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Racial differences

Stephanie H Cook, Robert-Paul Juster, Benjamin J Calebs, Justin Heinze, Alison L Miller
Much of the extant scientific research examining hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis functioning is conducted among White heterosexuals. Very little research examines HPA-axis functioning between different minority groups. Individuals who identify as both sexual and racial minorities may experience increased stigma and discrimination that can affect HPA-axis functioning. In the current study, we examined diurnal cortisol rhythm in young White gay men (WGM) compared to young Black gay men (BGM). The sample consisted of 70 healthy gay men (mean [SD] age=22...
October 13, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Erik David Storholm, Michael J Silverberg, Derek D Satre
Access to substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is a critical issue for women with HIV. This study examined differences in SUD diagnoses, comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, and predictors of SUD treatment initiation among a diverse sample of HIV-positive women (n = 228) and a demographically similar cohort of HIV-negative women (n = 693). Diagnoses and service utilization data were obtained from electronic health records of members of a large integrated healthcare system in Northern California. HIV-positive women were less likely to initiate SUD treatment...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Philip M Massey, Brent A Langellier, Tetine Sentell, Jennifer Manganello
OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in health information seeking between U.S.-born and foreign-born populations in the U.S. DESIGN: Data from 2008 to 2014 from the Health Information National Trends Survey were used in this study (n = 15,249). Bivariate analyses, logistic regression, and predicted probabilities were used to examine health information seeking and sources of health information. RESULTS: Findings demonstrate that 59.3% of the Hispanic foreign-born population reported looking for health information, fewer than other racial/ethnic groups in the sample...
October 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
David Y Lee, Annabelle Teng, Rose C Pedersen, Farees R Tavangari, Vikram Attaluri, Elisabeth C McLemore, Stacey L Stern, Anton J Bilchik, Melanie R Goldfarb
INTRODUCTION: Stage II-III rectal cancer requires multidisciplinary cancer care, and adolescents and young adults (AYA, ages 15-39 years) often do not receive optimal cancer therapy. METHODS: Overall, 3295 AYAs with clinical stage II-III rectal cancer were identified in the National Cancer Database. Factors associated with the receipt of adjuvant and surgical therapies, as well as overall survival (OS), were examined. RESULTS: The majority of patients were non-Hispanic White (72...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Song-Yi Park, Lynne R Wilkens, Laurence N Kolonel, Kristine R Monroe, Christopher A Haiman, Loic Le Marchand
BACKGROUND: Evidence has accumulated that long-term use of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) protects against colorectal cancer (CRC). We tested whether the inverse associations between NSAIDs and CRC is similarly observed across sexes and five racial/ethnic groups (Japanese, Latino, African American, Native Hawaiian, and white) in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) Study. METHODS: During a mean follow-up of 16.1 years, we identified 4,882 invasive incident CRC cases among 183,199 eligible participants...
October 10, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Courtney Boen
Research links Black-White health disparities to racial differences in socioeconomic status (SES), but understanding of the role of SES in racial health gaps has been restricted by reliance on static measures of health and socioeconomic well-being that mask the dynamic quality of these processes and ignore the racialized nature of the SES-health connection. Utilizing twenty-three years of longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1984-2007), this study uses multilevel growth curve models to examine how multiple dimensions of socioeconomic well-being-including long-term economic history and differential returns to SES-contribute to the life course patterning of Black-White health disparities across two critical markers of well-being: body mass index (N = 9057) and self-rated health (N = 11,329)...
October 11, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Andrew C Patterson, Gerry Veenstra
OBJECTIVES: Intersectionality theory proposes that each combination of social categories derived from gender, race and nationality, such as immigrant White man or native-born Black woman, is associated with unique social experiences. We tested the potential of intersectionality theory for explicating racial inequalities in Canada by investigating whether Black-White health inequalities are conditioned by gender and immigrant status in a synergistic way. METHODS: Our dataset comprised 10 cycles (2001-2013) of the Canadian Community Health Survey...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Darrell L Hudson, Kimberly A Kaphingst, Merriah A Croston, Melvin S Blanchard, Melody S Goodman
We examined the prevalence of mental disorders in a primary care setting affiliated with a large academic medical center. We also examined whether there were racial differences in mental health disorders. Patients were seeking medical care in an outpatient medical clinic; mental health data were available for them via medical records (n=767). Overall, 45% of patients had a diagnosed mental health problem; the most commonly reported form of mental disorder was depression. African Americans (OR= 1.88; CI: 1.21-2...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Tawandra L Rowell-Cunsolo, Nabila El-Bassel, Carl L Hart
Black Americans are incarcerated at disproportionate rates, largely due to racial differences in the application of drug laws. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence rates among Black Americans are also disproportionately high. Moreover, availability of and access to HIV prevention services in correctional settings are limited. Recognizing that Blacks are at an elevated risk of contracting HIV, and that incarceration worsens health outcomes, this paper addresses the importance of implementing comprehensive prison-based HIV programs and prevention interventions to improve the health of this vulnerable population...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Carmela Alcántara, Luciana Andrea Giorgio Cosenzo, Weijia Fan, David Matthew Doyle, Jonathan A Shaffer
Although Blacks sleep between 37 and 75min less per night than non-Hispanic Whites, research into what drives racial differences in sleep duration is limited. We examined the association of anxiety sensitivity, a cognitive vulnerability, and race (Blacks vs. White) with short sleep duration (<7h of sleep/night), and whether anxiety sensitivity mediated race differences in sleep duration in a nationally representative sample of adults with cardiovascular disease. Overall, 1289 adults (115 Black, 1174 White) with a self-reported physician/health professional diagnosis of ≥1 myocardial infarction completed an online survey...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Susan E Luczak, Rubin Khoddam, Sheila Yu, Tamara L Wall, Anna Schwartz, Steve Sussman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We conducted a review of the prevalence and co-occurrence of 12 types of addictions in US ethnic/racial groups and discuss the implications of the results for genetic research on addictions. METHODS: We utilized MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases to review the literature on alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, illicit drugs, gambling, eating/food, internet, sex, love, exercise, work, and shopping. We present results for each addiction based on total US prevalence, prevalence within ethnic groups, and co-occurrence of addictions among ethnic groups when available...
October 19, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Raul I Garcia, Tamanna Tiwari, Francisco Ramos-Gomez, Brenda Heaton, Mario Orozco, Margaret Rasmussen, Patricia Braun, Michelle Henshaw, Belinda Borrelli, Judith Albino, Courtney Diamond, Christina Gebel, Terrence S Batliner, Judith C Barker, Steven Gregorich, Stuart A Gansky
OBJECTIVES: To identify successful strategies for retention of participants in multiyear, community-based randomized controlled trials (RCTs) aiming to reduce early childhood caries in health disparities populations from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds and across diverse geographic settings. METHODS: Four RCTs conducted by the Early Childhood Caries Collaborating Centers (EC4), an initiative of the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, systematically collected information on the success of various strategies implemented to promote participant retention in each RCT...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
B Jayakrishnan, Nasser Al-Busaidi, Ahsan Al-Lawati, Jojy George, Omar A Al-Rawas, Yaqoub Al-Mahrouqi, Nabil Al-Lawati
BACKGROUND: Though clinical features of sarcoidosis follow a similar pattern, some heterogeneity is seen in different ethnic and racial groups. OBJECTIVES: To describe for the first time the clinical characteristics of sarcoidosis patients in the Sultanate of Oman. METHODS: The data on all cases of sarcoidosis followed up in the two tertiary hospitals in Oman were retrieved retrospectively. RESULTS: Of the 92 patients, for representing the ethnic data only Omani patients (n=83) were included...
October 7, 2016: Sarcoidosis, Vasculitis, and Diffuse Lung Diseases: Official Journal of WASOG
Melinda A Ma, Rajesh Kumar, Paul M Macey, Frisca L Yan-Go, Ronald M Harper
INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a male-predominant condition, characterized by repeated upper-airway collapse with continued diaphragmatic efforts during sleep, and is accompanied by severe physiological consequences. Multiple morphological aspects, including epiglottis cross-sectional area (CSA) and oropharyngeal airway length (OPAL), can contribute to airway collapsibility in the condition. This study focused on the effects of OSA severity, sex, and race on OPA dimensions...
2016: Nature and Science of Sleep
Kimberly A Bertrand, Traci N Bethea, Lucile L Adams-Campbell, Lynn Rosenberg, Julie R Palmer
BACKGROUND: Given the disproportionately high incidence of early-onset breast cancer and aggressive subtypes such as estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumors in African American (AA) women, elucidation of risk factors for early-onset of specific subtypes of breast cancer is needed. METHODS: We evaluated associations of reproductive, anthropometric, and other factors with incidence of invasive breast cancer by age at onset (<45, {greater than or equal to}45) in 57,708 AA women in the prospective Black Women's Health Study...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Dana Whittemore, Lili Ding, Lea E Widdice, Darron A Brown, David I Bernstein, Eduardo L Franco, Jessica A Kahn
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated racial and ethnic differences in the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) types among adult women with cervical precancers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the distribution of vaccine-targeted HPV types varies by race/ethnicity among unvaccinated young women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A secondary analysis was performed using data from four studies of sexually experienced, unvaccinated, 13-26-year-old women...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Women's Health
Monica Webb Hooper, Stephanie K Kolar
The prevalence of e-cigarette use is increasing, yet few studies have focused on its use in racial/ethnic minority populations. We examined associations between race/ethnicity and e-cigarette use, plans to continue using e-cigarettes, and reasons for use among current/former smokers. Participants (285 in total; 29% non-Hispanic White, 42% African American/Black, and 29% Hispanic) were recruited between June and November 2014. Telephone-administered surveys assessed demographics, cigarette smoking, e-cigarette use, plans to continue using, and reasons for use...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Byeong-Keuk Kim
Catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) has opened the new world in the treatment of resistant or refractory hypertension. However, SYMPLICITY HTN-3, 2:1 randomization, blinded and sham-controlled study did not show a significant reduction of systolic blood pressure (BP) in patients with resistant hypertension 6 months after RDN as compared with a sham control. After that, substudy investigating the predictors of BP responses in SYMPLICITY HTN-3 trial was reported; racial difference and optimal medical treatment were issued for the optimal denervation therapy...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Longjian Liu, Jessica Dow, Barbara Simon, Howard Eisen
OBJECTIVE: Multiple medication use in patients with hypertension (HTN) is a common clinical problem faced by both primary and specialists. Patients who remain to have higher BP in spite of the concurrent use of 3 antihypertensive agents of different classes are defined as resistant hypertension (RH). In the study we aimed to identify the prevalence of RH, and examined its association with mortality from all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD). DESIGN AND METHOD: Data from the U...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Kenneth Jamerson
Race and ethnicity provide an important construct that identifies individuals at increased risk for hypertension and related cardiovascular complications. While a significan proportion of health care disparity can be attributed to social, cultural and ecomnomic factors, mapping of the human genome allows for a biological construct of race. A systematic review of the effect of race on the response to antihypertensive therapy was performed in 2007. In this current review, an update of this subject is provided...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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