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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448044/generation-of-ipsc-derived-human-brain-organoids-to-model-early-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#1
Elke Gabriel, Jay Gopalakrishnan
The restricted availability of suitable in vitro models that can reliably represent complex human brain development is a significant bottleneck that limits the translation of basic brain research into clinical application. While induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have replaced the ethically questionable human embryonic stem cells, iPSC-based neuronal differentiation studies remain descriptive at the cellular level but fail to adequately provide the details that could be derived from a complex, 3D human brain tissue...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448017/low-density-primary-hippocampal-neuron-culture
#2
Reiko T Roppongi, Kevin P Champagne-Jorgensen, Tabrez J Siddiqui
The ability to probe the structure and physiology of individual nerve cells in culture is crucial to the study of neurobiology, and allows for flexibility in genetic and chemical manipulation of individual cells or defined networks. Such ease of manipulation is simpler in the reduced culture system when compared to the intact brain tissue. While many methods for the isolation and growth of these primary neurons exist, each has its own limitations. This protocol describes a method for culturing low-density and high-purity rodent embryonic hippocampal neurons on glass coverslips, which are then suspended over a monolayer of glial cells...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444877/identification-and-measurement-of-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-m-sem-from-staphylococcus-aureus-isolate-associated-with-staphylococcal-food-poisoning
#3
Yanying Zhao, Anni Zhu, Junni Tang, Cheng Tang, Juan Chen
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) produces a wide variety of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs, SEA to SEX), which are responsible for staphylococcal food poisoning. This study is aimed to establish a system to detect SEM protein in food matrixes. In the present study, sem gene was characterized in a S. aureus isolate H4 associated with food poisoning. The amino acid sequence of the deduced SEM protein was same as that of previously identified SEM from S. aureus 04-02981. Subsequently, mature SEM protein was expressed in E...
April 26, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443280/in-vivo-reprogramming-of-cancer-metabolism-by-myc
#4
REVIEW
Roman Camarda, Jeremy Williams, Andrei Goga
The past few decades have welcomed tremendous advancements toward understanding the functional significance of altered metabolism during tumorigenesis. However, many conclusions drawn from studies of cancer cells in a dish (i.e., in vitro) have been put into question as multiple lines of evidence have demonstrated that the metabolism of cells can differ significantly from that of primary tumors (in vivo). This realization, along with the need to identify tissue-specific vulnerabilities of driver oncogenes, has led to an increased focus on oncogene-dependent metabolic programming in vivo...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442664/induction-of-neural-crest-cells-from-human-dental-pulp-derived-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#5
Eisuke Kawano, Taku Toriumi, Shinya Iguchi, Daigo Suzuki, Shuichi Sato, Masaki Honda
We previously generated induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from human dental pulp cells of deciduous teeth. Neural crest cells (NCCs) play a vital role in the development of the oral and maxillofacial region. Therefore, NCCs represent a cell source for bone, cartilage, and tooth-related tissue engineering. In this study, we examined whether iPS cells are capable of differentiating into NCCs through modification of the human embryonic stem cell protocol. First, iPS cells were dissociated into single cells and then reaggregated in low-cell-adhesion plates with neural induction medium for 8 days in suspension culture to form neurospheres...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441747/associations-between-diet-and-toenail-arsenic-concentration-among-pregnant-women-in-bangladesh-a-prospective-study
#6
Pi-I D Lin, Sabri Bromage, Md Golam Mostofa, Joseph Allen, Emily Oken, Molly L Kile, David C Christiani
This prospective study evaluated the relationship between long-term dietary habits and total arsenic (As) concentration in toenail clippings in a cohort of 1616 pregnant women in the Bangladeshi administrative regions of Sirajdikhan and Pabna Sadar. Diet was assessed at Gestation Week 28 and at Postpartum Month 1, using a locally-validated dish-based semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Toenail As concentration was analyzed by microwave-assisted acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
April 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439086/quality-and-freshness-of-human-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-decrease-over-time-after-trypsinization-and-storage-in-phosphate-buffered-saline
#7
Tae Hwan Shin, Seungah Lee, Ki Ryung Choi, Da Yeon Lee, Yongman Kim, Man Jeong Paik, Chan Seo, Seok Kang, Moon Suk Jin, Tae Hyeon Yoo, Seong Ho Kang, Gwang Lee
Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) have been studied for their therapeutic potential. However, evaluating the quality of hBM-MSCs before transplantation remains a challenge. We addressed this issue in the present study by investigating deformation, the expression of genes related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, changes in amino acid profiles, and membrane fluidity in hBM-MSCs. Deformability and cell size were decreased after storage for 6 and 12 h, respectively, in phosphate-buffered saline...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437464/inhibition-of-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-integrin-induces-loss-of-cell-directionality-of-oral-squamous-carcinoma-cells-oscc
#8
Cyntia F Montenegro, Bruna C Casali, Rafael L B Lino, Bianca C Pachane, Patty K Santos, Alan R Horwitz, Heloisa S Selistre-de-Araujo, Marcelo L Lamers
The connective tissue formed by extracellular matrix (ECM) rich in fibronectin and collagen consists a barrier that cancer cells have to overpass to reach blood vessels and then a metastatic site. Cell adhesion to fibronectin is mediated by αvβ3 and α5β1 integrins through an RGD motif present in this ECM protein, thus making these receptors key targets for cell migration studies. Here we investigated the effect of an RGD disintegrin, DisBa-01, on the migration of human fibroblasts (BJ) and oral squamous cancer cells (OSCC, SCC25) on a fibronectin-rich environment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432337/agarose-spot-as-a-comparative-method-for-in-situ-analysis-of-simultaneous-chemotactic-responses-to-multiple-chemokines
#9
Mohaned Ahmed, Haneen A Basheer, Jose M Ayuso, Djevdet Ahmet, Marco Mazzini, Roshan Patel, Steven D Shnyder, Victoria Vinader, Kamyar Afarinkia
We describe a novel protocol to quantitatively and simultaneously compare the chemotactic responses of cells towards different chemokines. In this protocol, droplets of agarose gel containing different chemokines are applied onto the surface of a Petri dish, and then immersed under culture medium in which cells are suspended. As chemokine molecules diffuse away from the spot, a transient chemoattractant gradient is established across the spots. Cells expressing the corresponding cognate chemokine receptors migrate against this gradient by crawling under the agarose spots towards their centre...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429906/eating-glutinous-brown-rice-for-one-day-improves-glycemic-control-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-assessed-by-continuous-glucose-monitoring
#10
Yuko Terashima, Yoshio Nagai, Hiroyuki Kato, Akio Ohta, Yasushi Tanaka
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether intake of non-glutinous brown rice (BR) or glutinous brown rice (GBR) for 1 day had an influence on the daily glucose profile measured by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) when compared with intake of non-glutinous white rice (WR). METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A total of 37 inpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were recruited for a 3-day randomized triple cross-over trial in which they ate WR, BR, or GBR for 1 day each...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429902/validity-and-practicability-of-smartphone-based-photographic-food-records-for-estimating-energy-and-nutrient-intake
#11
Kaimeng Kong, Lulu Zhang, Lisu Huang, Yexuan Tao
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Image-assisted dietary assessment methods are frequently used to record individual eating habits. This study tested the validity of a smartphone-based photographic food recording approach by comparing the results obtained with those of a weighed food record. We also assessed the practicality of the method by using it to measure the energy and nutrient intake of college students. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: The experiment was implemented in two phases, each lasting 2 weeks...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424991/expression-and-role-of-voltage-gated-sodium-channels-in-human-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-with-special-focus-on-nav1-7-species-differences-and-regulation-by-paclitaxel
#12
Wonseok Chang, Temugin Berta, Yong Ho Kim, Sanghoon Lee, Seok-Yong Lee, Ru-Rong Ji
Voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) play an important role in human pain sensation. However, the expression and role of Nav subtypes in native human sensory neurons are unclear. To address this issue, we obtained human dorsal root ganglion (hDRG) tissues from healthy donors. PCR analysis of seven DRG-expressed Nav subtypes revealed that the hDRG has higher expression of Nav1.7 (~50% of total Nav expression) and lower expression of Nav1.8 (~12%), whereas the mouse DRG has higher expression of Nav1.8 (~45%) and lower expression of Nav1...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424578/the-crb1-complex-following-the-trail-of-crumbs-to-a-feasible-gene-therapy-strategy
#13
REVIEW
Peter M Quinn, Lucie P Pellissier, Jan Wijnholds
Once considered science fiction, gene therapy is rapidly becoming scientific reality, targeting a growing number of the approximately 250 genes linked to hereditary retinal disorders such as retinitis pigmentosa and Leber's congenital amaurosis. Powerful new technologies have emerged, leading to the development of humanized models for testing and screening these therapies, bringing us closer to the goal of personalized medicine. These tools include the ability to differentiate human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to create a "retina-in-a-dish" model and the self-formed ectodermal autonomous multi-zone, which can mimic whole eye development...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424081/menu-engineering-in-restaurants-adapting-portion-sizes-on-plates-to-enhance-vegetable-consumption-a-real-life-experiment
#14
Machiel J Reinders, Marlijn Huitink, S Coosje Dijkstra, Anna J Maaskant, Joris Heijnen
BACKGROUND: The aim of this research was to investigate whether increased portion sizes of vegetables and decreased portion sizes of meat on main dishes increased the amount of vegetables consumed in a real-life restaurant setting without affecting customer satisfaction. The participants were unaware of the experiment. METHODS: A cross-over design was used in which three restaurants were randomly assigned to a sequence of an intervention and control condition. In the intervention period, the vegetable portion sizes on the plates of main dishes were doubled (150 g of vegetables instead of 75 g) and the portion sizes of meat on the plates were reduced by an average of 12...
December 25, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423427/influence-of-temperature-and-relative-humidity-on-the-insecticidal-efficacy-of-metarhizium-anisopliae-against-larvae-of-ephestia-kuehniella-lepidoptera-pyralidae-on-wheat
#15
Christos G Athanassiou, Nickolas G Kavallieratos, Christos I Rumbos, Demetrius C Kontodimas
A series of laboratory bioassays were conducted for the evaluation of the insecticidal efficacy of an isolate of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) against larvae of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), under various temperature-relative humidity (r.h.) conditions. The fungus was applied at four doses (0, 8 × 106, 8 × 108, and 8 × 1010 conidia ml-1) on wheat and insect mortality was assessed after exposure of 1, 2, 7, and 14 d...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420427/isolation-and-characterization-of-equine-native-msc-populations
#16
Cristina L Esteves, Tara A Sheldrake, Simone P Mesquita, Juan J Pesántez, Timothy Menghini, Lucy Dawson, Bruno Péault, F Xavier Donadeu
BACKGROUND: In contrast to humans in which mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) therapies are still largely in the clinical trial phase, MSCs have been used therapeutically in horses for over 15 years, thus constituting a valuable preclinical model for humans. In human tissues, MSCs have been shown to originate from perivascular cells, namely pericytes and adventitial cells, which are identified by the presence of the cell surface markers CD146 and CD34, respectively. In contrast, the origin of MSCs in equine tissues has not been established, preventing the isolation and culture of defined cell populations in that species...
April 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418023/human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-modelling-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Karthikeyan Ardhanareeswaran, Jessica Mariani, Gianfilippo Coppola, Alexej Abyzov, Flora M Vaccarino
We currently have a poor understanding of the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders, owing to the fact that postmortem and imaging studies can only measure the postnatal status quo and offer little insight into the processes that give rise to the observed outcomes. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) should, in principle, prove powerful for elucidating the pathways that give rise to neurodevelopmental disorders. hiPSCs are embryonic-stem-cell-like cells that can be derived from somatic cells...
April 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416964/a-nondestructive-method-to-estimate-the-chlorophyll-content-of-arabidopsis-seedlings
#18
Ying Liang, Daisuke Urano, Kang-Ling Liao, Tyson L Hedrick, Yajun Gao, Alan M Jones
BACKGROUND: Chlorophyll content decreases in plants under stress conditions, therefore it is used commonly as an indicator of plant health. Arabidopsis thaliana offers a convenient and fast way to test physiological phenotypes of mutations and treatments. However, chlorophyll measurements with conventional solvent extraction are not applicable to Arabidopsis leaves due to their small size, especially when grown on culture dishes. RESULTS: We provide a nondestructive method for chlorophyll measurement whereby the red, green and blue (RGB) values of a color leaf image is used to estimate the chlorophyll content from Arabidopsis leaves...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416676/dissociation-of-per1-and-bmal1-circadian-rhythms-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-in-parallel-with-behavioral-outputs
#19
Daisuke Ono, Sato Honma, Yoshihiro Nakajima, Shigeru Kuroda, Ryosuke Enoki, Ken-Ichi Honma
The temporal order of physiology and behavior in mammals is primarily regulated by the circadian pacemaker located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Taking advantage of bioluminescence reporters, we monitored the circadian rhythms of the expression of clock genes Per1 and Bmal1 in the SCN of freely moving mice and found that the rate of phase shifts induced by a single light pulse was different in the two rhythms. The Per1-luc rhythm was phase-delayed instantaneously by the light presented at the subjective evening in parallel with the activity onset of behavioral rhythm, whereas the Bmal1-ELuc rhythm was phase-delayed gradually, similar to the activity offset...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415381/biocompatibility-study-on-ni-free-ti-based-and-zr-based-bulk-metallic-glasses
#20
T H Li, P C Wong, S F Chang, P H Tsai, J S C Jang, J C Huang
Safety and reliability are crucial issues for medical instruments and implants. In the past few decays, bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have drawn attentions due to their superior mechanical properties, good corrosion resistance, antibacterial and good biocompatibility. However, most Zr-based and Ti-based BMGs contain Ni as an important element which is prone to human allergy problem. In this study, the Ni-free Ti-based and Zr-based BMGs, Ti40Zr10Cu36Pd14, and Zr48Cu36Al8Ag8, were selected for systematical evaluation of their biocompatibility...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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