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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214209/expression-and-promoter-dna-methylation-of-mlh1-in-colorectal-cancer-and-lung-cancer
#1
Yunxia Ma, Yuan Chen, Iver Petersen
AIMS: Aberrant DNA methylation is a common molecular feature in human cancer. The aims of this study were to analyze the methylation status of MLH1, one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes, in human colorectal and lung cancer and to evaluate its clinical relevance. METHODS: The expression of MLH1 was analyzed in 8 colorectal cancer (CRC) and 8 lung cancer cell lines by real-time RT-PCR and western blotting. The MLH1 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays including 121 primary CRC and 90 lung cancer patient samples...
January 22, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212278/the-effect-of-the-human-peptide-ghk-on-gene-expression-relevant-to-nervous-system-function-and-cognitive-decline
#2
Loren Pickart, Jessica Michelle Vasquez-Soltero, Anna Margolina
Neurodegeneration, the progressive death of neurons, loss of brain function, and cognitive decline is an increasing problem for senior populations. Its causes are poorly understood and therapies are largely ineffective. Neurons, with high energy and oxygen requirements, are especially vulnerable to detrimental factors, including age-related dysregulation of biochemical pathways caused by altered expression of multiple genes. GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine) is a human copper-binding peptide with biological actions that appear to counter aging-associated diseases and conditions...
February 15, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210941/b-lymphocytes-in-renal-interstitial-fibrosis
#3
REVIEW
Fengge Zhu, Xueyuan Bai, Xiangmei Chen
Fibrosis is defined as an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM), which leads to the destruction of organ structure and impairment of organ function. Fibrosis occurs not only in kidney but also in lung, liver, heart, and skin. Common pathways of fibrosis are thought to exist. Renal interstitial fibrosis is a complex process that involves multiple molecular signaling and multiple cellular components, in which B cells appear to be one of the emerging important players. B cells may affect fibrosis through cytokine production and through interaction with other cells including fibroblasts, macrophages and T cells...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204816/antioxidant-and-cytoprotective-effects-of-morin-against-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-oxidative-stress-are-associated-with-the-induction-of-nrf-2%C3%A2-mediated-ho-1-expression-in-v79-4-chinese-hamster-lung-fibroblasts
#4
Moon Hee Lee, Hee-Jae Cha, Eun Ok Choi, Min Ho Han, Sung Ok Kim, Gi-Young Kim, Su Hyun Hong, Cheol Park, Sung-Kwon Moon, Soon-Jeong Jeong, Moon-Jin Jeong, Wun-Jae Kim, Yung Hyun Choi
Natural phytochemicals of plant origin, including flavonoids, have been found to be potent antioxidants providing beneficial effects against oxidative stress-related diseases. The present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant properties of morin, a flavonoid originally isolated from the flowering plants of the Moraceae family. Superoxide dismutase (SOD)‑like activity and 2,2'‑azino‑bis‑(3‑ethylbenzothiazoline‑6‑sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+) radical scavenging activity were determined...
March 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203673/amphipathic-guanidine-embedded-glyoxamide-based-peptidomimetics-as-novel-antibacterial-agents-and-biofilm-disruptors
#5
Shashidhar Nizalapur, Onder Kimyon, Eugene Yee, Kitty Ho, Thomas Berry, Mike Manefield, Charles G Cranfield, Mark Willcox, David StC Black, Naresh Kumar
Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria is becoming increasingly prevalent, posing a critical challenge to global health. Bacterial biofilm formation is a common resistance mechanism that reduces the effectiveness of antibiotics. Thus, the development of compounds that can disrupt bacterial biofilms is a potential strategy to combat antimicrobial resistance. We report herein the synthesis of amphipathic guanidine-embedded glyoxamide-based peptidomimetics via ring-opening reactions of N-naphthoylisatins with amines and amino acids...
February 16, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196126/oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-induction-in-human-thyroid-carcinoma-cells-exposed-to-the-essential-oil-from-pistacia-lentiscus-aerial-parts
#6
Simona Catalani, Francesco Palma, Serafina Battistelli, Serena Benedetti
BACKGROUND: Essential oils from the aerial parts (leaves, twigs and berries) of Pistacia lentiscus (PLEO) have been well characterized for their antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties; however, poor information exists on their potential anticancer activity. METHODS: Increasing concentrations of PLEO (0.01-0.1% v/v, 80-800 μg/ml) were administered to a wide variety of cultured cancer cells from breast, cervix, colon, liver, lung, prostate, and thyroid carcinomas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195168/taz-contributes-to-pulmonary-fibrosis-by-activating-profibrotic-functions-of-lung-fibroblasts
#7
Satoshi Noguchi, Akira Saito, Yu Mikami, Hirokazu Urushiyama, Masafumi Horie, Hirotaka Matsuzaki, Hideyuki Takeshima, Kosuke Makita, Naoya Miyashita, Akihisa Mitani, Taisuke Jo, Yasuhiro Yamauchi, Yasuhiro Terasaki, Takahide Nagase
Transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) regulates a variety of biological processes. Nuclear translocation and activation of TAZ are regulated by multiple mechanisms, including actin cytoskeleton and mechanical forces. TAZ is involved in lung alveolarization during lung development and Taz-heterozygous mice are resistant to bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. In this study, we explored the roles of TAZ in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) through histological analyses of human lung tissues and cell culture experiments...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194454/in-vitro-genotoxicity-of-carcinogenic-asarone-isomers
#8
S Haupenthal, K Berg, M Gründken, S Vallicotti, M Hemgesberg, K Sak, D Schrenk, M Esselen
The present study focused on genotoxic properties of the carcinogenic phenylpropanoids α-asarone and β-asarone, which are found in several herbs and spices, such as Acorus calamus or Acorus gramineus. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects were determined in human liver carinoma HepG2 cells, in hamster lung fibroblast V79 cells and in human cytochrome P450 1A2 and human sulfotransferase 1C2 transfected V79 cells (tV79). The Alamar blue assay was used to measure cytotoxicity of both isomers prior to the identification of DNA damaging properties by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay)...
February 14, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193858/senescent-cells-expose-and-secrete-an-oxidized-form-of-membrane-bound-vimentin-as-revealed-by-a-natural-polyreactive-antibody
#9
David Frescas, Christelle M Roux, Semra Aygun-Sunar, Anatoli S Gleiberman, Peter Krasnov, Oleg V Kurnasov, Evguenia Strom, Lauren P Virtuoso, Michelle Wrobel, Andrei L Osterman, Marina P Antoch, Vadim Mett, Olga B Chernova, Andrei V Gudkov
Studying the phenomenon of cellular senescence has been hindered by the lack of senescence-specific markers. As such, detection of proteins informally associated with senescence accompanies the use of senescence-associated β-galactosidase as a collection of semiselective markers to monitor the presence of senescent cells. To identify novel biomarkers of senescence, we immunized BALB/c mice with senescent mouse lung fibroblasts and screened for antibodies that recognized senescence-associated cell-surface antigens by FACS analysis and a newly developed cell-based ELISA...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191779/development-of-a-three-dimensional-bioengineering-technology-to-generate-lung-tissue-for-personalized-disease-modeling
#10
Dan C Wilkinson, Jackelyn A Alva-Ornelas, Jennifer M S Sucre, Preethi Vijayaraj, Abdo Durra, Wade Richardson, Steven J Jonas, Manash K Paul, Saravanan Karumbayaram, Bruce Dunn, Brigitte N Gomperts
Stem cell technologies, especially patient-specific, induced stem cell pluripotency and directed differentiation, hold great promise for changing the landscape of medical therapies. Proper exploitation of these methods may lead to personalized organ transplants, but to regenerate organs, it is necessary to develop methods for assembling differentiated cells into functional, organ-level tissues. The generation of three-dimensional human tissue models also holds potential for medical advances in disease modeling, as full organ functionality may not be necessary to recapitulate disease pathophysiology...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188458/tanapoxvirus-lacking-the-15l-gene-inhibits-melanoma-cell-growth-in-vitro-by-inducing-interferon-%C3%AE-1-release
#11
Tiantian Zhang, Karim Essani
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) have emerged as a promising approach for melanoma treatment by causing tumor lysis and inducing immuno-modulatory activities. Tanapoxvirus (TPV), which causes a mild self-limiting disease in humans and contains a large DNA genome, appears as a promising OV candidate. TPV recombinants were generated with the thymidine kinase/66R gene deletion (TPVΔ66R), the 15L gene deletion (TPVΔ15L), or with both the 15L and 66R gene ablation (TPVΔ15LΔ66R). Our previous studies have shown that treatment of TPVΔ15L resulted in significant tumor regression in xenotransplanted human melanoma in nude mice...
February 10, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185266/life-beyond-life-an-easy-way-to-derive-lung-fibroblasts-from-cadavers
#12
Sophie Colomb, Corinne Bareil, Eric Baccino, Jean-Philippe Berthet, Lucie Knabe, Isabelle Vachier, Arnaud Bourdin
Several protocols have illustrated the possibility of deriving cells, such as fibroblasts, from different organs. These techniques generally concern organs sampled from living persons, but have already been described for cadavers, especially concerning the skin and tendons. We present, for the first time, an easy way to derive pulmonary fibroblasts from a lung tissue sampled from a cadaver and directly culture plated. The fibroblast output was checked daily. We obtained lung fibroblasts from 3 (60%) cadavers and 2 (100%) living persons...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182573/amplified-canonical-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-signalling-via-heat-shock-protein-90-in-pulmonary-fibrosis
#13
Zaneta Sibinska, Xia Tian, Martina Korfei, Baktybek Kojonazarov, Janina Susanne Kolb, Walter Klepetko, Djuro Kosanovic, Malgorzata Wygrecka, Hossein Ardeschir Ghofrani, Norbert Weissmann, Friedrich Grimminger, Werner Seeger, Andreas Guenther, Ralph T Schermuly
Interstitial lung fibroblast activation coupled with extracellular matrix production is a pathological signature of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and is governed by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/Smad signalling. We sought to define the role of heat shock protein (HSP)90 in profibrotic responses in IPF and to determine the therapeutic effects of HSP90 inhibition in a murine model of pulmonary fibrosis.We investigated the effects of HSP90 inhibition in vitro by applying 17-AAG (17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin) to lung fibroblasts and A549 cells and in vivo by administering 17-DMAG (17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin) to mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis...
December 19, 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179498/loss-of-twist1-in-the-mesenchymal-compartment-promotes-increased-fibrosis-in-experimental-lung-injury-by-enhanced-expression-of-cxcl12
#14
Jiangning Tan, John R Tedrow, Mehdi Nouraie, Justin A Dutta, David T Miller, Xiaoyun Li, Shibing Yu, Yanxia Chu, Brenda Juan-Guardela, Naftali Kaminski, Kritika Ramani, Partha S Biswas, Yingze Zhang, Daniel J Kass
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a disease characterized by the accumulation of apoptosis-resistant fibroblasts in the lung. We have previously shown that high expression of the transcription factor Twist1 may explain this prosurvival phenotype in vitro. However, this observation has never been tested in vivo. We found that loss of Twist1 in COL1A2(+) cells led to increased fibrosis characterized by very significant accumulation of T cells and bone marrow-derived matrix-producing cells. We found that Twist1-null cells expressed high levels of the T cell chemoattractant CXCL12...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177758/differential-effect-of-hypoxia-and-acidity-on-lung-cancer-cell-and-fibroblast-metabolism
#15
Alexandra Giatromanolaki, Maria Liousia, Stella Arelaki, Dimitra Kalamida, Stamatia Pouliliou, Axilleas Mitrakas, Avgi Tsolou, Efthimios Sivridis, Michael I Koukourakis
This study examined the metabolic response of lung cancer cells and normal lung fibroblasts to hypoxia and acidity. GLUT1 and HXKII mRNA/protein expression was up-regulated under hypoxia in the MRC5 fibroblasts and in the A549 and H1299 lung cancer cell lines, indicating intensified glucose absorption and glycolysis. Under hypoxia, the LDHA mRNA and LDH5 protein levels increased in the cancer cells but not in the fibroblasts. Acidity suppressed the above mentioned hypoxia effect. PDH-kinase-1 (PDK1 mRNA and protein) and inactive phosphorylated-PDH protein levels were induced under hypoxia in the cancer cells, whilst these were reduced in the MRC5 lung fibroblasts...
January 24, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173772/potential-importance-of-protease-activated-receptor-par-1-expression-in-the-tumor-stroma-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#16
Cong Lin, Christof J Majoor, Joris J T H Roelofs, Martijn D de Kruif, Hugo M Horlings, Keren Borensztajn, C Arnold Spek
BACKGROUND: Protease activated receptor (PAR)-1 expression is increased in a variety of tumor cells. In preclinical models, tumor cell PAR-1 appeared to be involved in the regulation of lung tumor growth and metastasis; however the role of PAR-1 in the lung tumor microenvironment, which is emerging as a key compartment in driving cancer progression, remained to be explored. METHODS: In the present study, PAR-1 gene expression was determined in lung tissue from patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using a combination of publicly available RNA microarray datasets and in house-made tissue microarrays including tumor biopsies of 94 patients with NSCLC (40 cases of adenocarcinoma, 42 cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 12 cases of other type of NSCLC at different stages)...
February 7, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168771/recent-updates-on-electronic-cigarette-aerosol-and-inhaled-nicotine-effects-on-periodontal-and-pulmonary-tissues
#17
REVIEW
Fawad Javed, Sergio V Kellesarian, Isaac K Sundar, Georgios E Romanos, Irfan Rahman
E-cigarette derived inhaled nicotine may contribute to the pathogenesis of periodontal and pulmonary diseases in particular via lung inflammation, injurious and dysregulated repair responses. Nicotine is shown to have anti-proliferative properties and affects fibroblasts in vitro, which may interfere in tissue myofibroblast differentiation in e-cig users. This will affect the ability to heal wounds by decreasing wound contraction. In periodontics, direct exposure to e-vapor has been shown to produce harmful effects in periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts in culture...
February 6, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165468/thy-1-interaction-with-fas-in-lipid-rafts-regulates-fibroblast-apoptosis-and-lung-injury-resolution
#18
Xiaoqiu Liu, Simon S Wong, Carmen A Taype, Jeeyeon Kim, Tzu-Pin Shentu, Celia R Espinoza, J Cameron Finley, John E Bradley, Brian P Head, Hemal H Patel, Emma J Mah, James S Hagood
Thy-1-negative lung fibroblasts are resistant to apoptosis. The mechanisms governing this process and its relevance to fibrotic remodeling remain poorly understood. By using either sorted or transfected lung fibroblasts, we found that Thy-1 expression is associated with downregulation of anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, as well as increased levels of cleaved caspase-9. Addition of rhFasL and staurosporine, well-known apoptosis inducers, caused significantly increased cleaved caspase-3, -8, and PARP in Thy-1-transfected cells...
February 6, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159234/immunohistochemical-detection-of-pro-inflammatory-and-anti-inflammatory-cytokines-in-granulomas-in-cattle-with-natural-mycobacterium-bovis-infection
#19
Ana M Canal, Natalia Pezzone, Angel Cataldi, Martín Zumarraga, Mariano Larzabal, Sergio Garbaccio, Analía Fernandez, Lucas Dominguez, Alicia Aranaz, Antonio Rodriguez-Bertos
Cellular immune response was evaluated in lymph nodes and lung with different granulomatous lesions from cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis. For this purpose, we assessed pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines by immunohistochemical assays. Immunoreaction was observed for all the cytokines analyzed. Fourteen animals displayed advanced stage IV granulomas, with intense immunoreactivity to IFN-γ and TGF-β in areas of caseous necrosis, macrophages and lymphocytes. Seven animals showed stage III granuloma, with high immunoreactivity to IFN-γ (average of 44...
February 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158223/fibroblast-activation-protein-is-dispensable-in-the-anti-influenza-immune-response-in-mice
#20
Sioh-Yang Tan, Sumaiya Chowdhury, Natasa Polak, Mark D Gorrell, Wolfgang Weninger
Fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP) is a unique dual peptidase of the S9B serine protease family, being capable of both dipeptidyl peptidase and endopeptidase activities. FAP is expressed at low level in healthy adult organs including the pancreas, cervix, uterus, submaxillary gland and the skin, and highly upregulated in embryogenesis, chronic inflammation and tissue remodelling. It is also expressed by cancer-associated stromal fibroblasts in more than 90% of epithelial tumours. FAP has enzymatic and non-enzymatic functions in the growth, immunosuppression, invasion and cell signalling of tumour cells...
2017: PloS One
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