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Cognitive Assessment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922590/efficacy-and-safety-of-the-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-agonist-abt-126-in-the-treatment-of-cognitive-impairment-associated-with-schizophrenia-results-from-a-phase-2b-randomized-controlled-study-in-smokers
#1
George M Haig, Deli Wang, Jun Zhao, Ahmed A Othman, Earle E Bain
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the α₇-nicotinic receptor agonist ABT-126 for treatment of cognitive impairment in stable subjects with schizophrenia who smoke. METHODS: A 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was conducted from August 2012 to March 2014. Subjects with a diagnosis of schizophrenia based on DSM-IV-TR criteria (confirmed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview version 6.0.0) were randomized 1:1:1 to ABT-126 25 mg, ABT-126 75 mg, or placebo once daily while maintained on their background antipsychotic medication...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922588/persistent-negative-symptoms-in-first-episode-psychosis-early-cognitive-and-social-functioning-correlates-and-differences-between-early-and-adult-onset
#2
Olga Puig, Immaculada Baeza, Elena de la Serna, Bibiana Cabrera, Gisela Mezquida, Miquel Bioque, Antonio Lobo, Ana González-Pinto, Mara Parellada, Iluminada Corripio, Eduard Vieta, Julio Bobes, Judith Usall, Fernando Contreras, Manuel J Cuesta, Miquel Bernardo, Josefina Castro-Fornieles, The PEPs Group
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the early cognitive and social functioning characteristics of a sample of first-episode psychosis patients with and without persistent negative symptoms (PNS) and to examine the prevalence and cognitive and functional correlates of PNS in patients with early-onset versus adult-onset first-episode psychosis. METHODS: Participants were 235 patients with first-episode psychosis (51 early-onset, 184 adult-onset) and 240 healthy controls from a multicenter longitudinal study (recruited between 2009 and 2011)...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922467/intelligence-and-neurophysiological-markers-of-error-monitoring-relate-to-children-s-intellectual-humility
#3
Judith H Danovitch, Megan Fisher, Hans Schroder, David Z Hambrick, Jason Moser
This study explored developmental and individual differences in intellectual humility (IH) among 127 children ages 6-8. IH was operationalized as children's assessment of their knowledge and willingness to delegate scientific questions to experts. Children completed measures of IH, theory of mind, motivational framework, and intelligence, and neurophysiological measures indexing early (error-related negativity [ERN]) and later (error positivity [Pe]) error-monitoring processes related to cognitive control. Children's knowledge self-assessment correlated with question delegation, and older children showed greater IH than younger children...
September 18, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922182/the-use-of-the-model-of-occupational-self-efficacy-in-improving-the-cognitive-functioning-of-individuals-with-brain-injury-a-pre-and-post-intervention-study
#4
Shaheed Soeker
BACKGROUND: Individuals diagnosed with a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) often experience major limitations in returning to work despite participating in rehabilitation programmes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine whether individuals who sustained a traumatic brain injury experienced improved cognitive functioning after participating in an intervention programme that utilizes the Model of Occupational Self-Efficacy (MOOSE). PARTICIPANTS: Ten (10) individuals who were diagnosed with a mild to moderate brain injury participated in the study...
September 14, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922177/project-career-an-individualized-postsecondary-approach-to-promoting-independence-functioning-and-employment-success-among-students-with-traumatic-brain-injuries
#5
Deborah Minton, Eileen Elias, Phillip Rumrill, Deborah J Hendricks, Karen Jacobs, Anne Leopold, Amanda Nardone, Elaine Sampson, Marcia Scherer, Aundrea Gee Cormier, Aiyana Taylor, Caitlin DeLatte
BACKGROUND: Project Career is a five-year interdisciplinary demonstration project funded by NIDILRR. It provides technology-driven supports, merging Cognitive Support Technology (CST) evidence-based practices and rehabilitation counseling, to improve postsecondary and employment outcomes for veteran and civilian undergraduate students with traumatic brain injury (TBI). GOAL: Provide a technology-driven individualized support program to improve career and employment outcomes for students with TBI...
September 14, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922176/cognition-and-return-to-work-after-mild-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review
#6
Karthik Mani, Bryan Cater, Akshay Hudlikar
BACKGROUND: Approximately two percent of the United States population are traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors. The unemployment rate among them is substantial. Cognitive skills are essential to perform any job. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the literature on cognitive rehabilitation (CR) related to mild/moderate TBI to learn the influence of cognition on return to work (RTW) post TBI. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the studies on CR related to RTW post TBI that were published between 2000 and 2015...
September 14, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922159/can-musical-or-painting-interventions-improve-chronic-pain-mood-quality-of-life-and-cognition-in-patients-with-mild-alzheimer-s-disease-evidence-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Elodie Pongan, Barbara Tillmann, Yohana Leveque, Béatrice Trombert, Jean Claude Getenet, Nicolas Auguste, Virginie Dauphinot, Hanane El Haouari, Malou Navez, Jean-Michel Dorey, Pierre Krolak-Salmon, Bernard Laurent, Isabelle Rouch
BACKGROUND: Among non-pharmacological therapies, musical intervention is often used for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and patients presenting with chronic pain. However, their efficacy is still under debate. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine the efficacy of choral singing versus painting sessions on chronic pain, mood, quality of life, and cognition in AD patients. METHODS: In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, 59 mild AD patients were randomized to a 12-week singing (SG; n = 31) or painting group (PG; n = 28)...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922158/tailored-and-adaptive-computerized-cognitive-training-in-older-adults-at-risk-for-dementia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Alex Bahar-Fuchs, Shannon Webb, Lauren Bartsch, Linda Clare, George Rebok, Nicolas Cherbuin, Kaarin J Anstey
BACKGROUND: Computerized Cognitive Training (CCT) has been shown to improve cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mood-related neuropsychiatric symptoms (MrNPS), but many questions remain unresolved. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the extent to which CCT benefits older adults with both MCI and MrNPS, and its effects on meta-cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes, as well as establish whether adapting difficulty levels and tailoring to individuals' profile is superior to generic training...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922157/longer-term-investigation-of-the-value-of-18f-fdg-pet-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-predicting-the-conversion-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-alzheimer-s-disease-a-multicenter-study
#9
Yoshitaka Inui, Kengo Ito, Takashi Kato
BACKGROUND: The value of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for predicting conversion of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in longer-term is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate longer-term prediction of MCI to AD conversion using 18F-FDG-PET and MRI in a multicenter study. METHODS: One-hundred and fourteen patients with MCI were followed for 5 years...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922154/atrial-fibrillation-is-independently-associated-with-cognitive-impairment-after-ischemic-stroke
#10
Russell Jude Chander, Levinia Lim, Sagarika Handa, Shaun Hiu, Angeline Choong, Xuling Lin, Rajinder Singh, Daniel Oh, Nagaendran Kandiah
BACKGROUND: While atrial fibrillation (AF) is an important risk factor for ischemic strokes and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Alzheimer's disease, the association between AF and post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI), and the factors mediating this association, is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of AF in PSCI, especially in relation to other markers of cerebrovascular disease. METHODS: 445 subjects with mild ischemic stroke without pre-stroke cognitive decline were assessed 3-6 months post-stroke for cognitive deficits...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922153/sex-dependent-associations-of-serum-uric-acid-with-brain-function-during-aging
#11
Alexandra M Kueider, Yang An, Toshiko Tanaka, Melissa H Kitner-Triolo, Stephanie Studenski, Luigi Ferrucci, Madhav Thambisetty
Serum uric acid (SUA) is an abundant natural antioxidant which could reduce the burden of cellular oxidation, a major cause of neurodegenerative disease. In line with this, SUA levels are lower in those with Alzheimer's disease; however, the association between SUA and cognition remains unclear. Results from studies examining the effects of SUA on cognition may be difficult to interpret in the context of normal versus pathological aging. This study examined sex-specific associations of baseline SUA with cognition during aging...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922068/influence-of-flaxseed-lignan-supplementation-to-older-adults-on-biochemical-and-functional-outcome-measures-of-inflammation
#12
Yunyun Di, Jennifer Jones, Kerry Mansell, Susan Whiting, Sharyle Fowler, Lilian Thorpe, Jennifer Billinsky, Navita Viveky, Pui Chi Cheng, Ahmed Almousa, Thomas Hadjistavropoulos, Jane Alcorn
Evidence from the literature suggests that dietary flaxseed lignans have the ability to modulate inflammation, which is recognized as the underlying basis of multiple chronic human diseases in older adults. Our objective was to determine the effects of oral lignan supplementation on biochemical and functional indicators of inflammation as well as safety and tolerability in older healthy adults. We designed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in older healthy adults (60-80 years) to assess flaxseed lignan-enriched complex (∼38% secoisolariciresinol diglucoside [SDG]; 600 mg SDG dose) oral supplementation effects on biochemical and functional indicators of inflammation and safety and tolerability in older healthy adults after 6 months of once-daily oral administration...
September 18, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921770/does-an-observer-s-empathy-influence-my-pain-effect-of-perceived-empathetic-or-unempathetic-support-in-a-pain-test
#13
C Fauchon, I Faillenot, A M Perrin, C Borg, V Pichot, F Chouchou, L Garcia-Larrea, R Peyron
The physiological and behavioural effects of empathy for other's pain have been widely investigated, while the opposite situation, i.e. the influence on one's pain of empathetic feedback from others, remains largely unexplored. Here, we assessed whether and how empathetic and unempathetic comments from observers modulate pain and associated vegetative reactions. In Study 1, conversations between observers of a pain study were recorded by professional actors. Comments were prepared to be perceived as empathetic, unempathetic, or neutral, and were validated in 40 subjects...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921543/language-growth-in-children-with-heterogeneous-language-disorders-a-population-study
#14
Courtenay Frazier Norbury, George Vamvakas, Debbie Gooch, Gillian Baird, Tony Charman, Emily Simonoff, Andrew Pickles
BACKGROUND: Language development has been characterised by significant individual stability from school entry. However, the extent to which trajectories of language growth vary in children with language disorder as a function of co-occurring developmental challenges is a question of theoretical import, with implications for service provision. METHODS: SCALES employed a population-based survey design with sample weighting procedures to estimate growth in core language skills over the first three years of school...
October 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921487/family-support-and-gains-in-school-readiness-a-longitudinal-study
#15
Claire Hughes, Naomi White, Sarah Foley, Rory T Devine
BACKGROUND: Traditional measures of school readiness are labour-intensive and do not assess family support. AIMS: The current study used the newly developed Brief Early Skills and Support Index (BESSI: Hughes, Daly, Foley, White and Devine 2015) to examine 6-month longitudinal stability and change in teachers' ratings of young children's school readiness and investigate the role of family support as a predictor of school readiness. SAMPLE: Five hundred and seventy-eight children (270 boys; 74...
September 17, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921105/association-between-air-pollution-exposure-cognitive-and-adaptive-function-and-asd-severity-among-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Tara Kerin, Heather Volk, Weiyan Li, Fred Lurmann, Sandrah Eckel, Rob McConnell, Irva Hertz-Picciotto
Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk but no study has examined associations with ASD severity or functioning. Cognitive ability, adaptive functioning, and ASD severity were assessed in 327 children with ASD from the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment study using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule calibrated severity score. Estimates of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM2...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920537/magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-brain-injury-in-the-chronic-phase-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-systematic-review
#17
Bertine L Stehouwer, Lisa A van der Kleij, Jeroen Hendrikse, Gabriel Je Rinkel, Jill B De Vis
Background Case-fatality rates after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage have decreased over the past decades. However, many patients who survive an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage have long-term functional and cognitive impairments. Aims We sought to review all data on conventional brain MRI obtained in the chronic phase after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage to (1) analyze the proportion of patients with cerebral infarction or brain volume changes; (2) investigate baseline determinants predictive of MRI-detected damage; and (3) assess if brain damage is predictive of patient outcome...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920528/the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-the-montreal-cognitive-assessment-in-inpatient-stroke-rehabilitation
#18
Abhishek Jaywant, Joan Toglia, Faith M Gunning, Michael W O'Dell
The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a commonly used screening measure for cognitive impairment; however, the diagnostic accuracy and optimal cutoff points in inpatients with mild stroke severity is unknown. We examined the diagnostic accuracy of the MoCA in an acute inpatient stroke rehabilitation unit (N = 95). The criterion neuropsychological assessment was the 30-minute National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network battery, modified to include the Symbol-Digit Modalities Test and Trail Making Test A & B...
September 18, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920521/implementing-evidence-based-smoking-cessation-treatment-in-psychosocial-care-units-caps-in-brazil
#19
João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia, Nilson R da Silva, Marta Rd Campos, Helena F Moura, Gustavo Zabert, Beatriz M Champagne, Katherine E Kemper, J Taylor Hays
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of smoking among mental health and addiction (MHA) patients is 3 times higher than it is in the general population, yet this patient population has received little help to combat smoking. Considering this, psychosocial care centers (CAPS - Centros de Atenção Psicossocial) are strategic locations for integrating tobacco dependence treatment (TDT) into existing treatment activities. METHODS: Our team provided an 8-hour training package to the staff of CAPS that have not been providing specialized TDT for smokers...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920073/design-of-pilot-studies-to-inform-the-construction-of-composite-outcome-measures
#20
Steven D Edland, M Colin Ard, Weiwei Li, Lingjing Jiang
BACKGROUND: Composite scales have recently been proposed as outcome measures for clinical trials. For example, the Prodromal Alzheimer's Cognitive Composite (PACC) is the sum of z-score normed component measures assessing episodic memory, timed executive function, and global cognition. Alternative methods of calculating composite total scores using the weighted sum of the component measures that maximize signal-to-noise of the resulting composite score have been proposed. Optimal weights can be estimated from pilot data, but it is an open question how large a pilot trial is required to calculate reliably optimal weights...
June 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
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