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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822238/the-environmental-injustice-of-beauty-framing-chemical%C3%A2-exposures-from-beauty-products-as-a-health%C3%A2-disparities-concern
#1
Ami R Zota, Bhavna Shamasunder
The obstetrics-gynecology community has issued a call to action to prevent toxic environmental chemical exposures and their threats to healthy human reproduction. Recent committee opinions recognize that vulnerable and underserved women may be impacted disproportionately by environmental chemical exposures and recommend that reproductive health professionals champion policies that secure environmental justice. Beauty product use is an understudied source of environmental chemical exposures. Beauty products can include reproductive and developmental toxicants such as phthalates and heavy metals; however, disclosure requirements are limited and inconsistent...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820622/latent-growth-curve-modeling-of-non-injection-drug-use-and-condomless-sexual-behavior-from-ages-18-to-21-in-gay-bisexual-and-other-ymsm-the-p18-cohort-study
#2
Perry N Halkitis, Kristen Bub, Christopher B Stults, Francesca C Bates, Farzana Kapadia
BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS continues to be a health disparity faced by sexual minority men, and is exacerbated by non-injection drug use. OBJECTIVES: We sought to delineate growth in non-injection drug use and condomless sex in a sample of racially and economically diverse of gay, bisexual, and other young men who have sex with men (YMSM) as they emerged into adulthood between the ages of 18 and 21 and who came of age in the post-HAART era. METHODS: Behavioral data on drug use and condomless sex, collected via a calendar based technique over 7 waves of a cohort study of 600 YMSM, were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling to document patterns of growth in these behaviors, their associations, and the extent to which patterns and associations are moderated by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status...
August 18, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817737/myc-mediates-cancer-stem-like-cells-and-emt-changes-in-triple-negative-breast-cancers-cells
#3
Shuping Yin, Vino T Cheryan, Liping Xu, Arun K Rishi, Kaladhar B Reddy
Women with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) have poor prognosis compared to other breast cancer subtypes. There were several reports indicating racial disparity in breast cancer outcomes between African American (AA) and European American (EA) women. For example, the mortality rates of AA breast cancer patients were three times higher than of EA patients, even though, the incidence is lower in AA women. Our in vitro studies indicate that cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) derived from AA TNBC cell lines have significantly higher self-renewal potential (mammosphere formation) than CSCs derived from EA cell lines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813327/recent-developments-in-understanding-ethnocultural-and-race-differences-in-trauma-exposure-and-ptsd
#4
REVIEW
Anu Asnaani, Brittany Hall-Clark
Our understanding of demographic specifications that put certain individuals at greater risk for trauma exposure and subsequent development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has grown significantly over the past few decades. This brief review specifically examines the studies exploring the potential influence of ethnocultural and racial group status on trauma exposure and PTSD, with a focus on findings published recently in the past five years. We first provide a brief review of current epidemiological data examining associations among ethnicity/culture/race and trauma exposure/PTSD...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813273/adoptive-parenting
#5
REVIEW
Harold D Grotevant, Albert Yh Lo
Challenges in adoptive parenting continue to emerge as adoption policies and practices evolve. We review three areas of research in adoptive parenting that reflect contemporary shifts in adoption. First, we highlight recent findings concerning openness in adoption contact arrangements, or contact between a child's families of birth and rearing. Second, we examine research regarding racial and cultural socialization in transracial and international adoptions. Finally, we review investigations of parenting experiences of lesbian and gay adoptive parents...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812239/social-status-discrimination-and-minority-individuals-mental-health-a-secondary-analysis-of-us-national-surveys
#6
Celia C Lo, Tyrone C Cheng
OBJECTIVES: Our study measured minority individuals' social status factors and frequency of discrimination experiences, in order to delineate social mechanisms linking race/ethnicity to mental status (specifically, to current mood/anxiety disorder and self-rated mental health). METHODS: In this nationally representative secondary research, our data analyses drew on the cross-sectional "Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys," dating 2001-2003. The sample for the final model numbered 9368 respondents (2016 Asians, 2676 Latinos, 4676 blacks)...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812211/the-immune-system-in-obesity-developing-paradigms-amidst-inconvenient-truths
#7
REVIEW
Madhur Agrawal, Philip A Kern, Barbara S Nikolajczyk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adipose tissue (AT) houses both innate and adaptive immune systems that are crucial for preserving AT function and metabolic homeostasis. In this review, we summarize recent information regarding progression of obesity-associated AT inflammation and insulin resistance. We additionally consider alterations in AT distribution and the immune system in males vs. females and among different racial populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Innate and adaptive immune cell-derived inflammation drives insulin resistance both locally and systemically...
August 15, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811730/racial-differences-in-prostate-cancer-treatment-the-role-of-socioeconomic-status
#8
Megan Watson, David Grande, Archana Radhakrishnan, Nandita Mitra, Katelyn R Ward, Craig Evan Pollack
OBJECTIVE: This study examines whether socioeconomic status (SES), measured at both the individual and neighborhood levels, is associated with receipt of definitive treatment for localized prostate cancer and whether these associations mediate racial differences in treatment between non-Hispanic White and non-Hispanic Black men. DESIGN: The Philadelphia Area Prostate Cancer Access Study (P(2) Access) is a mailed, cross-sectional survey of men sampled from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, combined with neighborhood Census data...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811091/pregravid-hypertension-may-have-different-secondary-sex-ratio-effects-in-different-races-in-the-united-states
#9
Victor Grech
BACKGROUND: Males are born in excess of females and the ratio is expressed as M/F (male/female births=secondary sex ratio, also known as secondary sex ratio). This is expected to approximate 1.048. Racial M/F disparities are known. A recent study in China showed that pregravid systolic hypertension is higher in women who delivered a boy than in those who had a girl. This study was carried out in order to identify the effect of pregravid hypertension in the United States on M/F by race...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810411/wellness-among-african-american-and-caucasian-students-attending-a-predominantly-white-institution
#10
Michael D Oliver, Subimal Datta, Debora R Baldwin
The wellness movement is growing on college campuses; however, the examination of race is lacking. We examined aspects of physical and emotional well-being as a function of race in 197 college students at a predominantly White institution. Results revealed racial differences on diet, F(1, 196) = 7.537, p = 0.007 and resilient coping, F(1, 196) = 8.614, p = 0.004. Furthermore, regression analyses revealed that the association between stress and coping was moderated by race ( F(1, 196) = 8...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809767/using-reported-rates-of-sexually-transmitted-diseases-to-illustrate-potential-methodological-issues-in-the-measurement-of-racial-and-ethnic-disparities
#11
Harrell W Chesson, Chirag G Patel, Thomas L Gift, Kyle T Bernstein, Sevgi O Aral
BACKGROUND: Racial disparities in the burden of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have been documented and described for decades. Similarly, methodological issues and limitations in the use of disparity measures to quantify disparities in health have also been well documented. The purpose of this study was to use historic STD surveillance data to illustrate four of the most well-known methodological issues associated with the use of disparity measures. METHODS: We manually searched STD surveillance reports to find examples of racial/ethnic distributions of reported STDs that illustrate key methodological issues in the use of disparity measures...
September 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808906/racial-disparities-in-hpv-related-knowledge-attitudes-and-beliefs-among-african-american-and-white-women-in-the-usa
#12
Ashley Ojeaga, Ernest Alema-Mensah, Desiree Rivers, Ijeoma Azonobi, Brian Rivers
The objective of this study was to assess the differences in HPV-related knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among African American and non-Hispanic white women and to determine their communication preferences for cancer-related information. Data was obtained from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) 2014 Health Interview National Trends Survey (HINTS), a cross-sectional survey of US adults 18 years of age or older. Descriptive statistics, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify differences in awareness and knowledge...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808871/african-american-prostate-cancer-disparities
#13
REVIEW
Zachary L Smith, Scott E Eggener, Adam B Murphy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to examine prostate cancer racial disparities specific to the African-American population. RECENT FINDINGS: African-American men are more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer, present at an earlier age; are more likely to have locally advanced or metastatic disease at diagnosis; and have suboptimal outcomes to standard treatments. Prostate cancer treatment requires a nuanced approach, particularly when applying screening, counseling, and management of African-American men...
August 14, 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807841/racial-disparity-in-gastrointestinal-cancer-risk
#14
REVIEW
Hassan Ashktorab, Sonia S Kupfer, Hassan Brim, John M Carethers
Cancer from the gastrointestinal tract and its associated excretory organs will occur in over 300,000 Americans in 2017, with colorectal cancer responsible for over forty percent of that burden; there will be over 150,000 deaths from this group of cancers in the same time period. Disparities among subgroups related to these cancers' incidence and mortality exist. The epidemiology and risk factors associated with each cancer bear out differences for racial groups in the United States. Esophageal adenocarcinoma is more frequent in Non-Hispanic Whites, whereas esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with risk factors of tobacco and alcohol is more frequent among Blacks...
August 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806365/associations-between-perceived-race-based-discrimination-and-contraceptive-use-among-women-veterans-in-the-ecuun-study
#15
Serena MacDonald, Leslie R M Hausmann, Florentina E Sileanu, Xinhua Zhao, Maria K Mor, Sonya Borrero
OBJECTIVE: To describe perceived race-based discrimination in Veterans Affairs (VA) health care settings and assess its associations with contraceptive use among a sample of women Veterans. METHODOLOGY: This study used data from a national telephone survey of women Veterans aged 18-44 receiving health care in VA who were at risk of unintended pregnancy. Participants were asked about their perceptions of race-based discrimination while seeking VA health care and about their contraceptive use at last heterosexual intercourse...
September 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806364/racial-and-ethnic-variation-in-perceptions-of-va-mental-health-providers-are-associated-with-treatment-retention-among-veterans-with-ptsd
#16
Michele Spoont, David Nelson, Michelle van Ryn, Margarita Alegria
BACKGROUND: Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who seek mental health care in the Veterans Health Administration frequently discontinue treatment prematurely. Early discontinuation of mental health treatment is more common among Veterans with PTSD who are of minority race or ethnicity. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether retention in individual therapy or pharmacotherapy among Veterans with PTSD are associated with patients' ratings of their mental health providers, and if those associations differ depending on Veteran race or ethnicity...
September 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805946/racial-entanglements-and-sociological-confusions-repudiating-the-rehabilitation-of-integration
#17
Sivamohan Valluvan
In line with the broader nationalist advances currently remaking the Western political landscape, the concept of integration has witnessed a marked rehabilitation. Whilst many influential critiques of the sociology of integration are already available, this article contests the concept's renewed purchase through addressing its own internal incoherence. Based on research in Stockholm, this critique concerns the relationship between ethnic identity and cultural integration. It will be argued that integration and the production of difference are intertwined, entangled dualities, and far from being a benign entanglement, this duality is premised on the force and reach of everyday civic racisms...
August 14, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802746/is-it-who-you-are-or-where-you-live-residential-segregation-and-racial-gaps-in-childhood-asthma
#18
Diane Alexander, Janet Currie
Higher asthma rates are one of the more obvious ways that health inequalities between African American and other children are manifested beginning in early childhood. In 2010, black asthma rates were double non-black rates. Some but not all of this difference can be explained by factors such as a higher incidence of low birth weight (LBW) among blacks; however, even conditional on LBW, blacks have a higher incidence of asthma than others. Using a unique data set based on the health records of all children born in New Jersey between 2006 and 2010, we show that when we split the data by whether or not children live in a "black" zip code, this racial difference in the incidence of asthma among LBW children entirely disappears...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799888/challenging-the-black-church-narrative-race-class-and-homosexual-attitudes
#19
Yasmiyn A Irizarry, Ravi K Perry
In recent years, scholars have pointed to the black church as the driving force behind blacks' more conservative Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgendered (LGBT) attitudes. Although evidence suggests a robust association between religiosity and LGBT attitudes, contemporary scholarship has not examined the role of class or the extent to which religiosity actually explains these trends. Using the 2004-2012 waves of the General Social Survey, we find that class moderates in the effect of race on negative LGBT attitudes, resulting in a noticeably larger gap between middle class blacks and whites than in the top or the bottom of the class distribution...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797017/how-do-social-capital-and-hiv-aids-outcomes-geographically-cluster-and-which-sociocontextual-mechanisms-predict-differences-across-clusters
#20
Yusuf Ransome, Lorraine T Dean, Natalie D Crawford, David S Metzger, Michael B Blank, Amy S Nunn
BACKGROUND: Place of residence has been associated with HIV transmission risks. Social capital, defined as features of social organization that improve efficiency of society by facilitating coordinated actions, often varies by neighborhood, and hypothesized to have protective effects on HIV care continuum outcomes. We examined whether the association between social capital and 2 HIV care continuum outcomes clustered geographically and whether sociocontextual mechanisms predict differences across clusters...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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