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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055208/measuring-alcohol-use-across-the-transition-to-adulthood-racial-ethnic-sexual-identity-and-educational-differences
#1
Jessica N Fish, Amanda M Pollitt, John E Schulenberg, Stephen T Russell
BACKGROUND: Patterns of alcohol use change from adolescence to adulthood and may differ based on race/ethnicity, sexual identity, and education. If alcohol use measures do not operate consistently across groups and developmental periods, parameter estimates and conclusions may be biased. OBJECTIVES: To test the measurement invariance of a multi-item alcohol use measure across groups defined by race/ethnicity, sexual identity, and college education during the transition to adulthood...
October 12, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053944/investigation-of-the-3-epi-25-oh-d3-of-25-hydroxyvitamin-d3-in-urban-schoolchildren
#2
Samantha E Berger, Maria I Van Rompay, Catherine M Gordon, Elizabeth Goodman, Misha Eliasziw, Michael F Holick, Jennifer M Sacheck
BACKGROUND: The physiological relevance C-3 epimer of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [3-epi-25(OH)D] is not well understood among youth. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether demographic/physiologic characteristics were associated with 3-epi-25(OH)D3 concentrations in youth. METHODS: Associations between 3-epi-25(OH)D3 and demographics, 3-epi-25(OH)D3, total 25-hydroxyvitamin (25(OH)D) (25(OH)D2 + 25(OH)D3), total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglycerides were examined in racially/ethnically diverse schoolchildren (n=682, 8-15yrs) at Boston-area urban schools...
October 20, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052697/association-of-racial-differences-with-end-of-life-care-quality-in-the-united-states
#3
Rashmi K Sharma, Vicki A Freedman, Vincent Mor, Judith D Kasper, Pedro Gozalo, Joan M Teno
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052171/statin-use-and-breast-cancer-prognosis-in-black-and-white-women
#4
Amanda Leiter, Nina A Bickell, Derek LeRoith, Anupma Nayak, Sheldon M Feldman, Neil B Friedman, Alison Estabrook, Tari A King, Kezhen Fei, Rebeca Franco, Emily J Gallagher
Studies show decreased risk of breast cancer recurrence and improved survival with statin use, but data on racial disparities regarding breast cancer prognosis and statin use are lacking. Our objective was to investigate if racial disparities in breast cancer prognosis can be partially explained by differences in pre-diagnosis statin use. Patients were identified from a prospective, multicenter study examining the effects of metabolic factors on breast cancer prognosis in Black and White women. Statin use, prognosis (as measured by Nottingham Prognostic Index), anthropometric, tumor, and socio-demographic characteristics were examined...
October 19, 2017: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052118/challenging-conventions-of-bullying-thresholds-exploring-differences-between-low-and-high-levels-of-bully-only-victim-only-and-bully-victim-roles
#5
Jeremy T Goldbach, Paul R Sterzing, Marla J Stuart
Using a commonly accepted threshold of 2 to 3 times per month as a marker of bullying-involvement from noninvolvement, approximately 30% of U.S. students report being a bully, victim, or both. Although variation in the frequency of involvement exists, infrequent engagement (less than 2 to 3 times a month) is generally considered noninvolved. However, the question remains: Do these differences have implications for behavioral health patterns, including substance use, depression and school connectedness? The present study used a district-wide random cluster sample of 66 middle and high schools in a mid-size city...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050732/-epidemiology-of-early-repolarization-pattern-in-maghreb
#6
W Amara, S A Bouallouche, A Rezoug, A El Hraiech, A Iusuf, N Hammoudi
An early repolarization variant (ERV) in inferolateral leads has recently been associated with vulnerability to ventricular fibrillation. These studies have been conducted in the occidental countries. The prevalence of ERV in the population of the Maghreb is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of ERV in a young population from Algeria. METHODS: We assessed the prevalence of ERV within a population of 441 healthy subjects (mean age 25 years) using 12-lead electrocardiography...
October 16, 2017: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050235/ethnic-heterogeneity-and-prostate-cancer-mortality-in-hispanic-latino-men-a-population-based-study
#7
Felix M Chinea, Vivek N Patel, Deukwoo Kwon, Narottam Lamichhane, Chris Lopez, Sanoj Punnen, Erin N Kobetz, Matthew C Abramowitz, Alan Pollack
BACKGROUND: Few studies focus on prostate cancer (PCa) outcomes in Hispanic/Latino men. Our study explores whether Hispanic/Latino subgroups demonstrate significantly different prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) relative to Non-Hispanic White (NHW) and Non-Hispanic Black (NHB) men. METHODS: We extracted a population-based cohort of men diagnosed with local-regional PCa from 2000-2013 (n= 486,865). PCSM was measured in racial/ethnic groups: NHW (n=352,886), NHB (n= 70,983), Hispanic/Latino (n= 40,462), and Asian American/Pacific Islander (n= 22,534)...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049138/graph-theoretical-analysis-of-genome-scale-data-examination-of-gene-activation-occurring-in-the-setting-of-community-acquired-pneumonia
#8
Octavia M Peck Palmer, Gary Rogers, Sachin Yende, Derek C Angus, Michael A Langston, Gilles Clermont
INTRODUCTION: We have previously reported evidence that black individuals appear to have a significantly higher incidence of infection-related hospitalizations compared to white individuals. It is possible that the host immune response is responsible for this vital difference. In support such a hypothesis, the aim of this study was to determine whether black and white individuals exhibit differential whole blood gene network activation. METHODS: We examined whole blood network activation in a subset of patients (n = 22 pairs, propensity score matched (1:1) black and white patients) with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) from the Genetic and Inflammatory Markers of Sepsis study...
October 18, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049018/prevalence-of-single-and-multiple-leading-causes-of-death-by-race-ethnicity-among-us-adults-aged-60-to-79-years
#9
James Davis, Janell Penha, Omar Mbowe, Deborah A Taira
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD) (coronary artery disease, heart attack, and angina pectoris), and chronic lung disease (emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) are major causes of death in the United States. The objective of this study was to assess racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of these conditions as cause of death among people aged 60 to 79 years with one or more of these conditions. METHODS: We used data on the prevalence of major chronic conditions from the National Health Interview Survey on 56,290 adults aged 60 to 79 years who reported having any of the chronic conditions assessed in the National Health Interview Survey for 2006 through 2014...
October 19, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048954/the-cumulative-probability-of-arrest-by-age-28-years-in-the-united-states-by-disability-status-race-ethnicity-and-gender
#10
Erin J McCauley
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cumulative probability (c) of arrest by age 28 years in the United States by disability status, race/ethnicity, and gender. METHODS: I estimated cumulative probabilities through birth cohort life tables with data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997. RESULTS: Estimates demonstrated that those with disabilities have a higher cumulative probability of arrest (c = 42.65) than those without (c = 29...
October 19, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048416/increased-frequency-of-kras-mutations-in-african-americans-compared-with-caucasians-in-sporadic-colorectal-cancer
#11
Jonas J Staudacher, Cemal Yazici, Vadim Bul, Joseph Zeidan, Ahmer Khalid, Yinglin Xia, Nancy Krett, Barbara Jung
OBJECTIVES: The basis for over-representation of colorectal cancer (CRC) in African-American (AA) populations compared with Caucasians are multifactorial and complex. Understanding the mechanisms for this racial disparity is critical for delivery of better care. Several studies have investigated sporadic CRC for differences in somatic mutations between AAs and Caucasians, but owing to small study sizes and conflicting results to date, no definitive conclusions have been reached. METHODS: Here, we present the first systematic literature review and meta-analysis investigating the mutational differences in sporadic CRC between AAs and Caucasians focused on frequent driver mutations (APC,TP53, KRAS,PI3CA, FBXW7,SMAD4, and BRAF)...
October 19, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046301/bone-mineral-density-during-pregnancy-in-women-participating-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-vitamin-d-supplementation
#12
Wei Wei, Judith R Shary, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, Betsy Anderson, Nina E Forestieri, Bruce W Hollis, Carol L Wagner
Background: Little is known about bone mineral density (BMD) during pregnancy. Advances in technology with lower radiation emissions by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry instruments now permit the safe measurement of BMD during pregnancy.Objective: We evaluated maternal BMD during pregnancy as a function of vitamin D status in women of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds.Design: A total of 301 women who underwent BMD measurements at 12-20 wk of gestation and again at 0-14 wk postpartum were included in this analysis...
October 18, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045312/validation-of-the-nonlaboratory-based-framingham-cardiovascular-disease-risk-assessment-algorithm-in-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-dataset
#13
Jacob K Kariuki, Eileen M Stuart-Shor, Suzanne G Leveille, Philimon Gona, Jerry Cromwell, Laura L Hayman
BACKGROUND: Nonlaboratory-based (non-LB) algorithms have been developed to facilitate absolute cardiovascular risk assessment in resource-constrained settings. The non-LB Framingham algorithm, which substitute BMI for lipids in laboratory-based Framingham, exhibits best performance among non-LB algorithms. However, its external validity has not been evaluated. AIM: To examine the validity of non-LB Framingham algorithm in Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities dataset, and contrast performance with the laboratory-based Framingham algorithm...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043830/red-blood-cell-phenotype-prevalence-in-blood-donors-who-self-identify-as-hispanic
#14
Chelsea A Sheppard, Nicole L Bolen, Beth Eades, Gorka Ochoa-Garay, Mark H Yazer
Molecular genotyping platforms provide a quick, high-throughput method for identifying red blood cell units for patients on extended phenotype-matching protocols, such as those with sickle cell disease or thalassemia. Most of the antigen prevalence data reported are for non-Hispanic populations. Therefore, this study sought to determine the phenotype prevalence in a single blood center's Hispanic population and to compare those results with previously reported rates in non-Hispanic donor populations. We performed a retrospective review of all serologic and molecular typing from donors who self-reported as Hispanic...
September 2017: Immunohematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040110/racial-differences-in-palliative-care-use-after-stroke-in-majority-white-minority-serving-and-racially-integrated-u-s-hospitals
#15
Roland Faigle, Wendy C Ziai, Victor C Urrutia, Lisa A Cooper, Rebecca F Gottesman
OBJECTIVES: Racial/ethnic differences in palliative care resource use after stroke have been recognized, but it is unclear whether patient or hospital characteristics drive this disparity. We sought to determine whether palliative care use after intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke differs between hospitals serving varying proportions of minority patients. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING: Inpatient hospital admissions from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample between 2007 and 2011...
October 14, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036550/perceived-interpersonal-discrimination-and-older-women-s-mental-health-accumulation-across-domains-attributions-and-time
#16
Laia Bécares, Nan Zhang
Experiencing discrimination is associated with poor mental health, but how cumulative experiences of perceived interpersonal discrimination across attributions, domains, and time are associated with mental disorders is still unknown. Using data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (1996-2008) we apply latent class analysis and generalized linear models to estimate the association between cumulative exposure to perceived interpersonal discrimination and older women's mental health. We find four classes of perceived interpersonal discrimination, ranging from cumulative exposure to discrimination over attributions, domains, and time, to none or minimal reports of discrimination...
October 4, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035645/factors-that-contributed-to-black-white-disparities-in-survival-among-nonelderly-women-with-breast-cancer-between-2004-and-2013
#17
Ahmedin Jemal, Anthony S Robbins, Chun Chieh Lin, W Dana Flanders, Carol E DeSantis, Elizabeth M Ward, Rachel A Freedman
Purpose To estimate the contribution of differences in demographics, comorbidity, insurance, tumor characteristics, and treatment to the overall mortality disparity between nonelderly black and white women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer. Patients and Methods Excess relative risk of all-cause death in black versus white women diagnosed with stage I to III breast cancer, expressed as a percentage and stratified by hormone receptor status for each variable (demographics, comorbidity, insurance, tumor characteristics, and treatment) in sequentially, propensity-scored, optimally matched patients by using multivariable hazard ratios (HRs)...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035105/racial-ethnic-differences-in-early-life-mortality-in-the-united-states
#18
Richard G Rogers, Elizabeth M Lawrence, Robert A Hummer, Andrea M Tilstra
U.S. early-life (ages 1-24) deaths are tragic, far too common, and largely preventable. Yet demographers have focused scant attention on U.S. early-life mortality patterns, particularly as they vary across racial and ethnic groups. We employed the restricted-use 1999-2011 National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality Files and hazard models to examine racial/ethnic differences in early-life mortality. Our results reveal that these disparities are large, strongly related to differences in parental socioeconomic status, and expressed through different causes of death...
2017: Biodemography and Social Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035103/racial-disparities-in-the-association-between-alcohol-use-disorders-and-health-in-black-and-white-women
#19
Yusuf Ransome, Denise C Carty, Courtney D Cogburn, David R Williams
Adverse health attributed to alcohol use disorders (AUD) is more pronounced among black than white women. We investigated whether socioeconomic status (education and income), health care factors (insurance, alcoholism treatment), or psychosocial stressors (stressful life events, racial discrimination, alcoholism stigma) could account for black-white differences in the association between AUD and physical and functional health among current women drinkers 25 years and older (N = 8,877) in the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions...
2017: Biodemography and Social Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035089/intent-to-quit-quit-attempts-and-perceived-health-risk-reduction-among-african-american-latino-and-white-nondaily-and-daily-smokers-in-the-united-states
#20
Taneisha S Scheuermann, Nicole L Nollen, Xianghua Luo, Lisa Sanderson Cox, Jasjit S Ahluwalia
OBJECTIVE: Ethnic and racial differences in smoking patterns and behaviors have been well documented and most African American and Latino smokers are nondaily or light smokers. However, differences within smoking levels are understudied. Our primary aim was to determine whether there are racial and ethnic differences among African American, Latino, and White nondaily, light daily, and moderate to heavy daily smokers on (1) perceived health risk reduction, (2) intentions to quit, and (3) past year quit attempts...
October 16, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
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