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Global child health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461681/united-states-model-midwifery-legislation-and-regulation-development-of-a-consensus-document
#1
Holly Powell Kennedy, Jo Anne Myers-Ciecko, Katherine Camacho Carr, Ginger Breedlove, Tanya Bailey, Marinah V Farrell, Mary Lawlor, Ida Darragh
INTRODUCTION: Midwifery is defined and regulated across all 50 United States. However, states' regulations vary markedly, creating confusion for policy makers and consumers, and can limit services to women. In 2011, the International Confederation of Midwives released Global Standards for Midwifery Education, Regulation, and Association, providing guidance for international midwifery for the first time. US organizations representing midwifery education, regulation, and professional associations (US MERA) agreed to work together on common goals...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459242/correlates-of-disclosure-of-sexual-violence-among-kenyan-youth
#2
Courtney L Boudreau, Howard Kress, Roger W Rochat, Kathryn M Yount
INTRODUCTION: Sexual violence (SV) against children is a global health and human rights issue that can have short and long-term consequences for health and wellbeing. Disclosing SV increases the likelihood that children can access health and protective services and receive psychosocial support. Research in high-income countries has found that child SV survivors are more likely to disclose when they are girls/women, experience fewer SV events, and experience SV perpetrated by a stranger...
February 16, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457208/children-deserve-smoke-free-world
#3
REVIEW
R Remesh Kumar, P R Jayakumar, R Krishna Mohan
Tobacco smoke, active or passive exposure was the major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the world during twentieth century and will continue to be the same in the twenty-first century also if the current trends continue. Both active and passive smoking are having significance in relation to child health. Exposure starts antenatally from placenta to the fetus and later phases through passive exposure to experimental and regular smoking and ultimately addiction and habitual smoking. Evidences are in favour of causal relationship with intrauterine growth restriction, sudden infant death syndrome, decreased pulmonary function, increased risk for respiratory tract infection, otitis media, wheeze, asthma, neurobehavioral disorders, cleft palate and triggering pathogenesis of fetal and childhood onset of adult diseases, especially pulmonary and cardio vascular diseases...
February 19, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457204/prevention-and-management-of-childhood-obesity
#4
Aashima Dabas, Anju Seth
Childhood obesity has been recognized as a global pandemic. Preventive strategies have proven to be the most effective public health intervention in curbing this pandemic. A multi-component approach involving dietary modification and advocacy for a healthy lifestyle comprising of regular physical activity, minimizing screen time and behavioral interventions have been found beneficial in preventing obesity. A life-cycle approach has been recommended where preventive interventions go as far back as affecting maternal, fetal and early childhood nutrition and lifestyle...
February 19, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457055/tuberculin-skin-test-conversion-and-primary-progressive-tuberculosis-disease-in-the-first-5-years-of-life-a-birth-cohort-study-from-cape-town-south-africa
#5
Leonardo Martinez, David M le Roux, Whitney Barnett, Attie Stadler, Mark P Nicol, Heather J Zar
Background: Tuberculosis is a leading cause of global childhood mortality. However, the epidemiology and burden of tuberculosis in infancy is not well understood. We aimed to investigate tuberculin skin test conversion and tuberculosis in the Drakenstein Child Health study, a South African birth cohort in a community in which tuberculosis incidence is hyperendemic. Methods: In this prospective birth cohort study, we enrolled pregnant women older than 18 years who were between 20 and 28 weeks' gestation and who were attending antenatal care in a peri-urban, impoverished South African setting...
January 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453304/protocol-investigating-the-clinical-utility-of-an-objective-measure-of-attention-impulsivity-and-activity-qbtest-for-optimising-medication-management-in-children-and-young-people-with-adhd-qbtest-utility-for-optimising-treatment-in-adhd-quota-a-feasibility
#6
Charlotte L Hall, Marilyn James, Sue Brown, Jennifer L Martin, Nikki Brown, Kim Selby, Julie Clarke, Hena Vijayan, Boliang Guo, Kapil Sayal, Chris Hollis, Madeleine J Groom
INTRODUCTION: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. To improve outcomes, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence ADHD guidelines recommend regular monitoring of symptoms when children commence medication. However, research suggests that routine monitoring rarely happens, and clinicians often rely on subjective information such as reports from parents and teachers to ascertain improvement...
February 15, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439599/how-is-children-s-weight-status-assessed-for-early-identification-of-overweight-and-obesity-narrative-review-of-programs-for-weight-status-assessment
#7
Kamila Davidson, Helen Vidgen, Elizabeth Denney-Wilson, Lynne Daniels
Assessment of a child's weight status is the first step in the management of childhood overweight and obesity. We reviewed routine assessment programs to inform early and routine identification of childhood overweight and obesity to address this global health issue. Twelve electronic databases were searched (Scopus, Web of Science, Wiley, ScienceDirect, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, PsycEXTRA, CINAHL, Primary Search, MEDLINE, ERIC, Academic Search Elite) for universal programs for weight status assessment of children aged 4-12 in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development - countries, which included more than one assessment and parents receiving feedback...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Health Care: for Professionals Working with Children in the Hospital and Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438396/children-s-peer-violence-perpetration-and-victimization-prevalence-and-associated-factors-among-school-children-in-afghanistan
#8
Julienne Corboz, Osman Hemat, Wahid Siddiq, Rachel Jewkes
BACKGROUND: Child peer violence is a global problem and seriously impacts children's physical and psychological health, and their education outcomes. There are few research studies on children's peer violence available in South Asian countries, particularly in Afghanistan. This paper describes the prevalence of children's peer violence perpetration and victimization and associated factors among school children in Afghanistan. METHODS: A total of 770 children were recruited into a baseline study conducted as part of an intervention evaluation in 11 schools (seven girls' and four boys' schools)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434350/the-factors-driving-evolved-herbicide-resistance-at-a-national-scale
#9
Helen L Hicks, David Comont, Shaun R Coutts, Laura Crook, Richard Hull, Ken Norris, Paul Neve, Dylan Z Childs, Robert P Freckleton
Repeated use of xenobiotic chemicals has selected for the rapid evolution of resistance, threatening health and food security at a global scale. Strategies for preventing the evolution of resistance include cycling and mixtures of chemicals and diversification of management. We currently lack large-scale studies that evaluate the efficacy of these different strategies for minimizing the evolution of resistance. Here we use a national-scale data set of occurrence of the weed Alopecurus myosuroides (black-grass) in the United Kingdom to address this...
February 12, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433665/global-disability-adjusted-life-year-estimates-of-long-term-health-burden-and-undernutrition-attributable-to-diarrhoeal-diseases-in-children-younger-than-5-years
#10
Christopher Troeger, Danny V Colombara, Puja C Rao, Ibrahim A Khalil, Alexandria Brown, Thomas G Brewer, Richard L Guerrant, Eric R Houpt, Karen L Kotloff, Kavita Misra, William A Petri, James Platts-Mills, Mark S Riddle, Scott J Swartz, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Robert C Reiner, Simon I Hay, Ali H Mokdad
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea is a leading cause of death and illness globally among children younger than 5 years. Mortality and short-term morbidity cause substantial burden of disease but probably underestimate the true effect of diarrhoea on population health. This underestimation is because diarrhoeal diseases can negatively affect early childhood growth, probably through enteric dysfunction and impaired uptake of macronutrients and micronutrients. We attempt to quantify the long-term sequelae associated with childhood growth impairment due to diarrhoea...
March 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430758/breaking-the-silence-a-new-story-of-nursing
#11
EDITORIAL
Jane Salvage, Barbara Stilwell
We live in challenging times, for the planet, for our societies and for the health of nations. The challenges have major implications for nurses - a global profession of some 23 million women and men - from caring for older people to halting infectious disease epidemics, reducing mother and child deaths and tackling and mitigating the health effects of climate change. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427768/cost-savings-through-implementation-of-an-integrated-home-based-record-a-case-study-in%C3%A2-vietnam
#12
Hirotsugu Aiga, Tuan Kiet Pham Huy, Vinh Duc Nguyen
OBJECTIVES: In Vietnam, there are three major home-based records (HBRs) for maternal and child health (MCH) that have been already nationally scaled up, i.e., Maternal and Child Health Handbook (MCH Handbook), Child Vaccination Handbook, and Child Growth Monitoring Chart. The MCH Handbook covers all the essential recording items that are included in the other two. This overlapping of recording items between the HBRs is likely to result in inefficient use of both financial and human resources...
February 7, 2018: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423186/assessment-of-health-facility-capacity-to-provide-newborn-care-in-bangladesh-haiti-malawi-senegal-and-tanzania
#13
Rebecca Winter, Jennifer Yourkavitch, Wenjuan Wang, Lindsay Mallick
Background: Despite the importance of health facility capacity to provide comprehensive care, the most widely used indicators for global monitoring of maternal and child health remain contact measures which assess women's use of services only and not the capacity of health facilities to provide those services; there is a gap in monitoring health facilities' capacity to provide newborn care services in low and middle income countries. Methods: In this study we demonstrate a measurable framework for assessing health facility capacity to provide newborn care using open access, nationally-representative Service Provision Assessment (SPA) data from the Demographic Health Surveys Program...
December 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423179/measuring-postnatal-care-contacts-for-mothers-and-newborns-an-analysis-of-data-from-the-mics-and-dhs-surveys
#14
Agbessi Amouzou, Vrinda Mehra, Liliana Carvajal-Aguirre, Shane M Khan, Deborah Sitrin, Lara Me Vaz
Background: The postnatal period represents a vulnerable phase for mothers and newborns where both face increased risk of morbidity and death. WHO recommends postnatal care (PNC) for mothers and newborns to include a first contact within 24 hours following the birth of the child. However, measuring coverage of PNC in household surveys has been variable over time. The two largest household survey programs in low and middle-income countries, the UNICEF-supported Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and USAID-funded Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), now include modules that capture these measures...
December 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422205/the-intergrowth-21st-fetal-growth-standards-toward-the-global-integration-of-pregnancy-and-pediatric-care
#15
REVIEW
Aris T Papageorghiou, Stephen H Kennedy, Laurent J Salomon, Douglas G Altman, Eric O Ohuma, William Stones, Michael G Gravett, Fernando C Barros, Cesar Victora, Manorama Purwar, Yasmin Jaffer, Julia A Noble, Enrico Bertino, Ruyan Pang, Leila Cheikh Ismail, Ann Lambert, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, José Villar
The purpose of the INTERGROWTH-21st project was to develop international, prescriptive standards for fetal growth assessed by ultrasound and fundal height, preterm postnatal growth, newborn size and body composition, maternal weight gain, and infant development at the age of 2 years. Hence, we have produced, based on World Health Organization recommendations, the first comprehensive set of international standards of optimal fetal and newborn growth that perfectly match the existing World Health Organization child growth standards...
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415750/acute-malnutrition-among-children-aged-6-59%C3%A2-months-of-the-nomadic-population-in-hadaleala-district-afar-region-northeast-ethiopia
#16
Zemichael Gizaw, Wondwoson Woldu, Bikes Destaw Bitew
BACKGROUND: Acute malnutrition to be a major health burden in the world, particularly in the developing world. Acute malnutrition is associated with more than one third of the global disease burden for children. Malnourished children are physically, emotionally and intellectually less productive and suffer more from chronic illnesses and disabilities. The nature, magnitude and determinants of acute malnutrition are determined among the general populations; however, there is a lack of evidence in the nomadic communities...
February 7, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415551/caesarean-section-deliveries-experiences-of-mothers-of-midwifery-care-at-a-public-hospital-in-nelson-mandela-bay
#17
Thobeka P Jikijela, Sindiwe James, Balandeli S I Sonti
BACKGROUND: The rate of caesarean section deliveries has increased globally and mothers are faced with challenges of postoperative recovery and caring thereof. Midwives have a duty to assist these mothers to self-care. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to explore and describe experiences of post-caesarean section delivered mothers of midwifery care at a public hospital in Nelson Mandela Bay. METHODS: A qualitative, descriptive and explorative research design was used in the study...
January 30, 2018: Curationis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415480/predictors-of-dietary-energy-density-among-preschool-aged-children
#18
Nilmani N T Fernando, Karen J Campbell, Sarah A McNaughton, Miaobing Zheng, Kathleen E Lacy
Childhood obesity is a global problem with many contributing factors including dietary energy density (DED). This paper aims to investigate potential predictors of DED among preschool aged children in Victoria, Australia. Secondary analysis of longitudinal data for 209 mother-child pairs from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial was conducted. Data for predictors (maternal child feeding and nutrition knowledge, maternal dietary intake, home food availability, socioeconomic status) were obtained through questionnaires completed by first-time mothers when children were aged 4 or 18 months...
February 6, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415240/the-financing-gaps-framework-using-need-potential-spending-and-expected-spending-to-allocate-development-assistance-for-health
#19
Annie Haakenstad, Tara Templin, Stephen Lim, Jesse B Bump, Joseph Dieleman
As growth in development assistance for health levels off, development assistance partners must make allocation decisions within tighter budget constraints. Furthermore, with the advent of comprehensive and comparable burden of disease and health financing estimates, empirical evidence can increasingly be used to direct funding to those most in need. In our 'financing gaps framework', we propose a new approach for harnessing information to make decisions about health aid. The framework was designed to be forward-looking, goal-oriented, versatile and customizable to a range of organizational contexts and health aims...
February 1, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412459/shelf-to-health-does-product-innovation-change-national-estimates-of-dietary-impacts
#20
Christopher A Taylor, Rosanna P Watowicz, Colleen K Spees, Neal H Hooker
This paper presents a simulation process to augment nutrition surveillance in the United States which incorporates product innovation data. Traditional point-estimates of nutritional quality in a food category are compared to those based on distributions of nutrient compositions using product-level variability seen in the market. Nationally representative consumption patterns provide dietary intakes. Cookies are used as an example food category. Nutrient composition data from Global New Product Database (GNPD) for 5259 cookies launched 2005 to 2012 were matched to dietary intakes from 2005 to 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) over the 2 y cycles of NHANES for 8284 cookie consumers...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Food Science
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