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Lu Chen, Guang-Qiang Chen, Kevin Shore, Orest Shklar, Concetta Martins, Brian Devenyi, Paul Lindsay, Heather McPhail, Ashley Lanys, Ibrahim Soliman, Mazin Tuma, Michael Kim, Kerri Porretta, Pamela Greco, Hilary Every, Chris Hayes, Andrew Baker, Jan O Friedrich, Laurent Brochard
BACKGROUND: Despite their potential interest for clinical management, measurements of respiratory mechanics in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are seldom performed in routine practice. We introduced a systematic assessment of respiratory mechanics in our clinical practice. After the first year of clinical use, we retrospectively assessed whether these measurements had any influence on clinical management and physiological parameters associated with clinical outcomes by comparing their value before and after performing the test...
April 4, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Jessica O'Leary, Marion L Mitchell, Marie Cooke, Andreas Schibler
OBJECTIVE: To synthesise research findings regarding the efficacy and safety of normal saline instillation (NSI) during endotracheal suction in the paediatric intensive care unit. DATA SOURCES: The Cochrane Library, PROSPERO, the National Health Service Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, PubMed and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL) databases were systematically searched. Subject headings included "suctioning, endotracheal", "suction", "sodium chloride", "normal saline" and "paediatrics"...
March 24, 2017: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
Gary F Nieman, Joshua Satalin, Penny Andrews, Hani Aiash, Nader M Habashi, Louis A Gatto
It has been shown that mechanical ventilation in patients with, or at high-risk for, the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can be a double-edged sword. If the mechanical breath is improperly set, it can amplify the lung injury associated with ARDS, causing a secondary ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Conversely, the mechanical breath can be adjusted to minimize VILI, which can reduce ARDS mortality. The current standard of care ventilation strategy to minimize VILI attempts to reduce alveolar over-distension and recruitment-derecruitment (R/D) by lowering tidal volume (Vt) to 6 cc/kg combined with adjusting positive-end expiratory pressure (PEEP) based on a sliding scale directed by changes in oxygenation...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Ludovic Broche, Gaetano Perchiazzi, Liisa Porra, Angela Tannoia, Mariangela Pellegrini, Savino Derosa, Alessandra Sindaco, João Batista Borges, Loïc Degrugilliers, Anders Larsson, Göran Hedenstierna, Anthony S Wexler, Alberto Bravin, Sylvia Verbanck, Bradford J Smith, Jason H T Bates, Sam Bayat
OBJECTIVES: Positive pressure ventilation exposes the lung to mechanical stresses that can exacerbate injury. The exact mechanism of this pathologic process remains elusive. The goal of this study was to describe recruitment/derecruitment at acinar length scales over short-time frames and test the hypothesis that mechanical interdependence between neighboring lung units determines the spatial and temporal distributions of recruitment/derecruitment, using a computational model. DESIGN: Experimental animal study...
April 2017: Critical Care Medicine
Henri Meric, Line Falaize, Didier Pradon, Matthieu Lacombe, Michel Petitjean, David Orlikowski, Hélène Prigent, Frédéric Lofaso
Because progressive respiratory muscle weakness leads to decreased chest-wall motion with eventual ribcage stiffening, the purpose was to compare vital capacity (VC) and contributions of chest-wall compartments before and after volume recruitment-derecruitment manoeuvres (VRDM) in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We studied nine patients with DMD and VC lower than 30% of predicted. VRDM was performed using 15 insufflations-exsufflations of +30 to -30 cmH2O. VC and three-dimensional chest-wall motion were measured, as well as oxygen saturation, transcutaneous partial pressure of carbon dioxide and the rapid shallow breathing index (respiratory rate/tidal volume) before (baseline) and immediately and 1 hour after VRDM...
December 6, 2016: Chronic Respiratory Disease
Gregory A Schmidt
The foundation of mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory distress syndrome involves limiting lung overdistention by using small tidal volumes or transpulmonary pressures. Potential for additional lung recruitment with higher positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) should be assessed. When stress index indicates tidal recruitment-derecruitment, PEEP is increased to higher values. Alternatively, a high PEEP table is used in all patients. When these conventional approaches are insufficient to sustain acceptable gas exchange, rescue is attempted using extracorporeal therapies, airway pressure-release ventilation, inhaled vasodilators, or high-frequency oscillatory ventilation...
December 2016: Clinics in Chest Medicine
Steffen Wirth, Lisa Artner, Tobias Broß, Sara Lozano-Zahonero, Johannes Spaeth, Stefan Schumann
In paediatric patients positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is traditionally set lower than in adults. We investigated whether moderately higher PEEP improves respiratory mechanics and regional ventilation. Therefore, 40 children were mechanically ventilated with PEEP 2 and 5 cmH2O. Volume-dependent compliance profiles were analysed as a measure of intratidal recruitment/derecruitment. Regional ventilation was assessed using electrical impedance tomography. Mean compliance was 17.9±9.9 mL·cmH2O(-1) (PEEP 2 cmH2O), and 19...
August 29, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Samir Jaber, Nicolas Molinari, Audrey De Jong
INTRODUCTION: Tracheal intubation in the intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with severe life-threatening complications including severe hypoxaemia. Preoxygenation before intubation has been recommended in order to decrease such complications. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV)-assisted preoxygenation allows increased oxygen saturation during the intubation procedure, by applying a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to prevent alveolar derecruitment. However, the NIV mask has to be taken off after preoxygenation to allow the passage of the tube through the mouth...
August 12, 2016: BMJ Open
S Wirth, M Kreysing, J Spaeth, S Schumann
BACKGROUND: Anaesthesia and mechanical ventilation can lead to impaired lung. Intraoperative positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) should prevent intratidal recruitment/derecruitment without causing overdistension. The intratidal compliance profile indicates both unwanted phenomena. We hypothesized that a higher than usual PEEP improves the intratidal compliance and the regional lung ventilation of patients with healthy lungs. METHODS: After ethics approval, 30 adult patients scheduled for limb surgery were investigated at PEEP 5, 7 and 9 cm H2 O during mechanical ventilation...
October 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Steffen Wirth, Andreas Biesemann, Johannes Spaeth, Stefan Schumann
BACKGROUND: Pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic surgery leads to atelectasis and impairment of oxygenation. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is supposed to counteract atelectasis. We hypothesized that the derecruiting effects of pneumoperitoneum would deteriorate the intratidal compliance profile in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. METHODS: In 30 adult patients scheduled for surgery with pneumoperitoneum, respiratory variables were measured during mechanical ventilation...
June 20, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Jui-Lin Fan, Bengt Kayser
Fan, Jui-Lin, and Bengt Kayser. Fatigue and exhaustion in hypoxia: the role of cerebral oxygenation. High Alt Med Biol. 17:72-84, 2016.-It is well established that ascent to high altitude is detrimental to one's aerobic capacity and exercise performance. However, despite more than a century of research on the effects of hypoxia on exercise performance, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. While the cessation of exercise, or the reduction of its intensity, at exhaustion, implies reduced motor recruitment by the central nervous system, the mechanisms leading up to this muscular derecruitment remain elusive...
June 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Reza Amini, Jacob Herrmann, David W Kaczka
GOAL: Ventilated patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are predisposed to cyclic parenchymal overdistention and derecruitment, which may worsen existing injury. We hypothesized that intratidal variations in global mechanics, as assessed at the airway opening, would reflect such distributed processes. METHODS: We developed a computational lung model for determining local instantaneous pressure distributions and mechanical impedances continuously during a breath...
March 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
J Spaeth, K Daume, U Goebel, S Wirth, S Schumann
BACKGROUND: Turning a patient prone, changes the respiratory mechanics and potentially the level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) that is necessary to prevent alveolar collapse. In this prospective clinical study we examined the impact of PEEP on the intratidal respiratory mechanics and regional lung aeration in the prone position. We hypothesized that a higher PEEP is required to maintain compliance and regional ventilation in the prone position. METHODS: After ethical approval, 45 patients with healthy lungs undergoing lumbar spine surgery were examined in the supine position at PEEP 6 cm H2O and in the prone position at PEEP (6, 9 and 12 cm H2O)...
June 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Michael A Trevino, Trent J Herda, Andrew C Fry, Philip M Gallagher, John P Vardiman, Eric M Mosier, Jonathan D Miller
It is suggested that firing rate characteristics of motor units (MUs) are influenced by the physical properties of the muscle. However, no study has correlated MU firing rates at recruitment, targeted force, or derecruitment with the contractile properties of the muscle in vivo. Twelve participants (age = 20.67 ± 2.35 yr) performed a 40% isometric maximal voluntary contraction of the leg extensors that included linearly increasing, steady force, and decreasing segments. Muscle biopsies were collected with myosin heavy chain (MHC) content quantified, and surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from the vastus lateralis...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Songqiao Liu, Li Tan, Knut Möller, Inez Frerichs, Tao Yu, Ling Liu, Yingzi Huang, Fengmei Guo, Jingyuan Xu, Yi Yang, Haibo Qiu, Zhanqi Zhao
BACKGROUND: Information on regional ventilation distribution in mechanically ventilated patients is important to develop lung protective ventilation strategies. In the present prospective animal study, we introduce an electrical impedance tomography (EIT)-based method to classify lungs into normally ventilated, overinflated, tidally recruited/derecruited and recruited regions. METHODS: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was introduced with repeated bronchoalveolar lavage in ten healthy male pigs until the ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen and fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) decreased to less than 100 mmHg and remained stable for 30 minutes...
May 3, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Elena Lopez-Rodriguez, Caroline Boden, Mercedes Echaide, Jesus Perez-Gil, Martin Kolb, Jack Gauldie, Ulrich A Maus, Matthias Ochs, Lars Knudsen
Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is involved in regulation of cellular proliferation, differentiation, and fibrogenesis, inducing myofibroblast migration and increasing extracellular matrix synthesis. Here, TGF-β1 effects on pulmonary structure and function were analyzed. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of TGF-β1 in mice lungs was performed and evaluated by design-based stereology, invasive pulmonary function testing, and detailed analyses of the surfactant system 1 and 2 wk after gene transfer...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Anna-Liisa Sutt, Lawrence R Caruana, Kimble R Dunster, Petrea L Cornwell, Chris M Anstey, John F Fraser
BACKGROUND: Patients who require positive pressure ventilation through a tracheostomy are unable to phonate due to the inflated tracheostomy cuff. Whilst a speaking valve (SV) can be used on a tracheostomy tube, its use in ventilated ICU patients has been inhibited by concerns regarding potential deleterious effects to recovering lungs. The objective of this study was to assess end expiratory lung impedance (EELI) and standard bedside respiratory parameters before, during and after SV use in tracheostomised patients weaning from mechanical ventilation...
April 1, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Marouane Boukhris, Salvatore D Tomasello, Alfredo R Galassi
Coronary arteries are not definitely functionally terminal arteries, as previously thought; indeed, they are linked and interconnected by a rich network of collaterals. Chronic total occlusions (CTOs) represent a subset of frequent lesions encountered in everyday catheterization laboratory practice, generally associated with a developed system of collateral connections. These latter have the capacity to prevent myocardial necrosis and may even uphold metabolic supply to the ischemic territory to maintain its contractile capacity...
January 2016: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
T J Herda, J D Miller, M A Trevino, E M Mosier, P M Gallagher, A C Fry, J P Vardiman
AIM: To investigate the change in motor unit (MU) firing rates (FR) at de-recruitment relative to recruitment and the relation to % type I myosin heavy chain isoform content (type I %MHC) of the vastus lateralis (VL) in vivo. METHODS: Ten subjects performed a 22-s submaximal isometric trapezoid muscle action that included a linearly increasing, steady force at 50% maximal voluntary contraction, and linearly decreasing segments. Surface electromyographic signals were collected from the VL and were decomposed into constituent MU action potentials trains...
April 2016: Acta Physiologica
Toru Kotani, Hitoshi Tanabe, Hiroaki Yusa, Satoshi Saito, Kenji Yamazaki, Makoto Ozaki
Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a noninvasive technique used to assess regional gas distribution in the lung. We experienced a patient with acute cor pulmonale during high positive-pressure ventilation for the treatment of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Prone positioning was beneficial for unloading the right ventricle for treatment of acute cor pulmonale. EIT played a role in detecting lung derecruitment at the patient's bedside. Impedance distribution in ventral, mid-ventral, mid-dorsal, and dorsal layers before and 20 min after the start of prone positioning was 9, 48, 44, and 0 %, and 10, 25, 48, and 16 %, respectively...
February 2016: Journal of Anesthesia
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