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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108348/epigenetic-basis-of-cancer-health-disparities-looking-beyond-genetic-differences
#1
REVIEW
Aamir Ahmad, Shafquat Azim, Haseeb Zubair, Mohammad Aslam Khan, Seema Singh, James E Carter, Rodney Rocconi, Ajay P Singh
Despite efforts at various levels, racial health disparities still exist in cancer patients. These inequalities in incidence and/or clinical outcome can only be explained by a multitude of factors, with genetic basis being one of them. Several investigations have provided convincing evidence to support epigenetic regulation of cancer-associated genes, which results in the differential transcriptome and proteome, and may be linked to a pre-disposition of individuals of certain race/ethnicity to early or more aggressive cancers...
January 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105579/measuring-residential-segregation-with-the-acs-how-the-margin-of-error-affects-the-dissimilarity-index
#2
Jeffrey Napierala, Nancy Denton
The American Community Survey (ACS) provides valuable, timely population estimates but with increased levels of sampling error. Although the margin of error is included with aggregate estimates, it has not been incorporated into segregation indexes. With the increasing levels of diversity in small and large places throughout the United States comes a need to track accurately and study changes in racial and ethnic segregation between censuses. The 2005-2009 ACS is used to calculate three dissimilarity indexes (D) for all core-based statistical areas (CBSAs) in the United States...
January 19, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105578/america-s-churning-races-race-and-ethnicity-response-changes-between-census-2000-and-the-2010-census
#3
Carolyn A Liebler, Sonya R Porter, Leticia E Fernandez, James M Noon, Sharon R Ennis
A person's racial or ethnic self-identification can change over time and across contexts, which is a component of population change not usually considered in studies that use race and ethnicity as variables. To facilitate incorporation of this aspect of population change, we show patterns and directions of individual-level race and Hispanic response change throughout the United States and among all federally recognized race/ethnic groups. We use internal U.S. Census Bureau data from the 2000 and 2010 censuses in which responses have been linked at the individual level (N = 162 million)...
January 19, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105531/-big-eye-surgery-the-ethics-of-medicalizing-asian-features
#4
Yves Saint James Aquino
The popularity of surgical modifications of race-typical features among Asian women has generated debates on the ethical implications of the practice. Focusing on blepharoplasty as a representative racial surgery, this article frames the ethical discussion by viewing Asian cosmetic surgery as an example of medicalization, which can be interpreted in two forms: treatment versus enhancement. In the treatment form, medicalization occurs by considering cosmetic surgery as remedy for pathologized Asian features; the pathologization usually occurs in reference to western features as the norm...
January 19, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105334/chronic-kidney-disease-in-children-and-the-role-of-epigenetics-future-therapeutic-trajectories
#5
Samuel N Uwaezuoke, Henrietta U Okafor, Vivian N Muoneke, Odutola I Odetunde, Chioma L Odimegwu
Global differences in the observed causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children are well documented and are attributed to dissimilarities in clime, race, hereditary, and ancestry. Thus, familial clustering and disparities in CKD prevalence rates across ethnic and racial groups indicate that the progression of renal disease has a strong genetic component. Mammalian studies have demonstrated a feasible nexus between nutrition and non-genetic exposure (around the time of conception and in epigenetic changes) in the expression of major genes identified in renal organogenesis...
December 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104416/longitudinal-cohort-study-on-the-incidence-of-primary-open-angle-glaucoma-in-bai-chinese
#6
Chen-Wei Pan, Wen-Yan Yang, Dan-Ning Hu, Jian-Gang Xu, Zhi-Qiang Niu, Yuan-Sheng Yuan, Min-Bin Yu, Hua Zhong
PURPOSE: The prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in China has been reported previously, which was lower than that in the white and black. However, the incidence of POAG in China has not been reported. Therefore, a longitudinal study was conducted to determine the 5-year cumulative incidence and predictors of POAG in China DESIGN: Population-based cohort study METHODS: Fifteen hundred and twenty participants (71.3%) of Bai ethnicity were examined and followed for 5 years. Glaucoma was defined based on the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology Classification criteria...
January 16, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104402/racial-and-ethnic-differences-in-the-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos-metabolic-phenotype
#7
Lawrence Engmann, Susan Jin, Fangbai Sun, Richard S Legro, Alex J Polotsky, Karl R Hansen, Christos Coutifaris, Michael P Diamond, Esther Eisenberg, Heping Zhang, Nanette Santoro
BACKGROUND: Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome have a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Blacks and Hispanics have a high morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus in the general population. Since metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, understanding any racial and ethnic differences in metabolic syndrome amongst women with polycystic ovarian syndrome is important for prevention strategies...
January 16, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103962/does-breast-feeding-reduce-offspring-junk-food-consumption-during-childhood-examinations-by-socio-economic-status-and-race-ethnicity
#8
Dylan B Jackson, Kecia R Johnson
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether breast-feeding duration and socio-economic status (SES) interact to predict junk food consumption among offspring and whether the interaction differs across racial/ethnic groups. DESIGN: Survey research using a longitudinal panel design. Hierarchical linear regression was used to analyse the data. SETTING: In-home interviews with the child's parents over a 5-year period across the USA. SUBJECTS: Approximately 10 000 American children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: Birth Cohort (ECLS-B)...
January 20, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102720/do-racial-differences-exist-in-the-association-between-pregnancy-induced-hypertension-and-breast-cancer-risk
#9
Li-Te Lin, Li-Yu Hu, Pei-Ling Tang, Kuan-Hao Tsui, Jiin-Tsuey Cheng, Wei-Chun Huang, Hong-Tai Chang
BACKGROUND: Previous studies investigating the relationship between pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and breast cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. Unlike numerous Western studies, studies have reported that PIH may be a risk factor for breast cancer in Western Asian women. To confirm these results, we designed a retrospective population-based cohort study to assess the relationship between PIH and subsequent risk for breast cancer in Taiwan. METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed PIH were selected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), and a 1:4 matched cohort of women without PIH based on age and the year of delivery was randomly selected from the same database as the comparison group...
January 19, 2017: Hypertension in Pregnancy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100112/abortion-attitudes-among-south-africans-findings-from-the-2013-social-attitudes-survey
#10
Elizabeth A Mosley, Elizabeth J King, Amy J Schulz, Lisa H Harris, Nicole De Wet, Barbara A Anderson
Abortion is legal in South Africa, but over half of abortions remain unsafe there. Evidence suggests women who are (Black) African, of lower socioeconomic status, living with HIV, or residents of Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, or Limpopo provinces are disproportionately vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from unsafe abortion. Negative attitudes toward abortion have been documented in purposively sampled studies, yet it remains unclear what attitudes exist nationally or whether they differ across sociodemographic groups, with implications for inequities in service accessibility and health...
January 19, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099953/social-networks-among-the-older-chinese-population-in-the-usa-findings-from-the-pine-study
#11
XinQi Dong, E-Shien Chang
BACKGROUND: Social network research has become central to studies of health and aging. Its results may yield public health insights that are actionable and improve the quality of life of older adults. However, little is known about the social networks of older immigrant adults, whose social relationships often develop in the context of migration, compounded by cultural and linguistic barriers. OBJECTIVES: This report aims to describe the structure, composition, and emotional components of social networks in the Chinese aging population of the USA, and to explore ways in which their social networks may be critical to their health decision-making...
January 19, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099290/increased-perinatal-morbidity-and-mortality-among-asian-american-and-pacific-islander-women-in-the-united-states
#12
Maryam Siddiqui, Mohammed Minhaj, Ariel Mueller, Avery Tung, Barbara Scavone, Sarosh Rana, Sajid Shahul
BACKGROUND: Asian American/Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) are the fastest-growing racial group in the United States. Despite a higher socioeconomic status, AAPI women experience higher rates of maternal morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Using the National Inpatient Sample, we performed a retrospective cohort analysis of women who were hospitalized for delivery from 2002 to 2013. The primary outcome variable was inpatient mortality rate, and the presence of severe maternal morbidities was estimated using the Bateman Comorbidity Index, a validated tool for predicting obstetric morbidity...
January 17, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098394/use-of-asian-samples-in-genetic-research-of-alcohol-use-disorders-genetic-variation-of-alcohol-metabolizing-enzymes-and-the-effects-of-acetaldehyde
#13
Sachio Matsushita, Susumu Higuchi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological studies consistently find that Asian populations report lower rates of alcohol use disorders (AUD) compared with other racial groups. These differences result from a variety of biological, genetic, and environmental influences, some of which are related to the metabolism of alcohol. We will review several studies of these metabolic factors, including several alcohol clamping studies conducted in our laboratory, that provide further insight into the role of the alcohol metabolizing genes and drinking behavior among Japanese drinkers...
January 18, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097306/universal-trichloroacetic-acid-peel-technique-for-light-and-dark-skin
#14
Nabil Fanous, Shadi Zari
Importance: Despite their great potential, medium and deep trichloroacetic acid peels are underused in light-skinned patients and are rarely used in darker-skinned patients because of the widespread fear of pigmentary complications and scarring. This concern has led many physicians to opt for the use of lighter types of peels (glycolic acid peel, Jessner peel, etc) and different lasers and intense light technologies. Trichloroacetic acid peels have been described in numerous publications...
January 12, 2017: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097295/association-of-systemic-medication-use-with-intraocular-pressure-in-a-multiethnic-asian-population-the-singapore-epidemiology-of-eye-diseases-study
#15
Henrietta Ho, Yuan Shi, Jacqueline Chua, Yih-Chung Tham, Sing Hui Lim, Tin Aung, Tien Yin Wong, Ching-Yu Cheng
Importance: There is limited understanding of the associations between systemic medication use and intraocular pressure (IOP) in the general population. Objective: To examine the association between systemic medication use and IOP in a multiethnic Asian population. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this post hoc analysis of the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases study, a population-based study of 10 033 participants (78.7% response rate) from 3 racial/ethnic groups (Chinese [recruited from February 9, 2009, through December 19, 2011], Malays [recruited from August 16, 2004, though July 10, 2006], and Indians [recruited from May 21, 2007, through December 29, 2009]), participants with glaucoma, previous ocular surgery, or trauma and an IOP asymmetry greater than 5 mm Hg between eyes were excluded...
January 12, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097051/ctla-4-polymorphisms-associate-with-breast-cancer-susceptibility-in-asians-a-meta-analysis
#16
Zhiming Dai, Tian Tian, Meng Wang, Xinghan Liu, Shuai Lin, Pengtao Yang, Kang Liu, Yi Zheng, Peng Xu, Meng Liu, Xuewen Yang, Zhijun Dai
Previous studies have investigated the association between cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) polymorphisms and breast cancer susceptibility, but the results remained inconsistent. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between four common CTLA-4 polymorphisms and breast cancer risk by a meta-analysis, aiming to derive a comprehensive and precise conclusion. We searched EMBASE, Pubmed, Web of Science, CNKI, and Wanfang databases until July 18th, 2016. Finally, ten eligible studies involving 4,544 breast cancer patients and 4,515 cancer-free controls were included; all these studies were from Asia...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096206/racial-and-ethnic-differences-in-antihypertensive-medication-use-and-blood-pressure-control-among-us-adults-with-hypertension-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2003-to-2012
#17
Anna Gu, Yu Yue, Raj P Desai, Edgar Argulian
BACKGROUND: A key to reduce and eradicate racial disparities in hypertension outcomes is to understand their causes. We aimed at evaluating racial differences in antihypertensive drug utilization patterns and blood pressure control by insurance status, age, sex, and presence of comorbidities. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 8796 hypertensive individuals ≥18 years of age were identified from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2012) in a repeated cross-sectional study...
January 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095862/different-survival-analysis-methods-for-measuring-long-term-outcomes-of-indigenous-and-non-indigenous-australian-cancer-patients-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-competing-risks
#18
Vincent Y F He, John R Condon, Peter D Baade, Xiaohua Zhang, Yuejen Zhao
BACKGROUND: Net survival is the most common measure of cancer prognosis and has been used to study differentials in cancer survival between ethnic or racial population subgroups. However, net survival ignores competing risks of deaths and so provides incomplete prognostic information for cancer patients, and when comparing survival between populations with different all-cause mortality. Another prognosis measure, "crude probability of death", which takes competing risk of death into account, overcomes this limitation...
January 17, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095722/racial-and-ethnic-differences-in-the-relationship-between-antenatal-stressful-life-events-and-postpartum-depression-among-women-in-the-united-states-does-provider-communication-on-perinatal-depression-minimize-the-risk
#19
Soumyadeep Mukherjee, Kristopher Fennie, Stefany Coxe, Purnima Madhivanan, Mary Jo Trepka
OBJECTIVE: Multi-state population-based studies exploring the racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence and correlates of postpartum depression (PPD), which affects 10-20% of women in the US, are rare. The aim of this study was to examine the racial/ethnic disparities in the relationship between antenatal stressful life events and PPD among US women and to explore whether antenatal health care provider communication on perinatal depression was associated with a lower risk. METHODS: Data from the 2009-2011 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) were used...
January 17, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093687/maternal-birthplace-is-associated-with-low-birth-weight-within-racial-ethnic-groups
#20
Paige D Wartko, Eva Y Wong, Daniel A Enquobahrie
Introduction While disparities in low birth weight (LBW) incidence by racial/ethnic group are well known, differences in LBW incidence by maternal birthplace within racial/ethnic groups, and particularly, differences after adjustment for pregnancy complications, are less clear. Methods We conducted a population-based study of LBW using 113,760 singleton, live birth records from King County, Washington (2008-2012), a region in the Pacific Northwest with a large immigrant population. Study participants were Asian, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI), and non-Hispanic white women...
January 16, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
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