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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929393/xylobiose-an-alternative-sweetener-ameliorates-diabetes-related-metabolic-changes-by-regulating-hepatic-lipogenesis-and-mir-122a-33a-in-db-db-mice
#1
Eunjin Lim, Ji Ye Lim, Eunju Kim, Yoo-Sun Kim, Jae-Ho Shin, Pu Reum Seok, Sangwon Jung, Sang-Ho Yoo, Yuri Kim
Type 2 diabetes is a major public health concern worldwide. Xylobiose (XB) consists of two molecules of d-xylose and is a major disaccharide in xylooligosaccharides that are used as prebiotics. We hypothesized that XB could regulate diabetes-related metabolic and genetic changes via microRNA expression in db/db mice. For six weeks, C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice received 5% XB as part of the total sucrose content of their diet. XB supplementation improved glucose tolerance with reduced levels of OGTT AUC, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, and HOMA-IR...
December 5, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928162/role-of-mirnas-in-the-pathogenesis-and-susceptibility-of-diabetes-mellitus
#2
REVIEW
Naoko Hashimoto, Tomoaki Tanaka
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs of ~22 nucleotides that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding to the 3' untranslated region of messenger RNA (mRNAs), resulting in inhibition of translation or mRNA degradation. miRNAs have a key role in fine-tuning cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, and they are involved in carcinogenesis, glucose homeostasis, inflammation and other biological processes. In this review, we focus on the role of miRNAs in the pathophysiology of the metabolic disease and diabetes mellitus, the hallmark of which is hyperglycemia caused by defective insulin secretion and/or action...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922847/apolipoprotein-e-metabolism-and-functions-in-brain-and-its-role-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Fan Liao, Hyejin Yoon, Jungsu Kim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: APOE4 genotype is the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Prevailing evidence suggests that amyloid β plays a critical role in Alzheimer's disease. The objective of this article is to review the recent findings about the metabolism of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and amyloid β and other possible mechanisms by which ApoE contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: ApoE isoforms have differential effects on amyloid β metabolism...
December 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922690/microrna-152-inhibits-tumor-cell-growth-by-directly-targeting-rtkn-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#4
Jiejing Zhou, Yanjun Zhang, Yuhong Qi, Dequan Yu, Qiuju Shao, Jun Liang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of adult liver cancer and accounts for approximately 90% of all cases of primary liver cancer annually. Rhotekin (RTKN), which functions as a cancer promoter, can be frequently detected in many human cancers, including gastric cancer, colorectal carcinoma and bladder carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RTKN in HCC. Using HCC cells and tissues from patients with liver cancer, we demonstrated that RTKN was significantly increased in HCC...
December 5, 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922090/mir-146a-mediated-suppression-of-the-inflammatory-response-in-human-adipocytes
#5
Julian Roos, Eveliina Enlund, Jan-Bernd Funcke, Daniel Tews, Karlheinz Holzmann, Klaus-Michael Debatin, Martin Wabitsch, Pamela Fischer-Posovszky
The obesity-associated inflammation of white adipose tissue (WAT) is one of the factors leading to the development of related diseases such as insulin resistance and liver steatosis. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) were identified as important regulators of WAT functions. Herein, we cultured human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes with macrophage-conditioned medium (MacCM) and performed an Affimetrix miRNA array to identify miRNAs differentially expressed under inflammatory conditions. We identified 24 miRNAs differentially expressed upon inflammation in human adipocytes and miR-146a was the most up-regulated miRNA species...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919977/microrna-7-is-associated-with-malignant-potential-and-poor-prognosis-in-human-colorectal-cancer
#6
Yuka Nagano, Yuji Toiyama, Yoshinaga Okugawa, Hiroki Imaoka, Hiroyuki Fujikawa, Hiromi Yasuda, Shigeyuki Yoshiyama, Junichiro Hiro, Minako Kobayashi, Masaki Ohi, Toshimitsu Araki, Yasuhiro Inoue, Yasuhiko Mohri, Masato Kusunoki
Dysregulation pattern of microRNA-7 (miR-7) and the clinical significance of its expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) are unresolved. Here, we investigated the relationship between clinicopathological factors, including prognostic outcome, and miR-7 expression in CRC tissues. We analyzed miR-7 expression levels by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in 210 colorectal tissues (196 CRCs and 14 normal mucosae from healthy volunteers). miR-7 expression levels were significantly up-regulated in CRC tissues compared to normal colorectal mucosae...
December 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918551/hepatocarcinogenesis-in-transgenic-mice-carrying-hepatitis-b-virus-pre-s-s-gene-with-the-sw172-mutation
#7
M-W Lai, K-H Liang, W-R Lin, Y-H Huang, S-F Huang, T-C Chen, C-T Yeh
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrying the rtA181T/sW172* mutation conferred cross-resistance to adefovir and lamivudine. Cell-based and clinical studies indicated that HBV carrying this mutation had an increased oncogenic potential. Herein, we created transgenic mouse models to study the oncogenicity of the HBV pre-S/S gene containing this mutation. Transgenic mice were generated by transfer of the HBV pre-S/S gene together with its own promoter into C57B6 mice. Four lines of mice were created. Two of them carried wild-type gene and produced high and low levels of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) (TgWT-H and L)...
December 5, 2016: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917915/blood-hsa-mir-122-5p-and-hsa-mir-885-5p-levels-associate-with-fatty-liver-and-related-lipoprotein-metabolism-the-young-finns-study
#8
Emma Raitoharju, Ilkka Seppälä, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Jorma Viikari, Mika Ala-Korpela, Pasi Soininen, Antti J Kangas, Melanie Waldenberger, Norman Klopp, Thomas Illig, Jaana Leiviskä, Britt-Marie Loo, Niku Oksala, Mika Kähönen, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Reijo Laaksonen, Olli Raitakari, Terho Lehtimäki
MicroRNAs are involved in disease development and may be utilized as biomarkers. We investigated the association of blood miRNA levels and a) fatty liver (FL), b) lipoprotein and lipid pathways involved in liver lipid accumulation and c) levels of predicted mRNA targets in general population based cohort. Blood microRNA profiling (TaqMan OpenArray), genome-wide gene expression arrays and nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics were performed for Young Finns Study participants aged 34-49 years (n = 871)...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916938/comprehensive-analysis-of-mirnome-alterations-in-response-to-sorafenib-treatment-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#9
Anna-Maria Pehserl, Anna Lena Ress, Stefanie Stanzer, Margit Resel, Michael Karbiener, Elke Stadelmeyer, Verena Stiegelbauer, Armin Gerger, Christian Mayr, Marcel Scheideler, Georg C Hutterer, Thomas Bauernhofer, Tobias Kiesslich, Martin Pichler
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are master regulators of drug resistance and have been previously proposed as potential biomarkers for the prediction of therapeutic response in colorectal cancer (CRC). Sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor which has been approved for the treatment of liver, renal and thyroid cancer, is currently being studied as a monotherapy in selected molecular subtypes or in combination with other drugs in metastatic CRC. In this study, we explored sorafenib-induced cellular effects in Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog olog (KRAS) wild-type and KRAS-mutated CRC cell lines (Caco-2 and HRT-18), and finally profiled expression changes of specific miRNAs within the miRNome (>1000 human miRNAs) after exposure to sorafenib...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909734/klf4-inhibits-tumor-growth-and-metastasis-by-targeting-microrna-31-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#10
Chuan Tian, Shanshan Yao, Li Liu, Youcheng Ding, Qingwang Ye, Xiao Dong, Yong Gao, Ning Yang, Qi Li
MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are short, endogenous non-coding RNA molecules, demonstrating abnormal expression in cancer initiation and progression. In this study, we profiled 18 differentially regulated miRNAs, including miRNA‑31, using miRNA array. Kruppel (or Krüppel)-like factor 4 (Klf4) is a transcription factor and putative tumor suppressor. Both were found to be significantly downregulated in liver cancer tissues and cells. However, little is known about the correlation between Klf4 and miRNA‑31 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904767/mir-146a-suppresses-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-downregulating-traf6
#11
Yong Zu, Yanhong Yang, Jiyun Zhu, Xiaobo Bo, Shuangxing Hou, Bo Zhang, Jiangfeng Qiu, Jing Zheng
MicroRNAs have been proven to play important roles in many biological processes such as cellular growth and differentiation, apoptosis, and modulation of host response to viral infection. In the present study, we find that the expression of miR-146a was decreased in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues compared with corresponding adjacent tissues, and the expression level in HCC cell lines was lower than in a normal liver cell. Over-expression suppressed the proliferation and invasion of HCC cells. In addition, luciferase reporter assays and western blotting confirmed that miR-146a directly target TRAF6 which attenuated the effect of miR-146a on cell proliferation and invasion in HepG2 and SMMC7721 cells...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903618/hypolipidemic-effect-of-oleanolic-acid-is-mediated-by-the-mir-98-5p-pgc-1%C3%AE-axis-in-high-fat-diet-induced-hyperlipidemic-mice
#12
Siyu Chen, Xiaoan Wen, Wenxiang Zhang, Chen Wang, Jun Liu, Chang Liu
Oleanolic acid (OA) is an active component of the traditional Chinese herb olea europaea l. and has been found to exhibit a significant lipid-lowering effect; however, its direct molecular target is still unknown, which limits its clinical application and the possible structure modification to improve its beneficial functions. In this regard, we carried out the present study to identify potential hepatic targets of OA to mediate its lipid-lowering effect. We found that both acute and chronic OA treatments reduced serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol, and decreased hepatic expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1β (PGC-1β), which is an important regulator in maintaining hepatic lipid homeostasis, and its downstream target genes...
November 30, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902747/joint-profiling-of-mirnas-and-mrnas-reveals-mirna-mediated-gene-regulation-in-the-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipig-obesity-model
#13
Caroline M Junker Mentzel, Ferhat Alkan, Helle Keinicke, Mette J Jacobsen, Jan Gorodkin, Merete Fredholm, Susanna Cirera
Obesity and its comorbidities are an increasing challenge for both affected individuals and health care systems, worldwide. In obese individuals, perturbation of expression of both protein-coding genes and microRNAs (miRNA) are seen in obesity-relevant tissues (i.e. adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle). miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules which have important regulatory roles in a wide range of biological processes, including obesity. Rodents are widely used animal models for human diseases including obesity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900050/molecular-alterations-in-the-carcinogenesis-and-progression-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-tumor-factors-and-background-liver-factors
#14
Yoshikuni Inokawa, Kenichi Inaoka, Fuminori Sonohara, Masamichi Hayashi, Mitsuro Kanda, Shuji Nomoto
Although hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is associated with poor prognosis worldwide, the molecular mechanisms underlying the carcinogenesis and progression of this disease remain unclear. Several tumor characteristics have previously been demonstrated to be prognostic factors of survival following hepatic resection, or the recurrence of HCC or other types of cancer. Comparisons of normal tissues and HCC tumor tissues have revealed the presence of numerous molecular alterations in HCC, including genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, particularly mutations in certain genes and DNA methylation in the promoter regions of tumor-suppressor genes...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899485/circulating-microrna-122-is-associated-with-the-risk-of-new-onset-metabolic-syndrome-and-type-2-diabetes
#15
Peter Willeit, Philipp Skroblin, Alexander R Moschen, Xiaoke Yin, Dorothee Kaudewitz, Anna Zampetaki, Temo Barwari, Meredith Whitehead, Cristina M Ramírez, Leigh Goedeke, Noemi Rotllan, Enzo Bonora, Alun D Hughes, Peter Santer, Carlos Fernández-Hernando, Herbert Tilg, Johann Willeit, Stefan Kiechl, Manuel Mayr
MicroRNA-122 (miR-122) is abundant in the liver and involved in lipid homeostasis, but its relevance to the long-term risk of developing metabolic disorders is unknown. We therefore measured circulating miR-122 in the prospective population-based Bruneck Study (n=810; survey year: 1995). Circulating miR-122 was associated with prevalent insulin resistance, obesity, metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes, and an adverse lipid profile. Among 92 plasma proteins and 135 lipid subspecies quantified with mass spectrometry, it correlated inversely with zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein and positively with afamin, complement-factor H, VLDL-associated apolipoproteins, and lipid subspecies containing monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids...
November 29, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899092/dysregulation-of-hepatic-microrna-expression-profiles-with-clonorchis-sinensis-infection
#16
Su Han, Qiaoran Tang, Xi Lu, Rui Chen, Yihong Li, Jing Shu, Xiaoli Zhang, Jianping Cao
BACKGROUND: Clonorchiasis remains an important zoonotic parasitic disease worldwide. The molecular mechanisms of host-parasite interaction are not fully understood. Non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) are considered to be key regulators in parasitic diseases. The regulation of miRNAs and host micro-environment may be involved in clonorchiasis, and require further investigation. METHODS: MiRNA microarray technology and bioinformatic analysis were used to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of host miRNA and to compare miRNA expression profiles in the liver tissues of control and Clonorchis sinensis (C...
November 30, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898025/identification-and-characterization-of-micrornas-in-the-liver-of-blunt-snout-bream-megalobrama-amblycephala-infected-by-aeromonas-hydrophila
#17
Lei Cui, Hongtao Hu, Wei Wei, Weimin Wang, Hong Liu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that play key roles in regulation of various biological processes. In order to better understand the biological significance of miRNAs in the context of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Megalobrama amblycephala, small RNA libraries obtained from fish liver at 0 (non-infection), 4, and 24 h post infection (poi) were sequenced using Illumina deep sequencing technology. A total of 11,244,207, 9,212,958, and 7,939,157 clean reads were obtained from these three RNA libraries, respectively...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895772/hotair-a-long-non-coding-rna-driver-of-malignancy-whose-expression-is-activated-by-foxc1-negatively-regulates-mirna-1-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#18
Dong-Na Su, Shi-Pin Wu, Hong-Tao Chen, Jin-Hua He
Evidence is rapidly accumulating that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in human tumorigenesis and are dysregulated in multiple cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). lncRNAs can regulate essential pathways that contribute to tumor initiation and progression with tissue specificity, which suggests that lncRNAs may be valuable biomarkers and therapeutic targets. HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) has previously been demonstrated to be an oncogene and a negative prognostic factor in a variety of cancers; however, the factors that contribute to the upregulation of HOTAIR and the interaction between HOTAIR and microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are largely unknown...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895756/role-of-microrna-4458-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#19
Lidao Bao, Linlin Wang, Guomin Wei, Yuehong Wang, Gerile Wuyun, Agula Bo
Incidence and progression of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a multi-factor, multi-step process. The present study investigated the association between the expression level of microRNA (miR)-4458 in NSCLC and paracarcinoma liver tissues and survival rates, and studied the biological functions of miR-4458 at the cellular and protein level. NSCLC and paracarcinoma tissues were sequenced using a miR expression chip. The association between miR-4458 expression and tumor-node-metastasis staging, total survival rate and relapse-free survival rate was analyzed...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895094/crosstalk-between-microrna-122-and-fox-family-genes-in-hepg2-cells
#20
Subodh Kumar, Ankita Batra, Shruthi Kanthaje, Sujata Ghosh, Anuradha Chakraborti
MicroRNA-122 (miR-122) is liver specific and plays an important role in physiology as well as diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Downregulation of miR-122 in HCC modulates apoptosis. Similarly, the putative targets of miR-122, the forkhead box (FOX) family genes also play an important role in the regulation of apoptosis. Hence, an interplay between miR-122 and FOX family genes has been explored in this study. Initially, an augmentation of apoptosis was noticed in HepG2 cells after transfection with miR-122...
November 28, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
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