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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632130/the-laminar-organization-of-the-drosophila-ellipsoid-body-is-semaphorin-dependent-and-prevents-the-formation-of-ectopic-synaptic-connections
#1
Xiaojun Xie, Masashi Tabuchi, Matthew P Brown, Sarah P Mitchell, Mark N Wu, Alex L Kolodkin
The ellipsoid body (EB) in the Drosophila brain is a central complex (CX) substructure that harbors circumferentially laminated ring (R) neuron axons and mediates multifaceted sensory integration and motor coordination functions. However, what regulates R axon lamination and how lamination affects R neuron function remain unknown. We show here that the EB is sequentially innervated by small-field and large-field neurons, and that early-developing EB neurons play an important regulatory role in EB laminae formation...
June 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630111/investigation-of-seizure-susceptibility-in-a-drosophila-model-of-human-epilepsy-with-optogenetic-stimulation
#2
Arunesh Saras, Veronica V Wu, Harlan J Brawer, Mark A Tanouye
We examined seizure-susceptibility in a Drosophila model of human epilepsy using optogenetic stimulation of ReaChR opsin. Photostimulation of the seizure-sensitive mutant para(bss1) causes behavioral paralysis that resembles paralysis caused by mechanical stimulation, in many aspects. Electrophysiology shows that photostimulation evokes abnormal seizure-like neuronal firing in para(bss1) followed by a quiescent period resembling synaptic failure and apparently responsible for paralysis. The pattern of neuronal activity concludes with seizure-like activity just prior to recovery (recovery)...
June 19, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612236/using-optogenetics-to-assess-neuroendocrine-modulation-of-heart-rate-in-drosophila-melanogaster-larvae
#3
Cole Malloy, Jacob Sifers, Angela Mikos, Aya Samadi, Aya Omar, Christina Hermanns, Robin L Cooper
The Drosophila melanogaster heart has become a principal model in which to study cardiac physiology and development. While the morphology of the heart in Drosophila and mammals is different, many of the molecular mechanisms that underlie heart development and function are similar and function can be assessed by similar physiological measurements, such as cardiac output, rate, and time in systole or diastole. Here, we have utilized an intact, optogenetic approach to assess the neural influence on heart rate in the third instar larvae...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604684/sensory-integration-and-neuromodulatory-feedback-facilitate-drosophila-mechanonociceptive-behavior
#4
Chun Hu, Meike Petersen, Nina Hoyer, Bettina Spitzweck, Federico Tenedini, Denan Wang, Alisa Gruschka, Lara S Burchardt, Emanuela Szpotowicz, Michaela Schweizer, Ananya R Guntur, Chung-Hui Yang, Peter Soba
Nociception is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism to encode and process harmful environmental stimuli. Like most animals, Drosophila melanogaster larvae respond to a variety of nociceptive stimuli, including noxious touch and temperature, with stereotyped escape responses through activation of multimodal nociceptors. How behavioral responses to these different modalities are processed and integrated by the downstream network remains poorly understood. By combining trans-synaptic labeling, ultrastructural analysis, calcium imaging, optogenetics and behavioral analyses, we uncovered a circuit specific for mechanonociception but not thermonociception...
June 12, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515683/a-population-of-projection-neurons-that-inhibits-the-lateral-horn-but-excites-the-antennal-lobe-through-chemical-synapses-in-drosophila
#5
Kazumichi Shimizu, Mark Stopfer
In the insect olfactory system, odor information is transferred from the antennal lobe (AL) to higher brain areas by projection neurons (PNs) in multiple AL tracts (ALTs). In several species, one of the ALTs, the mediolateral ALT (mlALT), contains some GABAergic PNs; in the Drosophila brain, the great majority of ventral PNs (vPNs) are GABAergic and project through this tract to the lateral horn (LH). Most excitatory PNs (ePNs), project through the medial ALT (mALT) to the mushroom body (MB) and the LH. Recent studies have shown that GABAergic vPNs play inhibitory roles at their axon terminals in the LH...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502772/representations-of-novelty-and-familiarity-in-a-mushroom-body-compartment
#6
Daisuke Hattori, Yoshinori Aso, Kurtis J Swartz, Gerald M Rubin, L F Abbott, Richard Axel
Animals exhibit a behavioral response to novel sensory stimuli about which they have no prior knowledge. We have examined the neural and behavioral correlates of novelty and familiarity in the olfactory system of Drosophila. Novel odors elicit strong activity in output neurons (MBONs) of the α'3 compartment of the mushroom body that is rapidly suppressed upon repeated exposure to the same odor. This transition in neural activity upon familiarization requires odor-evoked activity in the dopaminergic neuron innervating this compartment...
May 18, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502656/temporal-cohorts-of-lineage-related-neurons-perform-analogous-functions-in-distinct-sensorimotor-circuits
#7
Christopher C Wreden, Julia L Meng, Weidong Feng, Wanhao Chi, Zarion D Marshall, Ellie S Heckscher
Neuronal stem cell lineages are the fundamental developmental units of the brain, and neuronal circuits are the fundamental functional units of the brain. Determining lineage-circuitry relationships is essential for deciphering the developmental logic of circuit assembly. While the spatial distribution of lineage-related neurons has been investigated in a few brain regions [1-9], an important, but unaddressed question is whether temporal information that diversifies neuronal progeny within a single lineage also impacts circuit assembly...
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473639/ring-attractor-dynamics-in-the-drosophila-central-brain
#8
Sung Soo Kim, Hervé Rouault, Shaul Druckmann, Vivek Jayaraman
Ring attractors are a class of recurrent networks hypothesized to underlie the representation of heading direction. Such network structures, schematized as a ring of neurons whose connectivity depends on their heading preferences, can sustain a bump-like activity pattern whose location can be updated by continuous shifts along either turn direction. We recently reported that a population of fly neurons represents the animal's heading via bump-like activity dynamics. We combined two-photon calcium imaging in head-fixed flying flies with optogenetics to overwrite the existing population representation with an artificial one, which was then maintained by the circuit with naturalistic dynamics...
May 4, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442946/optogenetic-rescue-of-locomotor-dysfunction-and-dopaminergic-degeneration-caused-by-alpha-synuclein-and-eko-genes
#9
Cheng Qi, Scott Varga, Soo-Jin Oh, C Justin Lee, Daewoo Lee
α-Synuclein (α-Syn) is a small presynaptic protein and its mutant forms (e.g. A53T) are known to be directly associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying α-Syn-mediated neurodegeneration in PD still remain to be explored. However, several studies strongly support that overexpression of mutant α-Syn causes reduced release of dopamine (DA) in the brain, and contributes to motor deficits in PD. Using a favorable genetic model Drosophila larva, we examined whether reduced DA release is enough to induce key PD symptoms (i...
April 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406187/cell-matrix-adhesion-and-cell-cell-adhesion-differentially-control-basal-myosin-oscillation-and-drosophila-egg-chamber-elongation
#10
Xiang Qin, Byung Ouk Park, Jiaying Liu, Bing Chen, Valerie Choesmel-Cadamuro, Karine Belguise, Won Do Heo, Xiaobo Wang
Pulsatile actomyosin contractility, important in tissue morphogenesis, has been studied mainly in apical but less in basal domains. Basal myosin oscillation underlying egg chamber elongation is regulated by both cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesions. However, the mechanism by which these two adhesions govern basal myosin oscillation and tissue elongation is unknown. Here we demonstrate that cell-matrix adhesion positively regulates basal junctional Rho1 activity and medio-basal ROCK and myosin activities, thus strongly controlling tissue elongation...
April 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401598/dcf1-improves-behavior-deficit-in-drosophila-and-mice-caused-by-optogenetic-suppression
#11
Qiang Liu, Linhua Gan, Jian Ni, Yu Chen, Yanlu Chen, Zhili Huang, Xu Huang, Tieqiao Wen
Optogenetics play a significant role in neuroscientific research by providing a tool for understanding neural circuits and brain functions. Natronomonas pharaonis halorhodopsin (NpHR) actively pumps chloride ions into the cells and hyperpolarizes neuronal membranes in response to yellow light. In this study, we generated transgenic Drosophila expressing NpHR under the control of the Gal4/UAS system and virus-infected mice expressing NpHR to explore the effect of dendritic cell factor 1 (Dcf1) on the behavior mediated by the mushroom body in Drosophila and the dentate gyrus (DG) in mice...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332980/a-receptor-and-neuron-that-activate-a-circuit-limiting-sucrose-consumption
#12
Ryan M Joseph, Jennifer S Sun, Edric Tam, John R Carlson
The neural control of sugar consumption is critical for normal metabolism. In contrast to sugar-sensing taste neurons that promote consumption, we identify a taste neuron that limits sucrose consumption in Drosophila. Silencing of the neuron increases sucrose feeding; optogenetic activation decreases it. The feeding inhibition depends on the IR60b receptor, as shown by behavioral analysis and Ca(2+) imaging of an IR60b mutant. The IR60b phenotype shows a high degree of chemical specificity when tested with a broad panel of tastants...
March 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215335/optogenetic-inhibition-of-apical-constriction-during-drosophila-embryonic-development
#13
G Guglielmi, S De Renzis
Morphogenesis of multicellular organisms is driven by changes in cell behavior, which happen at precise locations and defined developmental stages. Therefore, the studying of morphogenetic events would greatly benefit from tools that allow the perturbation of cell activity with spatial and temporal precision. We recently developed an optogenetic approach to modulate cell contractility with cellular precision and on fast (seconds) timescales during Drosophila embryogenesis. We present here a protocol to handle genetically engineered photosensitive Drosophila embryos and achieve light-mediated inhibition of apical constriction during tissue invagination...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118601/the-spatiotemporal-limits-of-developmental-erk-signaling
#14
Heath E Johnson, Yogesh Goyal, Nicole L Pannucci, Trudi Schüpbach, Stanislav Y Shvartsman, Jared E Toettcher
Animal development is characterized by signaling events that occur at precise locations and times within the embryo, but determining when and where such precision is needed for proper embryogenesis has been a long-standing challenge. Here we address this question for extracellular signal regulated kinase (Erk) signaling, a key developmental patterning cue. We describe an optogenetic system for activating Erk with high spatiotemporal precision in vivo. Implementing this system in Drosophila, we find that embryogenesis is remarkably robust to ectopic Erk signaling, except from 1 to 4 hr post-fertilization, when perturbing the spatial extent of Erk pathway activation leads to dramatic disruptions of patterning and morphogenesis...
January 23, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115483/gap-junction-mediated-signaling-from-motor-neurons-regulates-motor-generation-in-the-central-circuits-of-larval-drosophila
#15
Teruyuki Matsunaga, Hiroshi Kohsaka, Akinao Nose
In this study, we used the peristaltic crawling of Drosophila larvae as a model to study how motor patterns are regulated by central circuits. We built an experimental system that allows simultaneous application of optogenetics and calcium imaging to the isolated ventral nerve cord (VNC). We then investigated the effects of manipulating local activity of motor neurons (MNs) on fictive locomotion observed as waves of MN activity propagating along neuromeres. Optical inhibition of MNs with halorhodopsin3 (NpHR3) in a middle segment (A4, A5 or A6), but not other segments, dramatically decreased the frequency of the motor waves...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114289/optogenetic-inhibition-of-behavior-with-anion-channelrhodopsins
#16
Farhan Mohammad, James C Stewart, Stanislav Ott, Katarina Chlebikova, Jia Yi Chua, Tong-Wey Koh, Joses Ho, Adam Claridge-Chang
Optogenetics uses light exposure to manipulate physiology in genetically modified organisms. Abundant tools for optogenetic excitation are available, but the limitations of current optogenetic inhibitors present an obstacle to demonstrating the necessity of neuronal circuits. Here we show that anion channelrhodopsins can be used to specifically and rapidly inhibit neural systems involved in Drosophila locomotion, wing expansion, memory retrieval and gustation, thus demonstrating their broad utility in the circuit analysis of behavior...
March 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113210/fim2c-a-multi-colour-multi-purpose-imaging-system-to-manipulate-and-analyse-animal-behaviour
#17
Benjamin Risse, Nils Otto, Dimitri Berh, Xiaoyi Jiang, Matthias Kiel, Christian Klambt
In vivo whole-body imaging of small animals plays an important role for biomedical studies. In particular, animals like the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster or the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans are popular model organisms for preclinical research since they offer sophisticated genetic tool-kits. Recording these translucent animals with high contrast in a large arena is however not trivial. Furthermore fluorescent proteins are widely used to mark cells in vivo and report their functions. This paper introduces a novel optical imaging technique called FIM2c enabling simultaneous detection of the animals posture and movement as well as fluorescent markers like GFP...
May 18, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065655/precision-optogenetic-tool-for-selective-single-and-multiple-cell-ablation-in-a-live-animal-model-system
#18
Kalpana Makhijani, Tsz-Leung To, Rubén Ruiz-González, Céline Lafaye, Antoine Royant, Xiaokun Shu
Cell ablation is a strategy to study cell lineage and function during development. Optogenetic methods are an important cell-ablation approach, and we have previously developed a mini singlet oxygen generator (miniSOG) tool that works in the living Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we use directed evolution to generate miniSOG2, an improved tool for cell ablation via photogenerated reactive oxygen species. We apply miniSOG2 to a far more complex model animal system, Drosophila melanogaster, and demonstrate that it can be used to kill a single neuron in a Drosophila larva...
January 19, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029094/visual-projection-neurons-in-the-drosophila-lobula-link-feature-detection-to-distinct-behavioral-programs
#19
Ming Wu, Aljoscha Nern, W Ryan Williamson, Mai M Morimoto, Michael B Reiser, Gwyneth M Card, Gerald M Rubin
Visual projection neurons (VPNs) provide an anatomical connection between early visual processing and higher brain regions. Here we characterize lobula columnar (LC) cells, a class of Drosophila VPNs that project to distinct central brain structures called optic glomeruli. We anatomically describe 22 different LC types and show that, for several types, optogenetic activation in freely moving flies evokes specific behaviors. The activation phenotypes of two LC types closely resemble natural avoidance behaviors triggered by a visual loom...
December 28, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818173/the-trp-channels-pkd2-nompc-and-trpm-act-in-cold-sensing-neurons-to-mediate-unique-aversive-behaviors-to-noxious-cold-in-drosophila
#20
Heather N Turner, Kevin Armengol, Atit A Patel, Nathaniel J Himmel, Luis Sullivan, Srividya Chandramouli Iyer, Surajit Bhattacharya, Eswar Prasad R Iyer, Christian Landry, Michael J Galko, Daniel N Cox
The basic mechanisms underlying noxious cold perception are not well understood. We developed Drosophila assays for noxious cold responses. Larvae respond to near-freezing temperatures via a mutually exclusive set of singular behaviors-in particular, a full-body contraction (CT). Class III (CIII) multidendritic sensory neurons are specifically activated by cold and optogenetic activation of these neurons elicits CT. Blocking synaptic transmission in CIII neurons inhibits CT. Genetically, the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels Trpm, NompC, and Polycystic kidney disease 2 (Pkd2) are expressed in CIII neurons, where each is required for CT...
December 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
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