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Lung fibroblast

Joohwee Kim, Vivek Vaish, Mingxiao Feng, Kevin Field, Ioulia Chatzistamou, Minsub Shim
Cyclooxygenase (COX) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostanoids, lipid signaling molecules that regulate various physiological processes. COX2, one of the isoforms of COX, is highly inducible in response to a wide variety of cellular and environmental stresses. Increased COX2 expression is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. COX2 expression is also reported to be increased in the tissues of aged humans and mice, which suggests the involvement of COX2 in the aging process...
October 7, 2016: Aging
Dorota G Piotrowska, Graciela Andrei, Dominique Schols, Robert Snoeck, Magdalena Łysakowska
Cycloadditions of N-substituted C-(diethoxyphosphoryl)nitrones to N-allylated quinazoline-2,4-diones functionalized at N3 with substituted benzoyl or benzyl groups proceeded with moderate to good diastereoselectivities (d.e. 28-68%). The synthesized isoxazolidine phosphonates were assessed for the antiviral activity against a broad range of DNA and RNA viruses. Compounds trans-13c, cis-13c/trans-13c (86:14), cis-15b/trans-15b (87:13) and trans-15d/cis-15d (95:5) exhibited the highest activity toward both TK(+) and TK(-) VZV strains (mean EC50 values in the range of 3...
October 4, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Shan-Shan Rao, Xiang-Yan Zhang, Ming-Jun Shi, Ying Xiao, Ying-Ying Zhang, Yuan-Yuan Wang, Chang-Zhi Zhang, Song-Jun Shao, Xin-Mei Liu, Bing Guo
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that a histone deacetylase inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), has anti-fibrotic effect. However, the exact mechanism of its anti-fibrotic potential remains is unclear. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of SAHA in attenuating pulmonary fibrosis by regulating stability of Smad7 in paraquat (PQ)-induced lung fibrosis animal model and cultured pulmonary fibroblasts. METHODS: Rats with paraquat-induced lung fibrosis were fed with a SAHA solution (15 mg/kg) by gastric gavage...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Mariola Kurowska-Stolarska, Manhl K Hasoo, David J Welsh, Lynn Stewart, Donna McIntyre, Brian E Morton, Steven Johnstone, Ashley M Miller, Darren L Asquith, Neal L Millar, Ann B Millar, Carol A Feghali-Bostwick, Nikhil Hirani, Peter J Crick, Yuqin Wang, William J Griffiths, Iain B McInnes, Charles McSharry
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is progressive and rapidly fatal. Improved understanding of pathogenesis is required to prosper novel therapeutics. Epigenetic changes contribute to IPF therefore microRNAs may reveal novel pathogenic pathways. OBJECTIVES: To determine the regulatory role of microRNA(miR)-155 in the pro-fibrotic function of murine lung macrophages and fibroblasts, IPF lung fibroblasts and its contribution to experimental pulmonary fibrosis...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Jeffrey Tao, Lily Xiao Jing Sun, X Chris Le
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Laziyan Mahemuti, Qixuan Chen, Melanie C Coughlan, Min Zhang, Maria Florian, Ryan J Mailloux, Xu-Liang Cao, Kylie A Scoggan, William G Willmore, Xiaolei Jin
Bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to exert biological effects through estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent and ER-independent mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that prenatal exposure to BPA may increase the risk of childhood asthma. To investigate the underlying mechanisms in the actions of BPA, human fetal lung fibroblasts (hFLFs) were exposed to varying doses of BPA in culture for 24hr. Effects of BPA on localization and uptake of BPA, cell viability, release of immune and developmental modulators, cellular localization and expression of ERα, ERβ and G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30), and effects of ERs antagonists on BPA-induced changes in endothelin-1 (ET-1) release were examined...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Christina Brandenberger, Christian Mühlfeld
Lung aging is associated with structural remodeling, a decline of respiratory function and a higher susceptibility to acute and chronic lung diseases. Individual factors that modulate pulmonary aging include basic genetic configuration, environmental exposure, life-style and biography of systemic diseases. However, the actual aging of the lung takes place in pulmonary resident cells and is closely linked to aging of the immune system (immunosenescence). Therefore, this article reviews the current knowledge about the impact of aging on pulmonary cells and the immune system, without analyzing those factors that may accelerate the aging process in depth...
October 14, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Y S Prakash
Airway structure and function are key aspects of normal lung development, growth and aging, as well as of lung responses to the environment and the pathophysiology of important diseases such as asthma, COPD and fibrosis. In this regard, the contributions of airway smooth muscle (ASM) are both functional, in the context of airway contractility and relaxation, as well as synthetic, involving production and modulation of extracellular components, modulation of the local immune environment, cellular contribution to airway structure, and finally, interactions with other airway cell types such as epithelium, fibroblasts and nerves...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Tiantian Zhang, Yogesh R Suryawanshi, Dennis H Kordish, Helene M Woyczesczyk, David Jeng, Karim Essani
Neuregulin (NRG), an epidermal growth factor is known to promote the growth of various cell types, including human melanoma cells through ErbB family of tyrosine kinases receptors. Tanapoxvirus (TPV)-encoded protein TPV-15L, a functional mimic of NRG, also acts through ErbB receptors. Here, we show that the TPV-15L protein promotes melanoma proliferation. TPV recombinant generated by deleting the 15L gene (TPVΔ15L) showed replication ability similar to that of wild-type TPV (wtTPV) in owl monkey kidney cells, human lung fibroblast (WI-38) cells, and human melanoma (SK-MEL-3) cells...
October 13, 2016: Virus Genes
Ameer L Elaimy, Aarif Ahsan, Katherine Marsh, William B Pratt, Dipankar Ray, Theodore S Lawrence, Mukesh K Nyati
Heat shock protein 90 is a chaperone that plays an essential role in the stabilization of a large number of signal transduction molecules, many of which are associated with oncogenesis. An Hsp90 isoform (Hsp90α) has been shown to be selectively phosphorylated on two N-terminal threonine residues (threonine 5 and 7) and is involved in the DNA damage response and apoptosis. However, the kinase that phosphorylates Hsp90α after ionizing radiation (IR) and its role in post-radiation DNA repair remains unclear...
October 11, 2016: Oncotarget
Argyrios Tzouvelekis, Guoying Yu, Christian Lacks Lino Cardenas, Jose D Herazo-Maya, Rong Wang, Tony Woolard, Yi Zhang, Koji Sakamoto, Hojin Lee, Jae-Sung Yi, Giuseppe DeIuliis, Nikolaos Xylourgidis, Farida Ahangari, Patty J Lee, Vassilis Aidinis, Erica L Herzog, Robert Homer, Anton M Bennett, Naftali Kaminski
RATIONALE: Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic fatal lung disease with dismal prognosis and no cure. The potential role of the ubiquitously expressed SH2 domain-containing-tyrosine phosphatase (SHP2) as a therapeutic target has not been studied in IPF Objectives: To determine the expression, mechanistic role and potential therapeutic utility of SHP2 in Pulmonary Fibrosis Methods: The effects of SHP2 overexpression and inhibition on fibroblast response to pro-fibrotic stimuli were analyzed in-vitro in primary human and mouse lung fibroblasts...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Zhengxing Ge, Bo Li, Xun Zhou, Yi Yang, Jun Zhang
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is featured by aberrant extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. Trigger of the β-catenin/RhoA pathway has been involved in aberrant ECM deposition in several diseases. We investigated WNT signaling activation in primary pulmonary fibroblasts of rats with and without COPD and the function of WNT signaling in pulmonary fibroblast. We evaluated the expression of WNT signaling and the role of β-catenin, using MRC-5 fibroblasts and primary lung fibroblasts of rats with and without COPD...
October 13, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Kaname Akamata, Jun Wei, Mitra Bhattacharyya, Paul Cheresh, Michael Y Bonner, Jack L Arbiser, Kirtee Raparia, Mahesh P Gupta, David W Kamp, John Varga
Constitutive fibroblast activation is responsible for organ fibrosis in fibrotic disorders including systemic sclerosis (SSc), but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, and effective therapies are lacking. We investigated the expression of the mitochondrial deacetylase sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) and its modulation by hexafluoro, a novel fluorinated synthetic honokiol analogue, in the context of fibrosis. We find that augmenting cellular SIRT3 by forced expression in normal lung and skin fibroblasts, or by hexafluoro treatment, blocked intracellular TGF-ß signaling and fibrotic responses, and mitigated the activated phenotype of SSc fibroblasts...
October 6, 2016: Oncotarget
Kyung-Taek Rim, Soo-Jin Kim
In vivo studies regarding biochemical, molecular biological, and histopathological changes in cancer tissues have been widely performed by the administration of carcinogens in rodents. In these established methods, dissection of the animal following sacrifice must be carried out. Exosomes are cell-derived vesicles that are present in all body fluids and these vesicles have specific roles within cells. Thus, much attention is given to the clinical application of exosomes that can possibly be used for prediction and therapy and as biomarkers related to cancer...
September 2016: Journal of Cancer Prevention
Steven O'Reilly
Fibrosis is a common and important disease. It is a pathological state due to excessive scar formation mediated by an increase in activated fibroblasts that express alpha smooth muscle actin and copious amounts of extracellular matrix molecules. Epigenetics is an area of research that encompasses three main mechanisms: methylation, histone modifications to the tails of histones and also non-coding RNAs including long and short non-coding RNAs. These three mechanisms all seek to regulate gene expression without a change in the underlying DNA sequence...
October 6, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Ruijuan Guan, Xiaomei Zhao, Xia Wang, Nana Song, Yuhong Guo, Xianxia Yan, Liping Jiang, Wenjing Cheng, Linlin Shen
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal lung disease with few treatment options and poor prognosis. Emodin, extracted from Chinese rhubarb, was found to be able to alleviate bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis, yet the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. This study aimed to further investigate the effects of emodin on the inflammation and fibrosis of BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and the mechanism involved in rats. Our results showed that emodin improved pulmonary function, reduced weight loss and prevented death in BLM-treated rats...
October 4, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Cindy Mai, Stijn E Verleden, John E McDonough, Stijn Willems, Walter De Wever, Johan Coolen, Adriana Dubbeldam, Dirk E Van Raemdonck, Eric K Verbeken, Geert M Verleden, James C Hogg, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, Wim A Wuyts, Johny A Verschakelen
Purpose To elucidate the underlying lung changes responsible for the computed tomographic (CT) features of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and to gain insight into the way IPF proceeds through the lungs and progresses over time. Materials and Methods Micro-CT studies of tissue cores obtained from explant lungs were examined and were correlated 1:1 with a CT study obtained immediately before transplantation. Samples for histologic analysis were obtained from selected cores. Results In areas with no or minimal abnormalities on CT images, small areas of increased attenuation located in or near the interlobular septa can be seen on micro-CT studies...
October 6, 2016: Radiology
Rui Tostoes, John R Dodgson, Ben Weil, Spyridon Gerontas, Chris Mason, Farlan Veraitch
The cell therapy industry would greatly benefit from a simple point of care solution to remove dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) from small-volume thawed cell suspensions before injection. A novel dead-end filtration device has been designed and validated, which takes advantage of the higher density of thawed cell suspensions to remove the DMSO and protein impurities from the cell suspension without fouling the filter membrane. The filter was designed to avoid fluid circuits and minimize the surface area that is contacted by the cell suspension, thus reducing cell losses by design...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Shin-Ichi Bando, Osamu Hatano, Hiroshi Takemori, Nobuo Kubota, Ken Ohnishi
PURPOSE: This study examined the enhancing effects of syringetin on the radiosensitivity of normal and cancer cells, and the related mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used normal human lung and mouse fibroblasts as well as human lung and mouse cancer cells derived from the above normal fibroblasts. Cell radiosensitivity was measured using a colony formation assay. Apoptosis was analyzed with DAPI staining and Western blots. DNA lesions were analyzed with γH2AX immunofluorescent staining...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Mario Kurtjak, Marija Vukomanović, Lovro Kramer, Danilo Suvorov
Intensive research in the area of medical nanotechnology, especially to cope with the bacterial resistance against conventional antibiotics, has shown strong antimicrobial action of metallic and metal-oxide nanomaterials towards a wide variety of bacteria. However, the important remaining problem is that nanomaterials with highest antibacterial activity generally express also a high level of cytotoxicity for mammalian cells. Here we present gallium nanoparticles as a new solution to this problem. We developed a nanocomposite from bioactive hydroxyapatite nanorods (84 wt %) and antibacterial nanospheres of elemental gallium (16 wt %) with mode diameter of 22 ± 11 nm...
November 2016: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
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