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Global child health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691876/waking-up-too-early-the-consequences-of-preterm-birth-on-sleep-development
#1
Laura Bennet, David W Walker, Rosemary S C Horne
Good quality sleep of sufficient duration is vital for optimal physiological function and our health. Sleep deprivation is associated with impaired neurocognitive function and emotional control, and increases the risk for cardiometabolic diseases, obesity and cancer. Sleep develops during fetal life with the emergence of a recognisable pattern of sleep states in the preterm fetus associated with the development, maturation, and connectivity within neural networks in the brain. Despite the physiological importance of sleep, surprisingly little is known about how sleep develops in individuals born preterm...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688037/cytotoxicity-genotoxicity-transplacental-transfer-and-tissue-disposition-in-pregnant-rats-mediated-by-nanoparticles-the-case-of-magnetic-core-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles
#2
Suyene Rocha Pinto, Edward Helal-Neto, Francisco Paumgartten, Israel Felzenswalb, Carlos Fernando Araujo-Lima, Ramón Martínez-Máñez, Ralph Santos-Oliveira
Whether in the cosmetic or as therapeutic, the use of nanoparticles has been increasing and taking on global proportion. However, there are few studies about the physical potential of long-term use or use in special conditions such as chronic, AIDS, pregnant women and other special health circumstances. In this context, the study of the mutagenicity and the transplacental passage represents an important and reliable model for the primary evaluation of potential health risks, especially maternal and child health...
April 24, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685129/factors-associated-with-caesarean-deliveries-among-child-bearing-women-in-pakistan-secondary-analysis-of-data-from-the-demographic-and-health-survey-2012-13
#3
Aaisha Amjad, Uzair Amjad, Rubeena Zakar, Ahmed Usman, Muhammad Zakria Zakar, Florian Fischer
BACKGROUND: The increasing rate of caesarean deliveries has become a serious concern for public health experts globally. Various medical and non-medical factors, such as maternal socio-demographics, are found to be responsible for this upsurge. Like in other countries, the rate of caesarean sections has increased in Pakistan as well. Therefore, there is a need to investigate the factors behind this increase. This study aims to assess the determinants associated with caesarean deliveries among child-bearing women aged 15-49 years in Pakistan...
April 23, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684650/the-social-network-of-international-health-aid
#4
Lu Han, Mathias Koenig-Archibugi, Tore Opsahl
International development assistance for health generates an emergent social network in which policy makers in recipient countries are connected to numerous bilateral and multilateral aid agencies and to other aid recipients. Ties in this global network are channels for the transmission of knowledge, norms and influence in addition to material resources, and policy makers in centrally situated governments receive information faster and are exposed to a more diverse range of sources and perspectives. Since diversity of perspectives improves problem-solving capacity, the structural position of aid-receiving governments in the health aid network can affect the health outcomes that those governments are able to attain...
April 7, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678130/cumulative-risk-effect-of-household-dysfunction-for-child-maltreatment-after-intensive-intervention-of-the-child-protection-system-in-japan-a-longitudinal-analysis
#5
Hirotsuna Ohashi, Ichiro Wada, Yui Yamaoka, Ryoko Nakajima-Yamaguchi, Yasukazu Ogai, Nobuaki Morita
BACKGROUND: Building an effective casework system for child maltreatment is a global issue. We estimated the effect of household dysfunction (i.e., interparental violence, caregiver mental health problems, and caregiver substance abuse) on child maltreatment to understand how to advance the current framework of child welfare. METHODS: The sample comprised 759 children (1- to 17-year-old; mean age was 10.6; 404 boys and 355 girls) placed in temporary custody units (one of the strongest intervention of the Japanese child protection system)...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678100/the-presence-of-ehealth-support-for-childhood-obesity-guidance
#6
Shalmali Deshpande, Michael J Rigby, Mitch Blair
A rising global obesity epidemic in children has implications for an increase in other chronic diseases and a negative social impact, which should not be ignored. A useful resource in this context could be eHealth due to its popularity amongst children. Additionally, telephone guidance is also considered a powerful health promotion tool. The aim of this study was to investigate the availability of mobile applications (apps), websites, helplines, and advice lines for child obesity guidance, in European countries...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665809/generating-evidence-for-health-policy-in-challenging-settings-lessons-learned-from-four-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-implementation-research-studies-in-nigeria
#7
Nadia A Sam-Agudu, Muktar H Aliyu, Olusegun A Adeyemi, Frank Oronsaye, Bolanle Oyeledun, Amaka G Ogidi, Echezona E Ezeanolue
BACKGROUND: Implementation research (IR) facilitates health systems strengthening and optimal patient outcomes by generating evidence for scale-up of efficacious strategies in context. Thus, difficulties in generating IR evidence, particularly in limited-resource settings with wide disease prevention and treatment gaps, need to be anticipated and addressed. Nigeria is a priority country for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). This paper analyses the experiences of four PMTCT IR studies in Nigeria, and proffers solutions to major challenges encountered during implementation...
April 17, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665504/qualitative-evaluation-of-mental-health-training-of-auxiliary-nurse-midwives-in-rural-nepal
#8
Preeti K Mahato, Edwin van Teijlingen, Padam Simkhada, Catherine Angell, Jillian Ireland
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mental illness is increasingly recognized as a global health problem. However, in many countries, including Nepal, it is difficult to talk about mental health problems due to the stigma associated with it. Hence a training programme was developed to train auxiliary nurse midwives, who otherwise are not trained in mental health as part of their pre-registration training in rural Nepal, on issues related to maternal mental health. After the training programme a selection of auxiliary nurse midwives were interviewed to establish their views on the training, its usefulness and ways to improve it...
April 2, 2018: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665122/impact-of-untreated-dental-caries-on-the-quality-of-life-of-brazilian-children-population-based-study
#9
Sâmara Luciana de Andrade Lima, Caroline Chavier Pereira Santana, Marco Aurélio Benini Paschoal, Saul Martins Paiva, Meire Coelho Ferreira
BACKGROUND: The assessment of oral health should consider clinical and biopsychosocial aspects. AIM: To evaluate the impact of untreated dental caries on the quality of life of children. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 647 Brazilian children. The Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ8-10 ) and the 'oral health' global indicator were administered to the children and used as the outcomes. Parents answered a general questionnaire, and oral clinical examinations were performed...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664972/the-impact-of-social-and-psychological-consequences-of-disease-on-judgments-of-disease-severity-an-experimental-study
#10
Nicholas B King, Sam Harper, Meredith Young, Sarah C Berry, Kristin Voigt
BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) project systematically assesses mortality, healthy life expectancy, and disability across 195 countries and territories, using the disability-adjusted life year (DALY). Disability weights in the DALY are based upon surveys that ask users to rate health states based on lay descriptions. We conducted an experimental study to examine whether the inclusion or removal of psychological, social, or familial implications from a health state description might affect individual judgments about disease severity, and thus relative disability weights...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649939/participation-patterns-of-preschool-children-with-intellectual-developmental-disabilities
#11
Yafit Gilboa, Reut Fuchs
We aim to examine the pattern of participation of children with intellectual developmental disabilities (IDD) or global developmental delay (GDD) in comparison with typically developing preschoolers. In addition, to identify environmental and personal factors associated with their participation, 20 children with mild to moderate GDD or IDD, and 24 age- and gender-matched controls, aged 3 to 6 years, were assessed using the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation and the Environmental Restriction Questionnaire...
April 1, 2018: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644503/inequalities-in-child-immunization-coverage-in-ghana-evidence-from-a-decomposition-analysis
#12
Derek Asuman, Charles Godfred Ackah, Ulrika Enemark
Childhood vaccination has been promoted as a global intervention aimed at improving child survival and health, through the reduction of vaccine preventable deaths. However, there exist significant inequalities in achieving universal coverage of child vaccination among and within countries. In this paper, we examine rural-urban inequalities in child immunizations in Ghana. Using data from the recent two waves of the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, we examine the probability that a child between 12 and 59 months receives the required vaccinations and proceed to decompose the sources of inequalities in the probability of full immunization between rural and urban areas...
April 11, 2018: Health Economics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644191/current-situation-of-leprosy-in-india-and-its-future-implications
#13
REVIEW
P Narasimha Rao, Sujai Suneetha
The global leprosy situation has changed significantly over the last four decades after the introduction of multidrug therapy (MDT) in 1982 with a reduction in prevalence from over 5 million cases in the mid-1980s to less than 200,000 at the end of 2016. The programme in India also saw a reduction from a prevalence rate of 57.8/10,000 in 1983 to less than 1/10,000 by the end of 2005 when India declared to have reached the World Health Organization (WHO) target of elimination as a public health problem. Post 2005, major changes in the programme were made by the National leprosy eradication programme (NLEP) and the global leprosy programme, which may have affected the new case detection (NCD), disability, and child leprosy trends, which continue to show no appreciable regression...
March 2018: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629670/tuberculin-conversion-and-tuberculosis-disease-in-infants-and-young-children-from-the-drakenstein-child-health-study-a-call-to-action
#14
L Martinez, H J Zar
Although tuberculosis (TB) is widely acknowledged as a major driver of global morbidity and mortality in adults, the disease's impact on children has been underappreciated. Global estimates of mortality among children aged <5 years, derived largely from vital registration and verbal autopsy records, have excluded paediatric TB as a contributing cause.
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625768/human-papillomavirus-vaccine-acceptability-and-decision-making-among-adolescent-boys-and-parents-a-meta-ethnography-of-qualitative-studies
#15
REVIEW
Ashley Lacombe-Duncan, Peter A Newman, Philip Baiden
OBJECTIVE: Genital warts and human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers in men can be substantially reduced through HPV vaccination; yet, globally, HPV vaccine uptake among boys remains low. This meta-ethnography synthesizes qualitative studies to understand, in-depth, HPV vaccine acceptability and decision-making among adolescent boys and/or their parents. METHODS: A systematic search identified qualitative studies examining HPV vaccines from the perspectives of boys and/or boys' parents...
April 3, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622026/evidence-of-the-factors-that-influence-the-utilisation-of-kangaroo-mother-care-by-parents-with-low-birth-weight-infants-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-lmics-a-scoping-review-protocol
#16
Christina T Mathias, Solange Mianda, Themba G Ginindza
BACKGROUND: The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3 emphasises on reducing neonatal deaths caused by low birth weight (LBW) complications by the implementation and utilisation of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite the empirical evidence of KMC optimising low-birth-weight infants' (LBWIs') survival, its advantages and the LMICs implementing the service, studies have shown that LBW infant deaths occurring in LMICs are largely contributing to global child mortality...
April 5, 2018: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615441/a-discrete-choice-experiment-to-determine-facility-based-delivery-services-desired-by-women-and-men-in-rural-ethiopia
#17
Nancy K Beam, Gezehegn Bekele Dadi, Sally H Rankin, Sandra Weiss, Bruce Cooper, Lisa M Thompson
OBJECTIVES: Despite global efforts to increase facility-based delivery (FBD), 90% of women in rural Ethiopia deliver at home without a skilled birth attendant. Men have an important role in increasing FBD due to their decision-making power, but this is largely unexplored. This study aimed to determine the FBD care attributes preferred by women and men, and whether poverty or household decision-making are associated with choice to deliver in a facility. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a cross-sectional discrete choice experiment in 109 randomly selected households in rural Ethiopia in September-October 2015...
April 3, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615069/exploring-perceptions-of-group-antenatal-care-in-urban-india-results-of-a-feasibility-study
#18
R Rima Jolivet, Bella Vasant Uttekar, Meaghan O'Connor, Kanchan Lakhwani, Jigyasa Sharma, Mary Nell Wegner
BACKGROUND: Making high-quality health care available to all women during pregnancy is a critical strategy for improving perinatal outcomes for mothers and babies everywhere. Research from high-income countries suggests that antenatal care delivered in a group may be an effective way to improve the provision, experiences, and outcomes of care for pregnant women and newborns. A number of researchers and programmers are adapting group antenatal care (ANC) models for use in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), but the evidence base from these settings is limited and no studies to date have assessed the feasibility and acceptability of group ANC in India...
April 3, 2018: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608141/senescent-cells-a-therapeutic-target-for-cardiovascular-disease
#19
Bennett G Childs, Hu Li, Jan M van Deursen
Cellular senescence, a major tumor-suppressive cell fate, has emerged from humble beginnings as an in vitro phenomenon into recognition as a fundamental mechanism of aging. In the process, senescent cells have attracted attention as a therapeutic target for age-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Given the aging global population and the inadequacy of current medical management, attenuating the health care burden of CVD would be transformative to clinical practice...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602703/pertussis-in-africa-findings-and-recommendations-of-the-global-pertussis-initiative-gpi
#20
REVIEW
Rudzani Muloiwa, Nicole Wolter, Ezekiel Mupere, Tina Tan, A J Chitkara, Kevin D Forsyth, Carl-Heinz Wirsing von König, Gregory Hussey
Pertussis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in infants and young children, and despite the availability of vaccines and pertinent national and international guidelines. The disease burden is more severe in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), especially in the African continent. Pertussis is more prevalent among young infants in Africa. Poor or no pertussis surveillance, lack of disease awareness, diagnostic limitations, and competing health priorities are considered key contributory factors for this high pertussis burden in Africa...
March 27, 2018: Vaccine
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