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Matthieu Picher, Kerstin Bücker, Thomas LaGrange, Florian Banhart
We implement a parametric study with single electron pulses having a 7 ns duration to find the optimal conditions for imaging, diffraction, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the single-shot approach. Photoelectron pulses are generated by illuminating a flat tantalum cathode with 213 nm nanosecond laser pulses in a 200 kV transmission electron microscope (TEM) with thermionic gun and Wehnelt electrode. For the first time, an EEL spectrometer is used to measure the energy distribution of single nanosecond electron pulses which is crucial for understanding the ideal imaging conditions of the single-shot approach...
March 13, 2018: Ultramicroscopy
Pollyana Trigueiro, Silvia Pedetti, Baptiste Rigaud, Sebastien Balme, Jean-Marc Janot, Ieda M G Dos Santos, Régis Gougeon, Maria G Fonseca, Thomas Georgelin, Maguy Jaber
Wine chemistry inspires and challenges with its complexity and intriguing composition. In this context, the composites based on the use of a model protein, a polyphenol of interest and montmorillonite in a model hydroalcoholic solution have been studied. A set of experimental characterization techniques highlighted the interactions between the organic and the inorganic parts in the composite. The amount of the organic part was determined by ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) and thermal analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) informed about the stacking/exfoliation of the layers in the composites...
March 6, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Hamid Reza Rajabi, Fatemeh Karimi, Hossein Kazemdehdashti, Leila Kavoshi
In this research, a sono-assisted chemical precipitation method was developed for a quick and efficient water-based synthesis of zinc sulfide (ZnS) quantum dots (QDs), in room temperature. ZnS QDs as pure and doped with some transition metal ions (such as Cu2+ , Mn2+ , Ag+ ) were prepared in the presence of l-cysteine, as capping agent. In comparison with the previous conventional methods, applying the ultrasonic irradiation provides a significant decrease in the reaction time. In comparison with previous reported conventional chemical QD synthesis methods, the required time for a complete synthesis in the presence of ultrasonic irradiations was significantly reduced to a period as short as 15 min, in a temperature of 40 °C...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Hirofumi Chiba, Yoichi Kakuta, Yoshitaka Kinouchi, Yosuke Kawai, Kazuhiro Watanabe, Munenori Nagao, Takeo Naito, Motoyuki Onodera, Rintaro Moroi, Masatake Kuroha, Yoshitake Kanazawa, Tomoya Kimura, Hisashi Shiga, Katsuya Endo, Kenichi Negoro, Masao Nagasaki, Michiaki Unno, Tooru Shimosegawa
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has an unknown etiology; however, accumulating evidence suggests that IBD is a multifactorial disease influenced by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The influence of genetic variants on DNA methylation in cis and cis effects on expression have been demonstrated. We hypothesized that IBD susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) regulate susceptibility gene expressions in cis by regulating DNA methylation around SNPs...
2018: PloS One
Radosław Mrówczyński, Artur Jędrzak, Kosma Szutkowski, Bartosz F Grześkowiak, Emerson Coy, Roksana Markiewicz, Teofil Jesionowski, Stefan Jurga
Polydopamine (PDA)-coated magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with mono-6-thio-β-cyclodextrin (SH-βCD) were obtained and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Nuclear and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (NMR and MRI), and doxorubicin (DOXO)-loading experiments. The liver cancer cellular internalization of DOXO-loaded nanoparticles was investigated by confocal imaging microscopy. Synthesized nanomaterials bearing a chemotherapeutic drug and a layer of polydopamine capable of absorbing near-infrared light show high performance in the combined chemo- and photothermal therapy (CT-PTT) of liver cancer due to the synergistic effect of both modalities as demonstrated in vitro...
March 16, 2018: Nanomaterials
Marlena Whinton, Timothy C Hughes, Shuhua Peng, Michael A Brook
Bicontinuous microemulsions exhibit domain structures on the nanoscale (<20 nm). Normally, such fine details are lost during the conversion from a fluid microemulsion to solid elastomeric materials, as a consequence of interfacial destabilization via polymerization of either the oil phase, or of monomers in the aqueous phase. Very little is known about the polymerization of silicone microemulsions and the morphological changes that occur upon transition from a nanostructured liquid to a solid ma-trix. Silicone microemulsions polymerized by free radical (aqueous phase) and condensation (silicone phase) processes, respective-ly, were characterized by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
March 16, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Rebecca L Cunningham, Kelly R Monk
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) enables visualization of the ultrastructure of the myelin sheath. Schwann cells on the posterior lateral line nerves and motor nerves can be imaged by TEM. Here, we detail the multiday processing of larval trunks and dissected posterior lateral line for TEM, as well as how to trim embedded samples, section, and stain grids for imaging.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Peter Bond, David B Parkinson
The use of electron microscopy allows analysis of the microarchitecture of peripheral nerves both during development and in the processes of nerve regeneration and repair.We describe a novel method for the rapid analysis and quantification of myelin in peripheral nerve using a low vacuum scanning electron microscopy protocol. For this methodology, excised nerves are prepared for traditional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, but at the stage where semi-thin sections would be taken, the resin block is instead imaged at low vacuum in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) using the backscattered electron signal...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Vania W Almeida, Margaret L Bates, Mary Bartlett Bunge
The transmission electron microscope (TEM) enables a unique and valuable examination of cellular and extracellular elements in tissue in situ, in cultured cells, or in pellets derived from suspensions of cells or other materials such as nanoparticles. Here we focus on the preparation of cultured Schwann cells or Schwann cell-containing dorsal root ganglion cultures. To gain as life-like as possible views of the cellular details, it is imperative to achieve excellent preservation of the cellular structure. The steps in the preparation of cultures described in this chapter represent the results of many years of accumulated TEM images to find the best methods of preservation for Schwann cells, myelin, and basal lamina components...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Amarjeet Singh, Bhavana Sharma, Renu Deswal
In the present study, we report perhaps for the first time the use of novel varieties of Brassica oleracea var. botrytis and Raphanus sativus as potential bioreductant, to synthesize highly stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, no aggregation observed for six months), which is a significant finding as plant extract-directed AgNPs are intrinsically unstable and tend to aggregate. The reduction of Ag+ to Ag0 nanostructures was confirmed using UVVis spectroscopy showing SPR spectra at 400-435 nm. Nanosight and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis showed monodisperse spherical AgNPs (4-18 nm)...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Zeynep Canan Özdemir, Yeter Düzenli Kar, Eren Gündüz, Ayşe Bozkurt Turhan, Özcan Bör
OBJECTIVE: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) has been demonstrated to be a risk factor for thromboembolic events, although the pathogenesis of the development of thromboembolism in IDA is as yet unclear. The likelihood of children with IDA contracting hypercoagulability was evaluated in this cross-sectional study using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). MATERIAL AND METHOD: A total of 57 children with IDA (median age 11 years; 37 female, 20 male) and 48 healthy children (median age 9...
March 15, 2018: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Kshiti Singh, Nimisha Jadon, Rajeev Jain
Titanium oxide nanoparticles and 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide modified glassy carbon electrode (TiO2 /IL/GCE) has been fabricated for electrochemical sensing of flunarizine (FRH). The electrochemical properties and morphology of the prepared nanocomposite were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The response of the electrochemical sensor was found to be proportional to the concentrations of FRH in the range from 0...
March 2, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Urmi Bajpai, Abhishek Kumar Mehta, Kandasamy Eniyan, Avni Sinha, Ankita Ray, Simran Virdi, Shazeb Ahmad, Aridni Shah, Deepanksha Arora, Devyani Marwaha, Gunjan Chauhan, Prarthna Saraswat, Punita Bathla, Ruchi Singh
Bacteriophages are being considered as a promising natural resource for the development of alternative strategies against mycobacterial diseases, especially in the context of the wide spread occurrence of drug-resistance amongst the clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. However, there isn't much information documented on mycobacteriophages from India. Here, we report the isolation of 17 mycobacteriophages using M. smegmatis as the bacterial host where 9 phages also lyse M. tuberculosis H37Rv. We present detailed analysis of one of these mycobacteriophage (PDRPv)...
March 15, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Nobuyuki Higashi, Sho Matsubara, Shin-Nosuke Nishimura, Tomoyuki Koga
Novel thermo-responsive ABA-type triblock copolymers (poly(NAAMe n - b -NAGMe 240 - b -NAAMe n ), n = 18-72) composed of naturally occurring amino acid-based vinyl polymer blocks such as poly( N -acryloyl-l-alanine methyl ester (poly(NAAMe)) as the A segment and poly( N -acryloyl-glycine methylester)(poly(NAGMe)) as the B segment have been synthesized by the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Their thermal behaviors were analyzed in dilute aqueous solutions by turbidimetry. The turbidity curves provided two-step LCST transitions, and a flower-like micelle formation was confirmed at the temperature region between the first and second LCST transitions by dynamic light scattering, AFM and TEM...
March 15, 2018: Materials
Jiangbin Su, Xianfang Zhu
The nanoinstability of single crystal Si nanowire under electron beam irradiation was in-situ investigated at room temperature by transmission electron microscopy technique. It was observed that the Si nanowire amorphized preferentially from the surface towards the center with the increasing of electron dose. In contrast, in the center of the Si nanowire the amorphization seemed much more difficult accompanying with rotation of crystal grains and compression of d-spacing. Such a preferential amorphization as athermally induced by the electron beam irradiation can be well accounted for by our proposed concepts of nanocurvature effect and energetic beam-induced athermal activation effect, while the classical knock-on mechanism and the electron beam heating effect seem inadequate to explain these processes...
March 15, 2018: Nanotechnology
Michael E Paulaitis, Kitty Agarwal, Serge Patrick Nana-Sinkam
A model is proposed for characterizing exosome size distributions based on dynamic scaling of domain growth on the limiting membrane of multivesicular bodies in the established exosome biogenesis pathway. The scaling exponent in this model captures the asymmetry of exosome size distributions, which are notably right-skewed to larger vesicles independent of the minimum detectable vesicle size. Analyses of exosome size distributions obtained by cryo-TEM imaging and nanoparticle tracking (NTA) show, respectively, that the scaling exponent is sensitive to the state of the cell source for exosomes in cell culture supernatants, and can distinguish exosome size distributions in serum samples taken from cancer patients relative to those from healthy donors...
March 15, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Liancheng Bing, Aixiu Tian, Fang Wang, Kaifeng Yi, Xingyuan Sun, Guangjian Wang
Hierarchical SSZ-13 microspheres with abundant mesoporous channels have been successfully synthesized by addition of calcined SSZ-13 crystals in the starting gel in the absence of any organic templates. This strategy not only remarkably reduces the production cost and environmental pollution but also significantly decreases the crystallization time as well as evidently reducing the zeolite crystal sizes in many cases. The synthesized sample was characterized by XRD, BET, ICP, SEM, TEM, TG, and NH3-TPD, which indicates that the organic template free synthesized SSZ-13 exhibits high crystallinity, textural properties, and acidity...
March 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Sheta M Sheta, Said M El-Sheikh, Mohkles M Abd-Elzaher
Novel copper metal organic framework nanoparticles Cu-MOF-NPs (C1) were prepared via two simple alternative methods and confirmed by analytical characterization using mass, IR, Raman, XRD spectrum, HR-TEM and TGA-DSC. Mass spectroscopy revealed the molecular ion peak at 647 m/z for the monomeric unit structure n[Cu(AIP)2 (PIY)(H2 O)2 ]·4H2 O, the presence of which was further supported by mass fragmentation. The Raman spectrum revealed two separate peaks corresponding to D and G bands of carbon in the structure of C1...
March 15, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
David Capper, David T W Jones, Martin Sill, Volker Hovestadt, Daniel Schrimpf, Dominik Sturm, Christian Koelsche, Felix Sahm, Lukas Chavez, David E Reuss, Annekathrin Kratz, Annika K Wefers, Kristin Huang, Kristian W Pajtler, Leonille Schweizer, Damian Stichel, Adriana Olar, Nils W Engel, Kerstin Lindenberg, Patrick N Harter, Anne K Braczynski, Karl H Plate, Hildegard Dohmen, Boyan K Garvalov, Roland Coras, Annett Hölsken, Ekkehard Hewer, Melanie Bewerunge-Hudler, Matthias Schick, Roger Fischer, Rudi Beschorner, Jens Schittenhelm, Ori Staszewski, Khalida Wani, Pascale Varlet, Melanie Pages, Petra Temming, Dietmar Lohmann, Florian Selt, Hendrik Witt, Till Milde, Olaf Witt, Eleonora Aronica, Felice Giangaspero, Elisabeth Rushing, Wolfram Scheurlen, Christoph Geisenberger, Fausto J Rodriguez, Albert Becker, Matthias Preusser, Christine Haberler, Rolf Bjerkvig, Jane Cryan, Michael Farrell, Martina Deckert, Jürgen Hench, Stephan Frank, Jonathan Serrano, Kasthuri Kannan, Aristotelis Tsirigos, Wolfgang Brück, Silvia Hofer, Stefanie Brehmer, Marcel Seiz-Rosenhagen, Daniel Hänggi, Volkmar Hans, Stephanie Rozsnoki, Jordan R Hansford, Patricia Kohlhof, Bjarne W Kristensen, Matt Lechner, Beatriz Lopes, Christian Mawrin, Ralf Ketter, Andreas Kulozik, Ziad Khatib, Frank Heppner, Arend Koch, Anne Jouvet, Catherine Keohane, Helmut Mühleisen, Wolf Mueller, Ute Pohl, Marco Prinz, Axel Benner, Marc Zapatka, Nicholas G Gottardo, Pablo Hernáiz Driever, Christof M Kramm, Hermann L Müller, Stefan Rutkowski, Katja von Hoff, Michael C Frühwald, Astrid Gnekow, Gudrun Fleischhack, Stephan Tippelt, Gabriele Calaminus, Camelia-Maria Monoranu, Arie Perry, Chris Jones, Thomas S Jacques, Bernhard Radlwimmer, Marco Gessi, Torsten Pietsch, Johannes Schramm, Gabriele Schackert, Manfred Westphal, Guido Reifenberger, Pieter Wesseling, Michael Weller, Vincent Peter Collins, Ingmar Blümcke, Martin Bendszus, Jürgen Debus, Annie Huang, Nada Jabado, Paul A Northcott, Werner Paulus, Amar Gajjar, Giles W Robinson, Michael D Taylor, Zane Jaunmuktane, Marina Ryzhova, Michael Platten, Andreas Unterberg, Wolfgang Wick, Matthias A Karajannis, Michel Mittelbronn, Till Acker, Christian Hartmann, Kenneth Aldape, Ulrich Schüller, Rolf Buslei, Peter Lichter, Marcel Kool, Christel Herold-Mende, David W Ellison, Martin Hasselblatt, Matija Snuderl, Sebastian Brandner, Andrey Korshunov, Andreas von Deimling, Stefan M Pfister
Accurate pathological diagnosis is crucial for optimal management of patients with cancer. For the approximately 100 known tumour types of the central nervous system, standardization of the diagnostic process has been shown to be particularly challenging-with substantial inter-observer variability in the histopathological diagnosis of many tumour types. Here we present a comprehensive approach for the DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours across all entities and age groups, and demonstrate its application in a routine diagnostic setting...
March 14, 2018: Nature
Filippo Cortesi, Gloria Delfanti, Andrea Grilli, Arianna Calcinotto, Francesca Gorini, Ferdinando Pucci, Roberta Lucianò, Matteo Grioni, Alessandra Recchia, Fabio Benigni, Alberto Briganti, Andrea Salonia, Michele De Palma, Silvio Bicciato, Claudio Doglioni, Matteo Bellone, Giulia Casorati, Paolo Dellabona
Heterotypic cellular and molecular interactions in the tumor microenvironment (TME) control cancer progression. Here, we show that CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer (iNKT) cells control prostate cancer (PCa) progression by sculpting the TME. In a mouse PCa model, iNKT cells restrained the pro-angiogenic and immunosuppressive capabilities of tumor-infiltrating immune cells by reducing pro-angiogenic TIE2+ , M2-like macrophages (TEMs), and sustaining pro-inflammatory M1-like macrophages. iNKT cells directly contacted macrophages in the PCa stroma, and iNKT cell transfer into tumor-bearing mice abated TEMs, delaying tumor progression...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
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