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Ethnic differences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029097/impact-of-three-doses-of-vitamin-d3-on-serum-25-oh-d-deficiency-and-insufficiency-in-at-risk-schoolchildren
#1
Jennifer M Sacheck, Maria I Van Rompay, Virginia R Chomitz, Christina D Economos, Misha Eliasziw, Elizabeth Goodman, Catherine M Gordon, Michael F Holick
Objective: We investigated the daily dose of vitamin D needed to achieve serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] sufficiency among schoolchildren at-risk for deficiency. Study Design: The Daily D Health Study was a randomized double-blind vitamin D supplementation trial among racially/ethnically diverse schoolchildren (n=685) in the northeastern U.S. Children were supplemented with vitamin D3 at 600, 1000, or 2000 IU/day for six months. Measurements included serum 25(OH)D at baseline (Oct-Dec), 3 months (Jan-March), 6 months (April-June), and 12 months (6 months post-supplementation)...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029058/inter-ethnic-differences-in-valve-morphology-valvular-dysfunction-and-aortopathy-between-asian-and-european-patients-with-bicuspid-aortic-valve
#2
William K F Kong, Madelien V Regeer, Kian K Poh, James W Yip, Philippe J van Rosendael, Tiong C Yeo, Edgar Tay, Vasileios Kamperidis, Enno T van der Velde, Bart Mertens, Nina Ajmone Marsan, Victoria Delgado, Jeroen J Bax
Background: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been shown safe and feasible in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) morphology. Evaluation of inter-ethnic differences in valve morphology and function and aortic root dimensions in patients with BAV is important for the worldwide spread of this therapy in this subgroup of patients. Comparisons between large European and Asian cohorts of patients with BAV have not been performed, and potential differences between populations may have important implications for TAVR...
October 6, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028856/ethnicity-and-aging-skin
#3
Andrew F Alexis, Jasmine O Obioha
<p>Aging is a complex process influenced by both extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Premature signs of aging due to cumulative UV exposure represent a major concern of the cosmetic patient. Skin of color is less susceptible to photodamage and thus signs of aging are less pronounced and occur later than in Caucasians. Understanding structural and functional differences among different racial/ethnic groups is important to achieve favorable treatment outcomes when addressing aging concerns.</p> <p><em<J Drugs Dermatol...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028565/human-papillomavirus-vaccine-initiation-in-asian-indians-and-asian-subpopulations-a-case-for-examining-disaggregated-data-in-public-health-research
#4
H Budhwani, P De
OBJECTIVES: Vaccine disparities research often focuses on differences between the five main racial and ethnic classifications, ignoring heterogeneity of subpopulations. Considering this knowledge gap, we examined human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation in Asian Indians and Asian subpopulations. STUDY DESIGN: National Health Interview Survey data (2008-2013), collected by the National Center for Health Statistics, were analyzed. METHODS: Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted on adults aged 18-26 years (n = 20,040)...
October 10, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027816/a-comparison-of-the-genetic-and-clinical-risk-factors-for-arterial-hypertension-between-indigenous-and-non-indigenous-people-of-the-shoria-mountain-region
#5
Tatyana Mulerova, Michael Ogarkov, Evgenya Uchasova, Michael Voevoda, Olga Barbarash
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the non-genetic and genetic risk factors for arterial hypertension (AH) in two ethnic groups living in the Mountain Shoria region: Shors and non-indigenous people. METHODS: Clinical and epidemiological study of compactly living population in the remote areas of the Mountain Shoria (Orton, Ust-Kabyrza, Sheregesh settlements, Kemerovo region). 1178 residents of these settlements were surveyed with the help of continuous sampling method; the sample consisted of adults (18 years and older)...
October 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027594/treatment-and-survival-disparities-by-ethnicity-in-new-zealand-women-with-stage-i-iii-breast-cancer-tumour-subtypes
#6
Ross Lawrenson, Chunhuan Lao, Ian Campbell, Vernon Harvey, Sanjeewa Seneviratne, Melissa Edwards, Mark Elwood, Nina Scott, Jacquie Kidd, Diana Sarfati, Marion Kuper-Hommel
PURPOSE: This study aims to look at the distribution of different subtypes of stage I-III breast cancer in Māori and Pacific versus non-Māori/Pacific women, and to examine cancer outcomes by ethnicity within these different subtypes. METHOD: This study included 9,015 women diagnosed with stage I-III breast cancer between June 2000 and May 2013, recorded in the combined Waikato and Auckland Breast Cancer Registers, who had complete data on ER, PR and HER2 status...
October 13, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027504/pharmacokinetic-considerations-for-use-of-artemisinin-based-combination-therapies-against-falciparum-malaria-in-different-ethnic-populations
#7
Sri Riyati Sugiarto, Timothy M E Davis, Sam Salman
Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is used extensively as first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. There has been no rigorous assessment of the potential for racial/ethnic differences in the pharmacokinetic properties of ACTs that might influence their pharmacokinetic properties. Areas covered: A comprehensive literature search was performed that identified 72 publications in which the geographical origin of the patients could be ascertained and the key pharmacokinetic parameters maximum drug concentration (Cmax), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and elimination half-life (t½β) were available for one or more of the five WHO-recommended ACTs (artemether-lumefantrine, artesunate-amodiaquine, artesunate-mefloquine, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine)...
October 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027364/a-functional-polymorphism-of-the-oxtr-gene-is-associated-with-autistic-traits-in-caucasian-and-asian-populations
#8
Christian Montag, Cornelia Sindermann, Martin Melchers, Sonja Jung, Ruixue Luo, Benjamin Becker, Jiang Xie, Wenming Xu, Adam J Guastella, Keith M Kendrick
There is increasing evidence for associations between polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and autism spectrum disorder, but to date no study has established links with autistic traits in healthy subjects and potential cultural differences. The present research firstly investigated associations between three widely studied OXTR SNPs and autistic and empathic traits (rs53576 (G/A); rs2254298 (G/A); rs2268498 (T/C)) in two independent studies on male and female Caucasian (n = 537) and Chinese students (n = 280)...
October 13, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026816/aesthetic-refinements-in-forehead-flap-reconstruction-of-the-asian-nose
#9
Yen-Chang Hsiao, Chun-Shin Chang, Jonathan Zelken
BACKGROUND: Traditional paramedian forehead flap reconstruction exploits the aesthetic subunit principle. Refinements and outcomes of forehead flap nasal reconstruction largely reflect Western experience. Differences in ethnic Asian anatomy and wound healing may foster suboptimal outcomes. We modified methods to address Asian features by extending subunit and flap boundaries, minimizing flap thinning, and overbuilding the nasal framework to combat contraction and suboptimal scarring. METHODS: Between November 2010 and September 2015, 40 Asians were treated for nasal reconstruction with a modified forehead flap technique...
May 2017: Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025502/who-enrolls-in-a-quit-smoking-program-with-yoga-therapy
#10
Beth C Bock, Herpreet Thind, Shira Dunsiger, Joseph L Fava, Ernestine Jennings, Bruce M Becker, Bess H Marcus, Rochelle K Rosen, Marie A Sillice
OBJECTIVES: Yoga may improve stress, affect, and weight control, all of which are commonly cited barriers to quitting smoking. However, the importance of these concerns may vary by sex, race, ethnicity, and age. We examined smoking-relevant characteristics of individuals enrolling in an 8-week randomized controlled trial testing yoga as a complementary treatment to standard smoking cessation. METHODS: Of 958 callers, 227 were eligible and enrolled. RESULTS: The sample was 55% female, 86% non-Hispanic white, with a mean age of 46 years (SD = 12)...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024571/diffuse-idiopathic-skeletal-hyperostosis-dish-increased-prevalence-in-pacific-islanders
#11
Mathew Bateman, Kamal Hapuarachchi, Clinton Pinto, Anthony James Doyle
INTRODUCTION: Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a musculoskeletal disorder in which ligaments and entheses slowly become ossified, leading to decreased mobility and pain. The prevalence is variably reported as between 3% and 25% of the population over 50. In Australasia, the prevalence and severity of DISH has long been thought by radiologists to be high in certain populations, particularly among Pacific Islanders. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence and severity of DISH in a Pacific Islander community...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024557/body-composition-measurement-in-young-children-using-quantitative-magnetic-resonance-a-comparison-with-air-displacement-plethysmography
#12
L-W Chen, M-T Tint, M V Fortier, I M Aris, L P-C Shek, K H Tan, V S Rajadurai, P D Gluckman, Y-S Chong, K M Godfrey, M S Kramer, C J Henry, F Yap, Y S Lee
BACKGROUND: Quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) has been increasingly used to measure human body composition, but its use and validation in children is limited. OBJECTIVE: We compared body composition measurement by QMR and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) in preschool children from Singapore's multi-ethnic Asian population (n = 152; mean ± SD age: 5.0 ± 0.1 years). METHODS: Agreements between QMR-based and ADP-based fat mass and fat mass index (FMI) were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), reduced major axis regression and Bland-Altman plot analyses...
October 12, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024493/pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-meloxicam-in-east-asian-populations-the-role-of-ethnicity-on-drug-response
#13
T Aoyama, Y Ishida, M Kaneko, A Miyamoto, Y Saito, M Tohkin, S Kawai, Y Matsumoto
We aimed to reanalyze the differences in the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of meloxicam in East Asian populations based on a population approach using previously published data and to investigate the factors found in population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis that affect the pharmacodynamics (PDs) of meloxicam. Population PK analysis was performed in 119 healthy male subjects (30 Japanese, 30 Chinese, 29 Korean, and 30 Caucasian) under strictly controlled trial conditions with regulated meals and a single lot of the drug...
October 12, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024387/ethnic-and-population-differences-in-the-genetic-predisposition-to-human-obesity
#14
REVIEW
C Stryjecki, A Alyass, D Meyre
Obesity rates have escalated to the point of a global pandemic with varying prevalence across ethnic groups. These differences are partially explained by lifestyle factors in addition to genetic predisposition to obesity. This review provides a comprehensive examination of the ethnic differences in the genetic architecture of obesity. Using examples from evolution, heritability, admixture, monogenic and polygenic studies of obesity, we provide explanations for ethnic differences in the prevalence of obesity...
October 10, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024310/influence-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-race-on-the-relationship-between-intensive-blood-pressure-control-and-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-the-sprint-cohort
#15
Kathleen Dungan, Timothy E Craven, Kyaw Soe, Jackson T Wright, Jan Basile, William E Haley, Nancy R Kressin, Uzma Rani, Leonardo Tamariz, Jeff Whittle, Alan Wiggers, Kwame Osei
AIMS: To determine whether baseline metabolic syndrome (MetS) modifies the effect of intensive blood pressure control on cardiovascular (CV) outcomes, and whether effects varied by race/ethnicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed post-hoc analyses among Non-Hispanic Black (NHB), Non-Hispanic White (NHW), and Hispanic participants with and without MetS in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) randomized to a systolic blood pressure (SBP) target of less than 120 mm Hg (intensive group, N = 4544) or one less than 140 mm Hg (standard group, N = 4553)...
October 12, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023835/school-based-health-centers-and-adolescent-substance-use-moderating-effects-of-race-ethnicity-and-socioeconomic-status
#16
Melina Bersamin, Mallie J Paschall, Deborah A Fisher
BACKGROUND: School-based health centers (SBHCs) have been associated with many positive health and academic outcomes. The current study extends previous research and examines possible differences in the association between SBHC exposure and adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use by race/ethnicity, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES). METHODS: California Healthy Kids Survey data from 504 traditional high schools in California were linked with publicly available data on SBHCs and school demographics...
November 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023140/genetic-polymorphisms-of-cytochrome-p450-enzymes-and-transport-proteins-in-a-russian-population-and-three-ethnic-groups-of-dagestan
#17
Karin B Mirzaev, Dmitry A Sychev, Kristina A Ryzhikova, Olga D Konova, Suleiman N Mammaev, Daniyal M Gafurov, Grigorij N Shuev, Elena A Grishina, Zhannet A Sozaeva
AIM: The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of polymorphic markers of the CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, SLCO1B1, and ABCB1 genes among the three ethnic groups in Dagestan and compare it with the carrier frequency of these markers among the Russian population living in Moscow. METHODS: The study involved 186 healthy, unrelated, and chronic medication-free volunteers (53 males and 133 females) of the three ethnic groups in the Dagestan Republic: 46 Laks, 90 Avars, and 50 Dargins...
October 12, 2017: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022766/a-solution-focused-approach-to-understanding-patient-motivation-in-diabetes-self-management-gender-differences-and-implications-for-primary-care
#18
Tajudaullah Bhaloo, Michael Juma, Christine Criscuolo-Higgins
Objective Healthcare providers often neglect to recognize the role they play in motivating patients with diabetes to perform self-management. Our aims were to understand what motivates patients with diabetes to implement recommended self-management practices and understand the role of the primary care team in patient motivation. Methods We use a solution-focused qualitative approach, supplemented with a quantitative scale. We used a purposive sampling strategy to invite patients with uncontrolled diabetes. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted and analyzed using content and thematic analysis...
January 1, 2017: Chronic Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022495/genetic-polymorphisms-of-hotair-gene-are-associated-with-the-risk-of-breast-cancer-in-a-sample-of-southeast-iranian-population
#19
Shekoufeh Hassanzarei, Mohammad Hashemi, Hedieh Sattarifard, Seyed Mehdi Hashemi, Gholamreza Bahari, Saeid Ghavami
There is an increasing body of evidence which highlights the critical functions of long non-coding RNAs in the carcinogenicity mechanism of a variety of cancers. It has been reported that HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA, a member of long non-coding RNA family, increases breast cancer risk. To date, no data regarding the association between HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA polymorphisms and the risk of breast cancer development has been reported in Iran. Here, we examine the possible association between HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA gene polymorphisms and breast cancer in a sample of southeast Iranian female population...
October 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022494/colder-environments-are-associated-with-a-greater-cancer-incidence-in-the-female-population-of-the-united-states
#20
Ankit Sharma, Tanu Sharma, Mahaveer S Panwar, Devesh Sharma, Rashmi Bundel, Ryan T Hamilton, James A Radosevich, Chandi C Mandal
Cancer incidence and/or mortality among individuals varies with diet, socio-culture, ethnicity, race, gender, and age. Similarly, environmental temperature modulates many biological functions. To study the effect of environment temperature on cancer incidence, the US population was selected. Because, county-wise cancer incidence rate data of various anatomical site-specific cancers and different races/ethnicities for both males and females are available. Moreover, the differences amongst the aforementioned factors among individuals are much less, as compared to the world population...
October 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
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