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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913765/prevalence-of-chronic-conditions-and-multimorbidities-in-a-geographically-defined-geriatric-population-with-diverse-races-and-ethnicities
#1
Eunjung Lim, Krupa Gandhi, James Davis, John J Chen
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to examine racial/ethnic differences in prevalence of chronic conditions and multimorbidities in the geriatric population of a state with diverse races/ethnicities. METHOD: Fifteen chronic conditions and their dyads and triads were investigated using Hawaii Medicare 2012 data. For each condition, a multivariable logistic regression model was used to investigate differences in race/ethnicity, adjusting for subject characteristics...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909061/understanding-socioenvironmental-contributors-to-racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-disability-among-older-americans
#2
Allison B Brenner, Philippa J Clarke
Our understanding of the mechanisms through which racial/ethnic disparities in disability in older adults develop and are maintained is limited. We examined the role of physical impairment, socioeconomic factors and health for racial/ethnic disparities in activities of daily living (ADL), and the modifying role of the indoor home environment. Data come from the National Health and Aging Trends Study (N = 5,640), and negative binomial regression models were specified separately for men and women. Blacks and Hispanics reported more ADL difficulty than Whites...
November 30, 2016: Research on Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908922/stomach-cancer-disparity-among-korean-americans-by-tumor-characteristics-comparison-with-non-hispanic-whites-japanese-americans-south-koreans-and-japanese
#3
Eunjung Lee, Lihua Liu, Juanjuan Zhang, Mariana C Stern, Afsaneh Barzi, Amie E Hwang, Andre E Kim, Ann S Hamilton, Anna H Wu, Dennis Deapen
BACKGROUND: Stomach cancer incidence shows substantial racial-ethnic disparity in the United States (US), with Korean Americans experiencing by far the highest incidence. We examined stomach cancer incidence trends in Korean Americans by tumor subsite, histology and stage, and compared them with incidence rates in racial-ethnic groups with the second highest rate (Japanese Americans) and the lowest rate (non-Hispanic whites; NHWs) as well as populations in South Korea and Japan. METHODS: We calculated age-adjusted incidence rates by racial-ethnic groups and sex, by tumor characteristics, using the 1988-2012 California Cancer Registry data...
December 1, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908540/the-role-of-race-and-ethnicity-in-sleep-circadian-rhythms-and-cardiovascular-health
#4
REVIEW
Kieren J Egan, Kristen L Knutson, Alexandre C Pereira, Malcolm von Schantz
In recent years, strong evidence has emerged suggesting that insufficient duration, quality, and/or timing of sleep are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), and various mechanisms for this association have been proposed. Such associations may be related to endophenotypic features of the sleep homeostat and the circadian oscillator, or may be state-like effects of the environment. Here, we review recent literature on sleep, circadian rhythms and CVD with a specific emphasis on differences between racial/ethnic groups...
June 3, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906557/barriers-to-human-milk-feeding-at-discharge-of-very-low-birth-weight-infants-maternal-goal-setting-as-a-key-social-factor
#5
Erin Fleurant, Michael Schoeny, Rebecca Hoban, Ifeyinwa V Asiodu, Brittany Riley, Paula P Meier, Harold Bigger, Aloka L Patel
BACKGROUND: While black mothers initiate human milk (HM) provision at lower rates than non-black mothers in the United States, some neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) report similar initiation rates regardless of race/ethnicity for mothers of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. However, racial disparity frequently becomes evident in the proportion of black infants who continue to receive HM feedings at NICU discharge. Since social factors have been associated with differences in HM provision for term infants, we sought to identify differences in social factors associated with HM feeding at discharge based on race/ethnicity...
December 1, 2016: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906459/integrative-genomic-analysis-identifies-ancestry-related-expression-quantitative-trait-loci-on-dna-polymerase-%C3%AE-and-supports-the-association-of-genetic-ancestry-with-survival-disparities-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#6
Meganathan P Ramakodi, Karthik Devarajan, Elizabeth Blackman, Denise Gibbs, Danièle Luce, Jacqueline Deloumeaux, Suzy Duflo, Jeffrey C Liu, Ranee Mehra, Rob J Kulathinal, Camille C Ragin
BACKGROUND: African Americans with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have a lower survival rate than whites. This study investigated the functional importance of ancestry-informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HNSCC and also examined the effect of functionally important genetic elements on racial disparities in HNSCC survival. METHODS: Ancestry-informative SNPs, RNA sequencing, methylation, and copy number variation data for 316 oral cavity and laryngeal cancer patients were analyzed across 178 DNA repair genes...
December 1, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906448/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-multicomponent-targeted-low-literacy-educational-intervention-compared-with-a-nontargeted-intervention-to-boost-colorectal-cancer-screening-with-fecal-immunochemical-testing-in-community-clinics
#7
Stacy N Davis, Shannon M Christy, Enmanuel A Chavarria, Rania Abdulla, Steven K Sutton, Alyssa R Schmidt, Susan T Vadaparampil, Gwendolyn P Quinn, Vani N Simmons, Chukwudi B Ufondu, Chitra Ravindra, Ida Schultz, Richard G Roetzheim, David Shibata, Cathy D Meade, Clement K Gwede
BACKGROUND: The objective of the current study was to improve colorectal cancer (CRC) screening uptake with the fecal immunochemical test (FIT). The current study investigated the differential impact of a multicomponent, targeted, low-literacy educational intervention compared with a standard, nontargeted educational intervention. METHODS: Patients aged 50 to 75 years who were of average CRC risk and not up-to-date with CRC screening were recruited from either a federally qualified health center or a primary care community health clinic...
December 1, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905175/racial-disparity-in-all-cause-mortality-among-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-individuals-in-a-general-us-population-nhanes-iii
#8
B Emmanuel, M D Shardell, L Tracy, S Kottilil, S S El-Kamary
There are few long-term nationally representative studies of all-cause mortality among those infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). When an additional 5 years of data were made publicly available in 2015, the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Linked Mortality File became the longest nationally representative study in the United States. Our objective was to update the estimated HCV-associated all-cause mortality in the general US population and determine any differences by sex, age and race/ethnicity...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898457/ethnicity-cortisol-and-experimental-pain-responses-among-persons-with-symptomatic-knee-osteoarthritis
#9
Matthew S Herbert, Burel R Goodin, Hailey W Bulls, Adriana Sotolongo, Megan E Petrov, Jeffrey C Edberg, Laurence A Bradley, Roger B Fillingim
OBJECTIVES: While several factors are known to contribute to ethnic differences in pain, relatively little attention has been devoted to physiological factors. Our first aim was to examine the relationship between cortisol and pain responses during a cold-pressor task (CPT) among African American (AA) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Our second aim was to assess the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and cortisol among AA participants...
November 28, 2016: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898255/lgbt-identity-untreated-depression-and-unmet-need-for-mental-health-services-by-sexual-minority-women-and-trans-identified-people
#10
Leah S Steele, Andrea Daley, Deone Curling, Margaret F Gibson, Datejie C Green, Charmaine C Williams, Lori E Ross
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found that transgender, lesbian, and bisexual people report poorer mental health relative to heterosexuals. However, available research provides little information about mental health service access among the highest need groups within these communities: bisexual women and transgender people. This study compared past year unmet need for mental health care and untreated depression between four groups: heterosexual cisgender (i.e., not transgender) women, cisgender lesbians, cisgender bisexual women, and transgender people...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894007/infant-attention-to-same-and-other-race-faces
#11
Anantha Singarajah, Jill Chanley, Yoselin Gutierrez, Yoselin Cordon, Bryan Nguyen, Lauren Burakowski, Scott P Johnson
We recorded visual attention to same- and other-race faces in Hispanic and White 11-month-old infants, an age at which face processing is presumably biased by an own-race recognition advantage. Infants viewed pairs of faces differing in race or ethnicity as their eye movements were recorded. We discovered consistently greater attention to Black over Hispanic faces, to Black faces over White faces, and to Hispanic over White faces. Inversion of face stimuli, and infant ethnicity, had little effect on performance...
November 25, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893033/effect-of-a-decision-aid-on-access-to-total-knee-replacement-for-black-patients-with-osteoarthritis-of-the-knee-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Said A Ibrahim, Marissa Blum, Gwo-Chin Lee, Pekka Mooar, Elina Medvedeva, Aliya Collier, Diane Richardson
Importance: Black patients with advanced osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee are significantly less likely than white patients to undergo surgery. No strategies have been proved to improve access to surgery for black patients with end-stage OA of the knee. Objective: To assess whether a decision aid improves access to total knee replacement (TKR) surgery for black patients with OA of the knee. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a randomized clinical trial, 336 eligible participants who self-identified as black and 50 years or older with chronic and frequent knee pain, a Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index score of at least 39, and radiographic evidence of OA of the knee were recruited from December 1, 2010, to May 31, 2014, at 3 medical centers...
November 23, 2016: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891829/prepregnancy-obesity-and-the-racial-disparity-in-infant-mortality
#13
Lara S Lemon, Ashley I Naimi, Barbara Abrams, Jay S Kaufman, Lisa M Bodnar
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent to which prepregnancy obesity explains the Black-White disparity in stillbirth and infant mortality. METHODS: A population-based study of linked Pennsylvania birth-infant death certificates (2003-2011; n = 1,055,359 births) and fetal death certificates (2006-2011; n = 3,102 stillbirths) for all singleton pregnancies in non-Hispanic (NH) White and NH Black women was conducted. Inverse probability weighted regression was used to estimate the role of prepregnancy obesity in explaining the race-infant/fetal death association...
December 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891312/evaluation-of-moyer-s-mixed-dentition-space-analysis-in-indian-children
#14
Kamalshikha Baheti, Prashant Babaji, Meer J Ali, Ashish Surana, Samvit Mishra, Madhulika Srivastava
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: Tooth size prediction values are not universal for all ethnic and racial groups. The present study evaluated the applicability of Moyer's mixed dentition space analysis in the Marwari community of Rajasthan, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mesiodistal dimension of permanent mandibular incisors, maxillary and mandibular canine, and premolars of both sides were measured and averaged in 200 adolescents (100 males and 100 females) of the Marwari population in Rajasthan using digital Vernier caliper...
September 2016: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890027/a-longitudinal-description-of-emergency-medical-services-professionals-by-race-ethnicity
#15
Remle P Crowe, Roger Levine, Jennifer J Eggerichs, Melissa A Bentley
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper was to compare demographics, employment variables, satisfaction, and motivation for entering the field of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) between members of under-represented races/ethnicities and members of the majority group. METHODS: A cohort of nationally certified EMS professionals was followed for 10 years through annual surveys; however, race/ethnicity was only available for 9 years (2000-2008). Descriptive statistics and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and significance was determined by lack of CI overlap...
November 28, 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889856/gender-differences-in-anxiety-trajectories-from-middle-to-late-adolescence
#16
Christine McCauley Ohannessian, Stephanie Milan, Anna Vannucci
Although developmental trajectories of anxiety symptomatology have begun to be explored, most research has focused on total anxiety symptom scores during childhood and early adolescence, using racially/ethnically homogenous samples. Understanding the heterogeneous courses of anxiety disorder symptoms during middle to late adolescence has the potential to clarify developmental risk models of anxiety and to inform prevention programs. Therefore, this study specifically examined gender differences in developmental trajectories of anxiety disorder symptoms (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder) from middle to late adolescence in a diverse community sample (N = 1000; 57 % female; 65 % White), assessed annually over 2 years...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889594/racial-ethnic-differences-in-30-year-trajectories-of-heavy-drinking-in-a-nationally-representative-u-s-sample
#17
Nina Mulia, Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, Jane Witbrodt, Jason Bond, Edwina Williams, Sarah E Zemore
BACKGROUND: Racial/ethnic minorities bear a disproportionate burden of alcohol-related problems in the U.S. It is unknown whether this reflects harmful patterns of lifecourse heavy drinking. Prior research shows little support for the latter but has been limited to young samples. We examine racial/ethnic differences in heavy drinking trajectories from ages 21 to 51. METHODS: Data on heavy drinking (6+ drinks/occasion) are from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N=9468), collected between 1982 and 2012...
November 3, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889576/incidence-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-all-50-united-states-from-2000-through-2012
#18
Donna L White, Aaron P Thrift, Fasiha Kanwal, Jessica Davila, Hashem B El-Serag
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The incidence and mortality of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been reported to be plateauing in the United States (US). The US has large racial, ethnic, and regional variation; we collected data from all 50 states to better analyze changes in incidence of HCC in the entire US. METHODS: We collected data from the US Cancer Statistics registry, which covers 97% of the population, and calculated adjusted incidence rates. We assessed annual trends among socio-demographic and geographic sub-groups using joinpoint analysis...
November 23, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889052/types-of-oral-contraceptives-and-breast-cancer-survival-among-women-enrolled-in-medicaid-a-competing-risk-model
#19
Marsha E Samson, Swann Arp Adams, Caroline M Mulatya, Jiajia Zhang, Charles L Bennett, James Hebert, Susan E Steck
INTRODUCTION: Oral contraceptive pills have been implicated in the pathophysiology of breast cancer. Although many studies have examined the relationship between combined oral contraceptives (COCs) and breast cancer, there is a paucity of literature that discusses progestin-only oral contraceptives (POCs) and breast cancer. The purpose of this investigation is to examine potential associations between different types of oral contraceptives and breast cancer mortality in the South Carolina Medicaid population among different racial/ethnic groups...
January 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888035/racial-differences-in-food-allergy-phenotype-and-health-care-utilization-among-us-children
#20
Mahboobeh Mahdavinia, Susan R Fox, Bridget M Smith, Christine James, Erica L Palmisano, Aisha Mohamed, Zeeshan Zahid, Amal H Assa'ad, Mary C Tobin, Ruchi S Gupta
BACKGROUND: Food allergy (FA) is a prevalent condition in the United States, but little is known about its phenotypes in racial minority groups. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize disease phenotypes and disparities in health care utilization among African American (AA), Hispanic, and white children with FA. METHODS: We conducted a large, 2-center, retrospective cohort study of children aged 0-17 years with FA seen in allergy/immunology clinics at 2 urban tertiary care centers in the United States...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
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