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Shermin Tan, Yijun Lin, Kelly Foo, Han Fang Koh, Charlene Tow, Yiwen Zhang, Li Wei Ang, Lin Cui, Hishamuddin Badaruddin, Peng Lim Ooi, Raymond Tzer Pin Lin, Jeffery Cutter
We conducted a retrospective study of 40 case-patients and 58 controls as part of a nationwide investigation of a group B Streptococcus outbreak in Singapore in 2015. Eating a Chinese-style raw fish dish (yusheng) was a major risk factor for bacteremia, particularly caused by serotype III sequence type 283.
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Hong-Ju Wang, Meng-Qi Li, Wei-Wei Liu, Toshihiko Hayashi, Hitomi Fujisaki, Shunji Hattori, Shin-Ichi Tashiro, Satoshi Onodera, Takashi Ikejima
PURPOSE: Type I collagen is one of the most abundant components of extracellular matrix. We previously illustrated that murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells grew well on type I collagen gel and escaped from TNFα-induced cell death. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the protective effect of collagen gel. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used western blot, confocal microscopy, MTT assay and flow cytometry by introducing fluorescence staining to determine the expression levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), inhibitory ratio and autophagy...
October 20, 2016: Connective Tissue Research
Alissa J Brown, Douglas H Deutschman, Jessica Braswell, Dana McLaughlin
Granivorous animals may prefer to predate or cache seed of certain plant species over others. Multiple studies have documented preference for larger, non-native seed by granivores. To accomplish this, researchers have traditionally used indirect inference by relating patterns of seed removal to the species composition of the granivorous animal community. To measure seed removal, researchers present seed to granivorous animals in the field using equipment intended to exclude certain animal taxa while permitting access to others...
2016: PloS One
David Cyranoski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Nature
Vutturu Ganga Prasad, Neetinkumar Reddy, Albi Francis, Pawan G Nayak, Anoop Kishore, Krishnadas Nandakumar, Mallikarjuna C Rao, Rekha Shenoy
BACKGROUND: Colon cancer (CC) is the third commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of mortality in the US when compared to India where prevalence is less. Possible reason could be the vegetarian diet comprising spices used in curry powders. Researchers believe that 70% of the cases are associated with diet. Spices have inherited a rich tradition for their flavor and medicinal properties. Researchers have been oriented towards spices present in food items for their antitumorigenic properties...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Ajit Dash, Robert A Figler, Arun J Sanyal, B R Wamhoff
Drug induced steatohepatitis (DISH), a form of drug induced liver injury (DILI) is characterized by intracellular accumulation of lipids in hepatocytes and subsequent inflammatory events, in some ways similar to the pathology seen with other metabolic, viral and genetic causes of non alcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis (NAFLD and NASH). Areas covered: This paper provides a comprehensive review of the main underlying mechanisms by which various drugs cause DISH, and outlines existing preclinical tools to predict it and study underlying pathways involved...
October 19, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Zhen Wang, Jun-Qiang Chen, Jin-Lu Liu, Lei Tian
Tumor microenvironment (TME) plays an integral part in the biology of cancer, participating in tumor initiation, progression, and response to therapy. Exosome is an important part of TME. Exosomes are small vesicles formed in vesicular bodies with a diameter of 30-100 nm and a classic "cup" or "dish" morphology. They can contain microRNAs, mRNAs, DNA fragments and proteins, which are shuttled from a donor cell to recipient cells. Exosomes secreted from tumor cells are called tumor-derived (TD) exosomes. There is emerging evidence that TD exosomes can construct a fertile environment to support tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and premetastatic niche preparation...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Jamal Mohammadi Ayenehdeh, Bahareh Niknam, Seyed Mahmoud Hashemi, Hossein Rahavi, Nima Rezaei, Masoud Soleimani, Nader Tajik
BACKGROUND: Islet transplantation could be an ideal alternative treatment to insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes Mellitus (T1DM). This clinical and experimental field requires a model that covers problems such as requiring a large number of functional and viable islets, the optimal transplantation site, and the prevention of islet dispersion. Hence, the methods of choice for isolation of functional islets and transplantation are crucial. METHODS: The present study has introduced an experimental model that overcomes some critical issues in islet transplantation, including in situ pancreas perfusion by digestive enzymes through common bile duct...
October 18, 2016: Iranian Biomedical Journal
Orie Hikabe, Nobuhiko Hamazaki, Go Nagamatsu, Yayoi Obata, Yuji Hirao, Norio Hamada, So Shimamoto, Takuya Imamura, Kinichi Nakashima, Mitinori Saitou, Katsuhiko Hayashi
The female germ line undergoes a unique sequence of differentiation processes that confers totipotency to the egg. The reconstitution of these events in vitro using pluripotent stem cells is a key achievement in reproductive biology and regenerative medicine. Here we report successful reconstitution in vitro of the entire process of oogenesis from mouse pluripotent stem cells. Fully potent mature oocytes were generated in culture from embryonic stem cells and from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from both embryonic fibroblasts and adult tail tip fibroblasts...
October 17, 2016: Nature
Dong Rak Kwon, Hyunjung Kwon, Woo Ram Lee, Joonsoo Park
BACKGROUND: Fungi are eukaryotic microorganisms including yeast and molds. Many studies have focused on modifying bacterial growth, but few on fungal growth. Microcurrent electricity may stimulate fungal growth. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate effects of microcurrent electric stimulation on Trichophyton rubrum growth. METHODS: Standard-sized inoculums of T. rubrum derived from a spore suspension were applied to potato dextrose cornmeal agar (PDACC) plates, gently withdrawn with a sterile pipette, and were applied to twelve PDACC plates with a sterile spreader...
October 2016: Annals of Dermatology
Lisa M Li, Titus Wong, Emily Rose, Graham Wickham, Elizabeth Bryce
BACKGROUND: A tabletop-type ultraviolet C (UVC) light-emitting disinfecting device was evaluated for microbiologic effectiveness, safety, usability, and end-user satisfaction. METHODS: Three different inoculums of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex strains suspended in both saline and trypticase soy broth were applied onto stainless steel carriers and electronic device surfaces in triplicate and cultured for growth after UVC disinfection...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Tsai-Jung Lu, Fang-Yao Chiu, Hsiao-Ying Chiu, Ming-Chau Chang, Shih-Chieh Hung
Articular cartilage has a very limited capacity for self-repair, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to treat cartilage defects and osteoarthritis. However, in-depth mechanistic studies regarding their applications are required. Here, we demonstrated the use of chitosan film culture for promoting chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. We found that MSCs formed spheres two days after seeding on dishes coated with chitosan. When MSCs were induced in a chondrogenic induction medium on chitosan films, the size of spheres continuously increased for up to 21 days...
October 12, 2016: Cell Transplantation
Marta Cavo, Marco Fato, Leonardo Peñuela, Francesco Beltrame, Roberto Raiteri, Silvia Scaglione
Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures represent fundamental tools for the comprehension of cellular phenomena both in normal and in pathological conditions. In particular, mechanical and chemical stimuli play a relevant role on cell fate, cancer onset and malignant evolution. Here, we use mechanically-tuned alginate hydrogels to study the role of substrate elasticity on breast adenocarcinoma cell activity. The hydrogel elastic modulus (E) was measured via atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a remarkable range (150-4000 kPa) was obtained...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Wendi S Neckameyer, Parag Bhatt
Drosophila melanogaster is an incredibly versatile organism capable of both innate and higher-order behaviors. These behaviors offer not only a way to assay whether or not the animal is physiologically compromised (e.g., feeding, locomotion), but also serve to assess changes in centrally mediated functions. Here we describe several high throughput, reproducible, yet inexpensive and facile behavioral assays for both larval and adult Drosophila. The larval assays all employ an agar substrate in a petri dish; the adult assays are grouped into "vial-based" and "arena-based" paradigms...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kumiko Ninomiya
 Umami is a basic tastes, along with sweet, salty, bitter and sour, which is imparted by glutamate, one of the free amino acids in foods. Since its discovery of umami by a Japanese scientist in 1908, umami is now perceived globally a basic taste. Recent collaboration among chefs and researchers on traditional soup stocks showed a difference in taste profiles of Japanese soup stock 'dashi' and Western style soup stock. The free amino acids profile's in dashi and soup stock showed how Japanese have traditionally adopted a simple umami taste...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Wendy B Katzman, Neeta Parimi, Ziba Mansoori, Lorenzo Nardo, Deborah M Kado, Peggy M Cawthon, Lynn M Marshall, John T Schousboe, Nancy E Lane
OBJECTIVE: Investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH) and thoracic kyphosis in older persons. METHODS: DISH and kyphosis were assessed in 1500 men from the Osteoporosis in Men (MrOS) study and 1267 women from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF). DISH was assessed in baseline lateral spine radiographs, and Cobb angle of kyphosis was measured from baseline and follow-up radiographs, mean 4.6 years later in men, and 3...
October 9, 2016: Arthritis Care & Research
Susanne Muehlich, Margot Rehm, Astrid Ebenau, Margarete Goppelt-Struebe
Changes in cell morphology that involve alterations of the actin cytoskeleton are a hallmark of diseased renal tubular epithelial cells. While the impact of actin remodeling on gene expression has been analyzed in many model systems based on cell lines, this study investigated human primary tubular epithelial cells isolated from healthy parts of tumor nephrectomies. Latrunculin B (LatB) and cytochalasin D (CytoD) were used to modulate G-actin levels in a receptor-independent manner. Both compounds (at 0.5μM) profoundly altered F-actin structures in a Rho kinase-dependent manner, but only CytoD strongly induced the pro-fibrotic factor CTGF (connective tissue growth factor)...
October 7, 2016: Cellular Signalling
Alessandra Durazzo, Silvia Lisciani, Emanuela Camilli, Paolo Gabrielli, Stefania Marconi, Loretta Gambelli, Altero Aguzzi, Massimo Lucarini, Giuseppe Maiani, Gaetana Casale, Luisa Marletta
This work aims at evaluating the main nutrients (proximate, minerals), their contribution for Dietary Reference Values in Italian population, and the antioxidant properties of some popular dishes prepared in a dedicated lab-kitchen: spaghetti alle vongole, pomodori al riso, gateau di patate, carciofi alla romana, pan di Spagna. Results showed that nutrient contents and energy value varied extensively because of the variety and the nature of ingredients in the analyzed dishes, and thus defined different daily nutrient intakes and their association with health effects...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Jinwook Choi, Elhadi Iich, Joo-Hyeon Lee
The remarkable regenerative capacity of the lung suggests that stem cells could be of therapeutic importance in diverse lung diseases; however, the successful exploitation of lung stem cell biology has long been hampered by our inability to maintain and expand adult lung stem cells while retaining their multi-lineage potential in vitro. Recently, advances in our understanding of stem cell niches and the role of key signalling modulators in controlling stem cell maintenance and differentiation have fuelled the development of new in vitro three-dimensional (3D) culture technologies that sustain the stem cell-driven formation of near-physiological, self-organizing structures called organoids...
October 3, 2016: Developmental Biology
Eijiro Okada, Takashi Tsuji, Kentaro Shimizu, Masanori Kato, Kentaro Fukuda, Shinjiro Kaneko, Jun Ogawa, Kota Watanabe, Ken Ishii, Masaya Nakamura, Morio Matsumoto
PURPOSE: To clarify correlations between spinal fracture and delayed paralysis in patients with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) using computed tomography (CT) with multiplanar reformatting (CT-MPR). DISH increases susceptibility to unstable spinal fractures, leading to neurological deterioration. The pathomechanism of the neurological injury is unclear. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study included 42 DISH patients (32 male; 10 female) treated for 45 spinal fractures during a 5-year period...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
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