...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217728/association-between-socioeconomic-and-psychological-experiences-of-parents-with-children-on-leukemia-treatment-in-kenyatta-national-hospital-kenya
#11
Roselyne Anyango Okumu, Margret Muiva, Miriam Wagoro, Fatmah Abdallah, Erick Oweya
OBJECTIVE: The survival rate for children with leukemia has increased dramatically since the late 1990s; treatment effects of the disease can be extremely stressful for families. Research on psychological and socioeconomic effects of leukemia treatment had been conducted in Western countries, but little is known within Africa including Kenya. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 62 out of 72 parents of children undergoing leukemia treatment at Kenyatta National Hospital...
January 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212686/validity-of-a-simplified-screening-instrument-for-assessing-overweight-children-in-a-dental-setting-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Amir Azarpazhooh, Anoushe Sekhavat, Michael J Sigal
BACKGROUND: Obesity, with its rising prevalence among Canadians and its estimated cost of $2 billion annually in Canada, is no longer considered a cosmetic issue, but a major health issue that imposes a great burden on the healthcare system and economy. This cross sectional study aims to evaluate the feasibility of identifying the weight status of 6 to 11 year-old children in a university dental clinic using a simplified overweight screening instrument. METHODS: One hundred sixty eight healthy children were enrolled...
February 17, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211039/cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-an-epidemiological-review
#13
REVIEW
A C Green, C M Olsen
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common cancer in white populations and its disease burden is often substantially underestimated. SCC occurs more often in men than women and increases dramatically with age; those affected often develop multiple primaries over time, which increases the burden. The main external cause is solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR), with immunosuppression being the other established risk factor, shown by the high SCC rates in organ transplant recipients. Sunbed use and certain genetic disorders and medical conditions are also associated with SCC, while associations with human papillomavirus infection and high bodyweight are not established...
February 16, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210915/determining-childhood-blood-lead-level-screening-compliance-among-physicians
#14
Amanda Haboush-Deloye, Erika R Marquez, Shawn L Gerstenberger
Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Programs throughout the U.S. have addressed childhood lead poisoning by implementing primary and secondary prevention efforts. While many programs have helped increase screening rates, in some states children under the age of six still have not been tested for lead. This study aims to identify the barriers to childhood blood lead testing and develop a strategy to increase the number of children tested. Clark County physicians who work with children six and under were surveyed about blood lead level (BLL) testing practices, particularly, adherence to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines, and parental compliance with orders to have their children tested to determine their blood lead levels...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209607/parenting-for-autism-language-and-communication-evaluation-study-palaces-protocol-for-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Margiad Elen Williams, Richard Hastings, Joanna Mary Charles, Sue Evans, Judy Hutchings
INTRODUCTION: Children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) often have associated behavioural difficulties that can present a challenge for parents and parenting. There are several effective social learning theory-based parenting programmes for dealing with behavioural difficulties, including the Incredible Years (IY) parent programmes. However, these programmes typically do not specifically target parents of children with ASD. Recently, a new addition to the IY suite of programmes known as the IY Autistic Spectrum and Language Delays (IY-ASLD) parent programme was developed...
February 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208207/-spatial-distribution-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-berlin-application-of-a-geographically-weighted-regression-analysis-to-identify-location-specific-risk-groups
#16
Boris Kauhl, Jonas Pieper, Jürgen Schweikart, Andrea Keste, Marita Moskwyn
Understanding which population groups in which locations are at higher risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) allows efficient and cost-effective interventions targeting these risk-populations in great need in specific locations. The goal of this study was to analyze the spatial distribution of T2DM and to identify the location-specific, population-based risk factors using global and local spatial regression models. To display the spatial heterogeneity of T2DM, bivariate kernel density estimation was applied...
February 16, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205332/explantation-rates-and-healthcare-resource-utilization-in-spinal-cord-stimulation
#17
Jing L Han, Kelly R Murphy, Syed Mohammed Qasim Hussaini, Siyun Yang, Beth Parente, Jichun Xie, Promila Pagadala, Shivanand P Lad
OBJECTIVES: Certain patients ultimately undergo explantation of their spinal cord stimulation (SCS) devices. Understanding the predictors and rates of SCS explantation has important implications for healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and pain management. The present study identifies explant predictors and discerns differences in HCRU for at-risk populations. METHODS: We designed a large, retrospective analysis using the Truven MarketScan Database. We included all adult patients who underwent a SCS trial from 2007 to 2012...
February 15, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202814/early-mortality-saves-energy-estimating-the-energetic-cost-of-excess-offspring-in-a-seabird
#18
Oscar Vedder, He Zhang, Sandra Bouwhuis
Offspring are often produced in excess as insurance against stochastic events or unpredictable resources. This strategy may result in high early-life mortality, yet age-specific mortality before offspring independence and its associated costs have rarely been quantified. In this study, we modelled age-specific survival from hatching to fledging using 24 years of data on hatching order (HO), growth and age of mortality of more than 15 000 common tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks. We found that mortality peaked directly after hatching, after which it declined rapidly...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198289/help-patients-cope-with-the-financial-toll-of-cancer
#19
Lynne Pearce
Macmillan Cancer Support estimates that cancer costs an average of £570 a month for more than eight in ten patients, with working parents of young children hit hardest of all.
February 15, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188476/classrooms-in-peace-within-violent-contexts-field-evaluation-of-aulas-en-paz-in-colombia
#20
Enrique Chaux, Madeleine Barrera, Andrés Molano, Ana María Velásquez, Melisa Castellanos, Maria Paula Chaparro, Andrea Bustamante
Classrooms in Peace (Aulas en Paz) is an elementary school-based multicomponent program for prevention of aggression and promotion of peaceful relationships. Inspired by international programs and socio-emotional research, it includes (1) a classroom universal curriculum, (2) parent workshops and home visits to parents of the 10% most aggressive children, and (3) extracurricular peer groups of two aggressive and four prosocial children. Activities seek to promote socio-emotional competencies such as empathy, anger management, creative generation of alternatives, and assertiveness...
February 11, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
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