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Cognitive Assessment

May Ling D Halim, Diane N Ruble, Catherine S Tamis-LeMonda, Patrick E Shrout, David M Amodio
This study examined factors that predicted children's gender intergroup attitudes at age 5 and the implications of these attitudes for intergroup behavior. Ethnically diverse children from low-income backgrounds (N = 246; Mexican-, Chinese-, Dominican-, and African American) were assessed at ages 4 and 5. On average, children reported positive same-gender and negative other-gender attitudes. Positive same-gender attitudes were associated with knowledge of gender stereotypes. In contrast, positive other-gender attitudes were associated with flexibility in gender cognitions (stereotype flexibility, gender consistency)...
October 19, 2016: Child Development
Patrícia Romano Opasso, Simone Dos Santos Barreto, Karin Zazo Ortiz
Objective: To establish normative parameters for the F-A-S form of the phonemic verbal fluency test, in a population of Brazilian Portuguese speaking adults with high-level literacy. Methods: The sample comprised 40 male and female volunteers aged 19 to 59 years, and at least 8 years of formal education. Volunteers were first submitted to the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clock Drawing cognitive screening tests, then to the F-A-S Verbal Phonemic Fluency Test; in this test, examinees were given 60 seconds to generate as many words as possible beginning with each of the three test letters...
July 2016: Einstein
Ying Yang, Xiaojing Cheng, Qingzhi Xu, Renjun Li, Zengxun Liu, Liping Wang, Yanqing Zhang, Guoqiang Ren, Jintong Liu
Objective: To evaluate the effect of maintenance modified electroconvulsive therapy (MECT) on schizophrenic patients. Methods: From June 2012 to June 2014, 62 patients with schizophrenia, who had recovered from a successful course of acute MECT, were recruited. Thirty-one patients received maintenance MECT and risperidone, as the experimental group. Another 31 patients were enrolled in the control group, and received risperidone only. The effects on cognitive functions, clinical symptoms and relapse rate were determined...
October 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Kelsey E Smith, Jeffrey Schatz
Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk for working memory deficits due to multiple disease processes. We assessed working memory abilities and related functions in 32 school-age children with SCD and 85 matched comparison children using Baddeley's working memory model as a framework. Children with SCD performed worse than controls for working memory, central executive function, and processing/rehearsal speed. Central executive function was found to mediate the relationship between SCD status and working memory, but processing speed did not...
October 19, 2016: Developmental Neuropsychology
Rayna B Hirst, Kaitlyn R Young, Louise M Sodos, Robert E Wickham, Mitch Earleywine
INTRODUCTION: While many studies suggest that regular cannabis use leads to deficits in cognitive functioning, particularly in memory, few have measured effort put forth during testing, and none have examined this as a potential mediator. Both age of onset of regular cannabis use and frequency of use have been linked to increased risk of memory deficits. The present study sought to determine whether effort mediated the relationship between frequency or age of onset of cannabis use and learning and memory performance...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Emma Sumner, Samuel B Hutton, Gustav Kuhn, Elisabeth L Hill
Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) fail to acquire adequate motor skill, yet surprisingly little is known about the oculomotor system in DCD. Successful completion of motor tasks is supported by accurate visual feedback. The purpose of this study was to determine whether any oculomotor differences can distinguish between children with and without a motor impairment. Using eye tracking technology, visual fixation, smooth pursuit, and pro- and anti-saccade performance were assessed in 77 children that formed three groups: children with DCD (aged 7-10), chronologically age (CA) matched peers, and a motor-match (MM) group (aged 4-7)...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Science
Lotte Berk, Martin van Boxtel, Sebastian Köhler, Jim van Os
OBJECTIVE: In cross-sectional studies, positive affect (PA) has been associated with higher levels of cognitive functioning. This study examined whether positive affect (PA) is associated with change in cognitive function over 12 years in an adult population sample. METHODS: Participants (n = 258), aged 40 to 82 years, were drawn from a subsample of the Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS) and assessed at baseline, 6 years and 12 years. PA was measured at baseline with a Dutch translation of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Simon A Moss, Melanie Irons, Martin Boland
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lecturers often present entertaining videos, or organize a variety of amusing demonstrations, to foster student engagement or to encourage critical analysis. Magic tricks, in particular, have been shown to activate neural circuits that underpin motivation or problem-solving and, therefore, could be beneficial during lectures. Nevertheless, we hypothesize that, unless the method that underpins these tricks is revealed, students may ruminate over possible explanations, distracting attention from the lecture material...
October 18, 2016: British Journal of Educational Psychology
David R Shanks
Many studies of unconscious processing involve comparing a performance measure (e.g., some assessment of perception or memory) with an awareness measure (such as a verbal report or a forced-choice response) taken either concurrently or separately. Unconscious processing is inferred when above-chance performance is combined with null awareness. Often, however, aggregate awareness is better than chance, and data analysis therefore employs a form of extreme group analysis focusing post hoc on participants, trials, or items where awareness is absent or at chance...
October 17, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Laura Q Rogers, Kerry S Courneya, Phillip M Anton, Patricia Hopkins-Price, Steven Verhulst, Randall S Robbs, Sandra K Vicari, Edward McAuley
BACKGROUND: Most breast cancer survivors do not meet physical activity recommendations. Understanding mediators of physical activity behavior change can improve interventions designed to increase physical activity in this at-risk population. PURPOSE: Study aims were to determine the 3-month Better Exercise Adherence after Treatment for Cancer (BEAT Cancer) behavior change intervention effects on social cognitive theory constructs and the mediating role of any changes on the increase in accelerometer-measured physical activity previously reported...
October 17, 2016: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Ivy Shiue
There has been a growing interest in how the built environment affects health and well-being. Housing characteristics are associated with human health while environmental chemicals could have mediated the effects. However, it is unclear if and how residence duration might have a role in health and well-being. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the associations among residence duration, common chronic diseases, and cognitive function in older adults in a national and population-based setting...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Marloes A M Janssen, Peter P Koopmans, Roy P C Kessels
The objectives of the current study were to examine cognitive decline in relation to psychological wellbeing, HIV disease and treatment characteristics and baseline variables over a one-year period of time in a group of HIV-infected patients on long term cART with undetectable viral load in comparison to a HIV-negative control group. Eighty-two of 95 patients and 43 of 55 controls who completed a baseline assessment for the Art-NeCo study underwent a follow-up neuropsychological assessment. A repeated-measure general linear model analysis was performed to compare the performance at follow-up in comparison to baseline between the patients and controls...
October 17, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Susan Young, Brynjar Emilsson, Jon Fridrik Sigurdsson, Mizanur Khondoker, Florence Philipp-Wiegmann, Gisli Baldursson, Halldora Olafsdottir, Gisli Gudjonsson
Studies assessing psychological treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults are increasingly reported. However, functional outcomes are often neglected in favour of symptom outcomes. We investigated functional outcomes in 95 adults with ADHD who were already treated with medication and randomized to receive treatment as usual (TAU/MED) or psychological treatment (CBT/MED) using a cognitive-behavioural programme, R&R2ADHD, which employs both group and individual modalities. RATE-S functional outcomes associated with ADHD symptoms, social functioning, emotional control and antisocial behaviour were given at baseline, end of treatment and three-month follow-up...
October 17, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Daniel Joel Shaw, Kristína Czekóová, Michaela Porubanová
Accurate distinction between self and other representations is fundamental to a range of social cognitive capacities, and understanding individual differences in this ability is an important aim for psychological research. This demands accurate measures of self-other distinction (SOD). The present study examined an experimental paradigm employed frequently to measure SOD in the action domain; specifically, we evaluated the rotated finger-action stimuli used increasingly to measure automatic imitation (AI). To assess the suitability of these stimuli, we compared AI elicited by different action stimuli to the performance on a perspective-taking task believed to measure SOD in the perception domain...
October 17, 2016: Psychological Research
Jordan Elliott-King, Sarah Shaw, Stephan Bandelow, Rajal Devshi, Shelina Kassam, Eef Hogervorst
INTRODUCTION: Currently, there is no consensus on dementia diagnostics in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). There are three types of assessments available: direct cognitive tests, test batteries, and informant reports. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in four databases yielding 9840 records. Relevant studies were identified and selected using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria and then coded and classified according to assessment type...
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
U Kiltz, D van der Heijde, A Boonen, W Bautista-Molano, R Burgos-Vargas, P Chiowchanwisawakit, T Duruoz, B El-Zorkany, I Essers, I Gaydukova, P Géher, L Gossec, S Grazio, J Gu, M A Khan, T J Kim, W P Maksymowych, H Marzo-Ortega, V Navarro-Compán, I Olivieri, D Patrikos, F M Pimentel-Santos, M Schirmer, F van den Bosch, U Weber, J Zochling, J Braun
INTRODUCTION: The Assessments of SpondyloArthritis international society Health Index (ASAS HI) measures functioning and health in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) across 17 aspects of health and 9 environmental factors (EF). The objective was to translate and adapt the original English version of the ASAS HI, including the EF Item Set, cross-culturally into 15 languages. METHODS: Translation and cross-cultural adaptation has been carried out following the forward-backward procedure...
2016: RMD Open
Keith E Pearson, Virginia G Wadley, Leslie A McClure, James M Shikany, Fred W Unverzagt, Suzanne E Judd
Identifying factors that contribute to the preservation of cognitive function is imperative to maintaining quality of life in advanced years. Of modifiable risk factors, diet quality has emerged as a promising candidate to make an impact on cognition. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between empirically derived dietary patterns and cognitive function. This study included 18 080 black and white participants aged 45 years and older from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science
Claudia Balducci, Angelisa Frasca, Margherita Zotti, Pietro La Vitola, Emanuela Mhillaj, Emanuele Grigoli, Martina Iacobellis, Federica Grandi, Massimo Messa, Laura Colombo, Monica Molteni, Luigia Trabace, Carlo Rossetti, Mario Salmona, Gianluigi Forloni
[Background] Amyloid-β oligomers (AβO) are species mainly involved in the synaptic and cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. Although their action has been described mainly at neuronal level, it is now clear that glial cells govern synaptic activity in their resting state, contributing to new learning and memory establishment. In contrast, when activated, they may lead to synaptic and cognitive dysfunction. Using a reliable acute AβO-mediated mouse model of AD, we explored whether the memory alteration AβOs induce relies on the activation of glial cells, and if Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), pivotal in the initiation of an immune response, is involved...
October 14, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Julien Bonenfant, Sophie Drapier, Jean François Houvenaghel, Florian Naudet, Claire Haegelen, Paul Sauleau, Marc Vérin
INTRODUCTION: Over a 3-year period, we monitored the efficacy and safety of deep-brain stimulation of the globus pallidus pars interna in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease whose cognitive, psychiatric impairment and/or dopa-resistant axial motor signs made them ineligible for surgery targeting the subthalamic nucleus. METHODS: A total of 25 patients were assessed before surgery, 1 year and 3 years after surgery, on the UPDRS and a neuropsychological battery...
October 11, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Manavi Tyagi, Theodora Fteropoulli, Catherine S Hurt, Shashivadan P Hirani, Lorna Rixon, Anna Davies, Nathalie Picaut, Fiona Kennedy, John Deanfield, Shay Cullen, Stanton P Newman
OBJECTIVE: We carried out a cross-sectional study to assess cognitive function in a sample of adult CHD patients, within the Functioning in Adult Congenital Heart Disease study London. The association between cognitive functioning and disease complexity was examined. METHODS: A total of 310 patients participated in this study. Patients were classified into four structural complexity groups - tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries, single ventricle, and simple conditions...
October 18, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
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