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Global child health

Betty S Lai, Ann-Margaret Esnard, Sarah R Lowe, Lori Peek
This article draws on experiences and lessons from global disasters and utilizes the United Nations Comprehensive School Safety Framework to highlight the necessary role of safe schools in protecting children, as well as adult staff, from the immediate threats and long-term implications of disasters. Specifically, we focus on three well-established pillars of school safety: Pillar I: Safe Learning Facilities; Pillar II: Disaster Management; and Pillar III: Risk Reduction and Resilience Education. In addition, we propose a potential fourth pillar, which underscores the function of schools in postdisaster mental health assessment and intervention for children...
December 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Jing Xue, Sarah A Schoenrock, William Valdar, Lisa M Tarantino, Folami Y Ideraabdullah
BACKGROUND: Environmental perturbation of epigenetic mechanisms is linked to a growing number of diseases. Characterizing the role environmental factors play in modifying the epigenome is important for disease etiology. Vitamin D is an essential nutrient affecting brain, bone, heart, immune and reproductive health. Vitamin D insufficiency is a global issue, and the role in maternal and child health remains under investigation. METHODS: We used Collaborative Cross (CC) inbred mice to characterize the effect of maternal vitamin D depletion on offspring phenotypic and epigenetic outcomes at imprinted domains (H19/Igf2, Snrpn, Dlk1/Gtl2, and Grb10) in the soma (liver) and germline (sperm)...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
Amare Deribew, John Ojal, Boniface Karia, Evasius Bauni, Mark Oteinde
BACKGROUND: Several low and middle-income countries (LMIC) use Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and/or Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) to monitor the health of their population. The level and trends of under-five mortality rates could be different in the HDSS sites compared to the DHS reports. In this study, we investigated the change in under-five mortality rates overtime in the HDSS sites and the corresponding DHS reports in eight countries and 13 sites. METHODS: Under-five mortality rates in the HDSS sites were determined using number of under-five deaths (numerator) and live births (denominator)...
October 24, 2016: BMC Public Health
Naomi Priest, Laura Thompson, Tamara Mackean, Alison Baker, Elizabeth Waters
OBJECTIVE: Australian Indigenous children experience some of the most substantial health inequalities globally. In this context, research regarding their health and well-being has overemphasised physical illnesses with limited exploration of a diverse range of dimensions and determinants, particularly those based on Indigenous holistic understandings of health and well-being. This deficit-based approach has thus missed many strengths and assets of Indigenous children. This research aimed to gain insight into the perspectives of Indigenous children about their health and well-being in an urban setting in Australia...
October 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Miia Tuominen, Anne Kaljonen, Pia Ahonen, Juha Mäkinen, Päivi Rautava
INTRODUCTION: Primary maternity care services are globally provided according to various organisational models. Two models are common in Finland: a maternity health clinic and an integrated maternity and child health clinic. The aim of this study was to clarify whether there is a relation between the organisational model of the maternity health clinics and the utilisation of maternity care services, and certain maternal and perinatal health outcomes. METHODS: A comparative, register-based cross-sectional design was used...
July 8, 2016: International Journal of Integrated Care
Kamal Niaz, Mohammad Abdollahi
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a deadly flavivirus that has spread from Africa to Asia and European countries. The virus is associated with other viruses in the same genus or family, transmitted by the same mosquito species with known history of fatality. A sudden increase in the rate of infection from ZIKV has made it a global health concern, which necessitates close symptom monitoring, enhancing treatment options, and vaccine production. This paper reviewed current reports on birth defects associated with ZIKV, mode of transmission, body fluids containing the virus, diagnosis , possible preventive measures or treatments, and vaccine development...
October 18, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Martin Kuete, HongFang Yuan, Aude Laure Tchoua Kemayou, Emmanuel Ancel Songo, Fan Yang, XiuLan Ma, ChengLiang Xiong, HuiPing Zhang
BACKGROUND: Integration of family planning services (FPS) into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care for HIV-infected women is an important aspect of the global prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) strategy. We assessed the integration of FPS into routine care of HIV-infected mothers by evaluating the uptake and barriers of contraception and PMTCT services. METHODS: We conducted an interventional study using the interrupted time series approach in the health care facilities located in Yaounde, Cameroon...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
Omar Ali Juma, Zachary Obinna Enumah, Hannah Wheatley, Mohamed Yunus Rafiq, Seif Shekalaghe, Ali Ali, Shishira Mgonia, Salim Abdulla
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition has long been associated with poverty, poor diet and inadequate access to health care, and it remains a key global health issue that both stems from and contributes to ill-health, with 50 % of childhood deaths due to underlying undernutrition. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition among children under-five seen at Bagamoyo District Hospital (BDH) and three rural health facilities ranging between 25 and 55 km from Bagamoyo: Kiwangwa, Fukayosi, and Yombo...
October 19, 2016: BMC Public Health
Hiral Shah, Emiliano Albanese, Cynthia Duggan, Igor Rudan, Kenneth M Langa, Maria C Carrillo, Kit Yee Chan, Yves Joanette, Martin Prince, Martin Rossor, Shekhar Saxena, Heather M Snyder, Reisa Sperling, Mathew Varghese, Huali Wang, Marc Wortmann, Tarun Dua
At the First WHO Ministerial Conference on Global Action Against Dementia in March, 2015, 160 delegates, including representatives from 80 WHO Member States and four UN agencies, agreed on a call for action to reduce the global burden of dementia by fostering a collective effort to advance research. To drive this effort, we completed a globally representative research prioritisation exercise using an adapted version of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative method. We elicited 863 research questions from 201 participants and consolidated these questions into 59 thematic research avenues, which were scored anonymously by 162 researchers and stakeholders from 39 countries according to five criteria...
November 2016: Lancet Neurology
Diana J Whalen, Andy C Belden, Rebecca Tillman, Deanna M Barch, Joan L Luby
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present report was to describe the longitudinal trajectories of physical health beginning during preschool and continuing into early adolescence; explore whether these trajectories were predicted by psychosocial adversity, family income-to-needs ratio, and psychiatric disorders occurring during the preschool period; and determine whether psychiatric disorders mediated these relations. METHODS: Participants included 296 children participating in a longitudinal study of early-onset psychopathology spanning 10 years...
October 4, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Michelle M Martel, Pedro M Pan, Maurício S Hoffmann, Ary Gadelha, Maria C do Rosário, Jair J Mari, Gisele G Manfro, Eurípedes C Miguel, Tomás Paus, Rodrigo A Bressan, Luis A Rohde, Giovanni A Salum
High rates of comorbidities and poor validity of disorder diagnostic criteria for mental disorders hamper advances in mental health research. Recent work has suggested the utility of continuous cross-cutting dimensions, including general psychopathology and specific factors of externalizing and internalizing (e.g., distress and fear) syndromes. The current study evaluated the reliability of competing structural models of psychopathology and examined external validity of the best fitting model on the basis of family risk and child global executive function (EF)...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Lucilla Poston, Rishi Caleyachetty, Sven Cnattingius, Camila Corvalán, Ricardo Uauy, Sharron Herring, Matthew W Gillman
Obesity in women of reproductive age is increasing in prevelance worldwide. Obesity reduces fertility and increases time taken to conceive, and obesity-related comorbidities (such as type 2 diabetes and chronic hypertension) heighten the risk of adverse outcomes for mother and child if the woman becomes pregnant. Pregnant women who are obese are more likely to have early pregnancy loss, and have increased risk of congenital fetal malformations, delivery of large for gestational age infants, shoulder dystocia, spontaneous and medically indicated premature birth, and stillbirth...
October 10, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Rachel Kidman
BACKGROUND: Studies in South Asia suggest that child marriage is a strong risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV), but evidence outside the region is lacking. METHODS: This study uses standardized data from demographic and health surveys in 34 countries to test the hypothesis that young women (age 20-24) who married as children are at increased risk of past year physical and/or sexual IPV as compared with those women who married as adults. RESULTS: Globally, 9% of respondents were married before they turned 15; another 25% were married between the ages of 15 and 17...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Established in 2000, Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) catalysed extraordinary political, financial, and social commitments to reduce under-5 mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. At the country level, the pace of progress in improving child survival has varied markedly, highlighting a crucial need to further examine potential drivers of accelerated or slowed decreases in child mortality. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides an analytical framework to comprehensively assess these trends for under-5 mortality, age-specific and cause-specific mortality among children under 5 years, and stillbirths by geography over time...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. METHODS: We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Maria Claudia Rodríguez, Perla Villamor, Tatiana Castillo
INTRODUCTION: Pain is a disease by itself and it's a public health concern of major implication in children, not just because of the emotional component of the child and his family, but also due to the potential morbidity and mortality involving it. A proper assessment of pain it's a challenge in the pediatric population, due to their lack of understanding and verbalization of hurt. Additionally, a satisfactory treatment of pediatric pain can be arduous due to a lack of clinical knowledge, insufficient pediatric research, and the fear to opioid side effects and addiction...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Francisca Mutapi
Schistosomiasis, commonly known as bilharzia, is a parasitic disease prevalent in Africa, Asia and South America. The majority of the cases occur in Sub-Saharan Africa where schistosomiasis is a major public health problem impacting on child health and development as well as adult health when infections become chronic. Control of schistosomiasis is by treatment of infected people with the antihelminthic drug praziquantel. Current schistosome control programmes advocated by the World Health Assembly in 2001 are aimed at regular school-based integrated deworming strategies in order to reduce development of severe morbidity, promote school health and to improve cognitive potential of children...
October 12, 2016: Parasitology
Héctor Gómez-Dantés, Nancy Fullman, Héctor Lamadrid-Figueroa, Lucero Cahuana-Hurtado, Blair Darney, Leticia Avila-Burgos, Ricardo Correa-Rotter, Juan A Rivera, Simon Barquera, Eduardo González-Pier, Tania Aburto-Soto, Elga Filipa Amorin de Castro, Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Ana C Basto-Abreu, Carolina Batis, Guilherme Borges, Ismael Campos-Nonato, Julio C Campuzano-Rincón, Alejandra de Jesús Cantoral-Preciado, Alejandra G Contreras-Manzano, Lucia Cuevas-Nasu, Vanessa V de la Cruz-Gongora, Jose L Diaz-Ortega, María de Lourdes García-García, Armando Garcia-Guerra, Teresita González de Cossío, Luz D González-Castell, Ileana Heredia-Pi, Marta C Hijar-Medina, Alejandra Jauregui, Aida Jimenez-Corona, Nancy Lopez-Olmedo, Carlos Magis-Rodríguez, Catalina Medina-Garcia, Maria E Medina-Mora, Fabiola Mejia-Rodriguez, Julio C Montañez, Pablo Montero, Alejandra Montoya, Grea L Moreno-Banda, Andrea Pedroza-Tobías, Rogelio Pérez-Padilla, Amado D Quezada, Vesta L Richardson-López-Collada, Horacio Riojas-Rodríguez, Maria J Ríos Blancas, Christian Razo-Garcia, Martha P Romero Mendoza, Tania G Sánchez-Pimienta, Luz M Sánchez-Romero, Astrid Schilmann, Edson Servan-Mori, Teresa Shamah-Levy, Martha M Téllez-Rojo, José L Texcalac-Sangrador, Haidong Wang, Theo Vos, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Mohsen Naghavi, Alan D Lopez, Christopher J L Murray, Rafael Lozano
BACKGROUND: Child and maternal health outcomes have notably improved in Mexico since 1990, whereas rising adult mortality rates defy traditional epidemiological transition models in which decreased death rates occur across all ages. These trends suggest Mexico is experiencing a more complex, dissonant health transition than historically observed. Enduring inequalities between states further emphasise the need for more detailed health assessments over time. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2013 (GBD 2013) provides the comprehensive, comparable framework through which such national and subnational analyses can occur...
October 5, 2016: Lancet
Laura Vandeweghe, Ellen Moens, Caroline Braet, Wendy Van Lippevelde, Leentje Vervoort, Sandra Verbeken
BACKGROUND: The aim of the current study is to identify strategies to promote healthy eating in young children that can be applied by caregivers, based on their own perceptions of effectiveness and feasibility. Whereas previous research mainly focused on parental influences on children's eating behavior, the growing role of other caregivers in the upbringing of children can no longer be denied. METHODS: Four focus groups were conducted with three types of caregivers of post-weaning children under 6 years old: parents (n = 14), family child care providers (n = 9), and daycare assistants (n = 10)...
October 4, 2016: BMC Public Health
Ryan Richard Ruff, Lacey Sischo, Hillary L Broder
BACKGROUND: The Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP) is an instrument designed to measure the self-reported oral health-related quality of life of children between the ages of 8 and 15, including domains for oral health, functional well-being, social-emotional well-being, school environment and self-image. The purpose of this study was to estimate the minimally important difference (MID) of the COHIP for patients with cleft lip/palate. METHODS: Data from a 6-year, prospective, longitudinal cohort study of children with cleft lip/palate were analyzed to estimate the MID...
October 3, 2016: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
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