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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223597/missed-opportunities-for-hpv-immunization-among-young-adult-women
#1
Carlos R Oliveira, Robert M Rock, Eugene D Shapiro, Xiao Xu, Lisbet Lundsberg, Liye B Zhang, Aileen Gariepy, Jessica L Illuzzi, Sangini S Sheth
BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of a safe and efficacious vaccine against HPV, uptake of the vaccine in the United States is low. Missed clinical opportunities to recommend and to administer HPV vaccine are considered one of the most important reasons for its low uptake in adolescents, however, little is known about the frequency or characteristics of missed opportunities in the young adult (18-26 years of age) population. OBJECTIVES: To assess both the rates of and the factors associated with missed opportunities for HPV immunization among young adult women who attended an urban obstetrics and gynecology clinic...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221878/universal-insurance-and-an-equal-access-healthcare-system-eliminate-disparities-for-black-patients-after-traumatic-injury
#2
Muhammad Ali Chaudhary, Meesha Sharma, Rebecca E Scully, Daniel J Sturgeon, Tracey Koehlmoos, Adil H Haider, Andrew J Schoenfeld
BACKGROUND: Although inequities in trauma care are reported widely, some groups have theorized that universal health insurance would decrease disparities in care for disadvantaged minorities after a traumatic injury. We sought to examine the presence of racial disparities in outcomes and healthcare utilization at 30- and 90-days after discharge in this universally insured, racially diverse, American population treated for traumatic injuries. METHODS: This work studied adult beneficiaries of TRICARE treated at both military and civilian trauma centers 2006-2014...
December 5, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221432/sex-and-ethnic-racial-specific-risk-factors-for-gallbladder-disease
#3
Jane C Figueiredo, Christopher Haiman, Jacqueline Porcel, James Buxbaum, Daniel Stram, Neal Tambe, Wendy Cozen, Lynne Wilkens, Loic Le Marchand, Veronica Wendy Setiawan
BACKGROUND: Gallbladder disease (GBD) is a highly prevalent condition; however, little is known about potential differences in risk factors by sex and ethnicity/race. Our aim was to evaluate dietary, reproductive and obesity-related factors and GBD in multiethnic populations. METHODS: We performed a prospective analysis from the Multiethnic Cohort study who self-identified as non-Hispanic White (n = 32,103), African American (n = 30,209), Japanese (n = 35,987), Native Hawaiian (n = 6942) and Latino (n = 39,168)...
December 8, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220668/nonmedical-prescription-opioids-and-pathways-of-drug-involvement-in-the-us-generational-differences
#4
Melanie Wall, Keely Cheslack-Postava, Mei-Chen Hu, Tianshu Feng, Pamela Griesler, Denise B Kandel
BACKGROUND: This study sought to specify (1) the position of nonmedical prescription opioids (NMPO) in drug initiation sequences among Millennials (1979-96), Generation X (1964-79), and Baby Boomers (1949-64) and (2) gender and racial/ethnic differences in sequences among Millennials. METHODS: Data are from the 2013-2014 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (n=73,026). We identified statistically significant drug initiation sequences involving alcohol/cigarettes, marijuana, NMPO, cocaine, and heroin using a novel method distinguishing significant sequences from patterns expected only due to correlations induced by common liability among drugs...
November 27, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220514/the-influence-of-social-norms-on-flu-vaccination-among-african-american-and-white-adults
#5
Sandra Crouse Quinn, Karen M Hilyard, Amelia M Jamison, Ji An, Gregory R Hancock, Donald Musa, Vicki S Freimuth
Adult influenza vaccination rates remain suboptimal, particularly among African Americans. Social norms may influence vaccination behavior, but little research has focused on influenza vaccine and almost no research has focused on racially-specific norms. This mixed methods investigation utilizes qualitative interviews and focus groups (n = 118) and national survey results (n = 1643) to assess both descriptive and subjective norms surrounding influenza vaccination. Qualitative results suggest a perceived descriptive norm that 'about half' of the population gets vaccinated...
December 6, 2017: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218498/the-epidemiology-of-coping-in-african-american-adults-in-the-jackson-heart-study-jhs
#6
Allison B Brenner, Ana V Diez-Roux, Samson Y Gebreab, Amy J Schulz, Mario Sims
Differences in coping within the African American population are not well understood, yet these differences may be critical to reducing stress, improving health, and reducing racial health disparities. Using a descriptive, exploratory analysis of the Jackson Heart Study (N = 5301), we examine correlations between coping responses and associations between coping and demographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, and neighborhood factors. Overall, coping responses were not strongly correlated and patterns of associations between covariates and coping responses were largely inconsistent...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218496/testing-the-association-between-traditional-and-novel-indicators-of-county-level-structural-racism-and-birth-outcomes-among-black-and-white-women
#7
Brittany D Chambers, Jennifer Toller Erausquin, Amanda E Tanner, Tracy R Nichols, Shelly Brown-Jeffy
Despite decreases in infants born premature and at low birth weight in the United States (U.S.), racial disparities between Black and White women continue. In response, the purpose of this analysis was to examine associations between both traditional and novel indicators of county-level structural racism and birth outcomes among Black and White women. We merged individual-level data from the California Birth Statistical Master Files 2009-2013 with county-level data from the United States (U.S.) Census American Community Survey...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217313/characteristics-and-health-needs-of-veterans-in-jails-and-prisons-what-we-know-and-do-not-know-about-incarcerated-women-veterans
#8
Janice D McCall, Jack Tsai
PURPOSE: The majority of U.S. veterans in prisons and local jails are men, but incarcerated women veterans remain an important and understudied group. METHODS: This study reported differences in sociodemographic, health, and criminal justice characteristics using Veterans Affairs (VA) administrative data on a national sample of 30,964 incarcerated veterans (30,440 men and 524 women) who received outreach from the VA Health Care for Reentry Veterans program between 2007 and 2011...
December 4, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217211/mediating-effects-of-cancer-risk-factors-on-the-association-between-race-and-cancer-incidence-analysis-of-the-nih-aarp-diet-and-health-study
#9
Tomi Akinyemiju, Justin Xavier Moore, Maria Pisu
PURPOSE: Racial disparities exist in the prevalence of cancer-related risk factors and incidence of cancer. The objective of this study is to determine if cancer-related risk factors mediate the association between race and cancer incidence. METHODS: We performed prospective analysis of data from the National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study, years 1995 through 2011. We compared differences in baseline characteristics between black and white participants using χ2 tests and Wilcoxon tests, as appropriate...
November 23, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216543/a-socio-economic-hypothesis-for-lower-birth-sex-ratios-at-racial-national-and-global-levels
#10
REVIEW
Victor Grech
The sex ratio at birth may be depressed by a variety of events or conditions due to an excess of male foetal losses. Evidence is accumulating that observed differences in this ratio between races, nations and even at regional global level, may be due to socio-economic stress. This review summarises findings pertaining to Blacks in the United States, and to a global United Nations dataset. Extant evidence reinforces the theory that chronic socio-economic stress may be the reason for a lower birth sex ratio at racial, national and global levels...
December 4, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214847/introducing-a-new-assessment-tool-for-measuring-ethnic-racial-identity-the-cross-ethnic-racial-identity-scale-adult-ceris-a
#11
Frank C Worrell, Rodolfo Mendoza-Denton, Amanda Wang
In this article, we examined the psychometric properties of scores on a new instrument, the Cross Ethnic-Racial Identity Scale-Adult (CERIS-A) for use across different ethnic and racial groups. The CERIS-A measures seven ethnic-racial identity attitudes-assimilation, miseducation, self-hatred, anti-dominant, ethnocentricity, multiculturalist inclusive, and ethnic-racial salience. Participants consisted of 803 adults aged 18 to 76, including African Americans (19.3%), Asian Americans (17.6%), European Americans (37...
March 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214844/barriers-to-quitting-smoking-among-young-adults-the-role-of-socioeconomic-status
#12
Samantha Carlson, Rachel Widome, Lindsey Fabian, Xianghua Luo, Jean Forster
PURPOSE: The aims of this analysis were to explore how self-reported barriers to quitting vary by socioeconomic status (SES) among young-adult smokers and to assess their relationship to quitting. DESIGN: This analysis uses 2 waves of telephone-survey data from the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort study. SETTING: Midwestern United States. PARTICIPANTS: Participants (n = 419) were smokers aged 17 to 24 years. MEASURES: Socioeconomic status was estimated using the highest level of education completed by the participants' parents...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212736/arsenic-exposure-in-relation-to-ischemic-stroke-the-reasons-for-geographic-and-racial-differences-in-stroke-study
#13
Cari L Tsinovoi, Pengcheng Xun, Leslie A McClure, Vivian M O Carioni, John D Brockman, Jianwen Cai, Eliseo Guallar, Mary Cushman, Frederick W Unverzagt, Virginia J Howard, Ka He
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this case-cohort study was to examine urinary arsenic levels in relation to incident ischemic stroke in the United States. METHODS: We performed a case-cohort study nested within the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) cohort. A subcohort (n=2486) of controls was randomly sampled within region-race-sex strata while all incident ischemic stroke cases from the full REGARDS cohort (n=671) were included...
December 6, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212276/low-circulating-levels-of-the-mitochondrial-peptide-hormone-shlp2-novel-biomarker-for-prostate-cancer-risk
#14
Jialin Xiao, Lauren Howard, Junxiang Wan, Emily Wiggins, Adriana Vidal, Pinchas Cohen, Stephen J Freedland
Context: Mitochondrial DNA mutations and dysfunction are associated with prostate cancer (PCa). Small humanin-like peptide-2 (SHLP2) is a novel mitochondrial-encoded peptide and an important mitochondrial retrograde signaling molecule. Objective: To determine whether serum SHLP2 concentration is associated with PCa risk and whether associations are race-specific.Design, Setting and Participants: Patients undergoing prostate biopsy were recruited from the Durham Veterans Affairs hospital...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211900/racial-ethnic-differences-in-the-epidemiology-of-ovarian-cancer-a-pooled-analysis-of-12-case-control-studies
#15
Lauren C Peres, Harvey Risch, Kathryn L Terry, Penelope M Webb, Marc T Goodman, Anna H Wu, Anthony J Alberg, Elisa V Bandera, Jill Barnholtz-Sloan, Melissa L Bondy, Michele L Cote, Ellen Funkhouser, Patricia G Moorman, Edward S Peters, Ann G Schwartz, Paul D Terry, Ani Manichaikul, Sarah E Abbott, Fabian Camacho, Susan J Jordan, Christina M Nagle, Mary Anne Rossing, Jennifer A Doherty, Francesmary Modugno, Kirsten Moysich, Roberta Ness, Andrew Berchuck, Linda Cook, Nhu Le, Angela Brooks-Wilson, Weiva Sieh, Alice Whittemore, Valerie McGuire, Joseph Rothstein, Hoda Anton-Culver, Argyrios Ziogas, Celeste L Pearce, Chiuchen Tseng, Malcom Pike, Joellen M Schildkraut
Background: Ovarian cancer incidence differs substantially by race/ethnicity, but the reasons for this are not well understood. Data were pooled from the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES) and 11 case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) to examine racial/ethnic differences in epidemiological characteristics with suspected involvement in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) aetiology. Methods: We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate associations for 17 reproductive, hormonal and lifestyle characteristics and EOC risk by race/ethnicity among 10 924 women with invasive EOC (8918 Non-Hispanic Whites, 433 Hispanics, 911 Blacks, 662 Asian/Pacific Islanders) and 16 150 controls (13 619 Non-Hispanic Whites, 533 Hispanics, 1233 Blacks, 765 Asian/Pacific Islanders)...
December 2, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211739/the-association-between-socioeconomic-factors-and-breast-cancer-specific-survival-varies-by-race
#16
Shailesh Agarwal, Jian Ying, Kenneth M Boucher, Jayant P Agarwal
Although racial disparity is well described for oncologic outcomes, factors associated with survival within racial groups remains unexplored. The objective of this study is to determine whether breast cancer survival among White or Black patients is associated with differing patient factors. Women diagnosed with breast cancer from 1998 through 2012 were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Cox proportional hazard logistic regression was used to estimate cause-specific survival in the combined cohort, and separate cohorts of Black or White patients only...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210471/child-maltreatment-problem-behaviors-and-neighborhood-attainment
#17
Preeti Chauhan, Amie M Schuck, Cathy Spatz Widom
Using data from a prospective cohort design study of a group of children with documented histories of abuse and neglect (n = 908) and matched controls (n = 667), this paper examines whether problem behaviors (e.g., prostitution, crime, school problems, and homelessness) in young adulthood explain the link between maltreatment in childhood and living in high-risk neighborhoods in middle adulthood. Problem behaviors were assessed at mean age of 29 and neighborhood characteristics were assessed at mean age of 40...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209945/psoriasis-in-skin-of-color-insights-into-the-epidemiology-clinical-presentation-genetics-quality-of-life-impact-and-treatment-of-psoriasis-in-non-white-racial-ethnic-groups
#18
REVIEW
Bridget P Kaufman, Andrew F Alexis
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition affecting diverse racial/ethnic groups throughout the world. Large population-based studies suggest that psoriasis occurs most often in individuals of European ancestry, followed by black and Hispanic individuals, although the true prevalence of psoriasis in non-white individuals is likely underestimated. Despite similarities in psoriasis between ethnic groups, there are notable differences in the presentation, quality-of-life impact, and treatment of psoriasis with important implications for the management of non-white individuals...
December 5, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209031/racial-differences-in-neonatal-hypoglycemia-among-very-early-preterm-births
#19
Tamarra James-Todd, Melissa I March, Jacqueline Seiglie, Munish Gupta, Florence M Brown, Joseph A Majzoub
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the prevalence of neonatal hypoglycemia differs by race/ethnicity. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study using prospectively collected data from 515 neonates born very preterm (<32 weeks) to normoglycemic women and admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at a major tertiary hospital in Boston, MA, between 2008 and 2012. RESULTS: A total of 61%, 12%, 7%, 7%, and 13% were White, Black, Hispanic, Asian, and Other, respectively...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206568/in-utero-exposure-to-opioids-an-observational-study-of-mothers-involved-in-the-child-welfare-system
#20
Gregory Bushman, Bryan G Victor, Joseph P Ryan, Brian E Perron
BACKGROUND: Women are underrepresented in the current substance abuse research; however, women are a particularly vulnerable population when it comes to opioid use and abuse. Pregnant women are even more so, because of the potential that exists for in utero exposure (IUE) to substances. OBJECTIVES: To identify trends in IUE to opioids in order to ensure that resources are allocated effectively to address the current opioid epidemic and to assist the populations most affected by it...
December 5, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
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