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polycomb repressor complex

Yikai Huang, Wukui Zhao, Congcong Wang, Yaru Zhu, Mengjie Liu, Huan Tong, Yin Xia, Qing Jiang, Jinzhong Qin
Though genetic data suggest that Polycomb group proteins (PcGs) are central chromatin modifiers and repressors that have been implicated in control of embryonic stem cell (ESC) pluripotency, the precise mechanism of PcG complex recruitment remains elusive, especially in mammals. We now report that the first and second MBT repeats of L3mbtl2 are important structural and functional features that are necessary and sufficient for L3mbtl2-mediated recruitment of PRC1.6 complex to target promoters. Interestingly, this region of L3mbtl2 harbors the evolutionarily conserved Pho-binding pocket also present in Drosophila Sfmbt, and mutation of the critical residues within this pocket completely abolishes its interaction with target promoters...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Zhenghao Li, Hisanori Takenobu, Amallia Nuggetsiana Setyawati, Nobuhiro Akita, Masayuki Haruta, Shunpei Satoh, Yoshitaka Shinno, Koji Chikaraishi, Kyosuke Mukae, Jesmin Akter, Ryuichi P Sugino, Atsuko Nakazawa, Akira Nakagawara, Hiroyuki Aburatani, Miki Ohira, Takehiko Kamijo
The polycomb repressor complex 2 molecule EZH2 is now known to play a role in essential cellular processes, namely, cell fate decisions, cell cycle regulation, senescence, cell differentiation, and cancer development/progression. EZH2 inhibitors have recently been developed; however, their effectiveness and underlying molecular mechanisms in many malignancies have not yet been elucidated in detail. Although the functional role of EZH2 in tumorigenesis in neuroblastoma (NB) has been investigated, mutations of EZH2 have not been reported...
March 6, 2018: Oncogene
Ana Banito, Xiang Li, Aimée N Laporte, Jae-Seok Roe, Francisco Sanchez-Vega, Chun-Hao Huang, Amanda R Dancsok, Katerina Hatzi, Chi-Chao Chen, Darjus F Tschaharganeh, Rohit Chandwani, Nilgun Tasdemir, Kevin B Jones, Mario R Capecchi, Christopher R Vakoc, Nikolaus Schultz, Marc Ladanyi, Torsten O Nielsen, Scott W Lowe
Synovial sarcoma is an aggressive cancer invariably associated with a chromosomal translocation involving genes encoding the SWI-SNF complex component SS18 and an SSX (SSX1 or SSX2) transcriptional repressor. Using functional genomics, we identify KDM2B, a histone demethylase and component of a non-canonical polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1.1), as selectively required for sustaining synovial sarcoma cell transformation. SS18-SSX1 physically interacts with PRC1.1 and co-associates with SWI/SNF and KDM2B complexes on unmethylated CpG islands...
February 22, 2018: Cancer Cell
Ting Wang, Beibei Mao, Chi Cheng, Zhuangzhi Zou, Junling Gao, Yanglu Yang, Tong Lei, Xiaolong Qi, Zengqiang Yuan, Wentong Xu, Zhongbing Lu
The transcriptional co-activator Yes-associated protein (YAP) has been implicated as an oncogene and is found to promote breast cancer metastasis. However, the pro-metastatic mechanism of YAP remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that YAP functions as a transcriptional repressor of growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF15), a divergent member of the transforming growth factor superfamily, in several breast cancer cell lines. Functionally, knockdown of YAP decreased, whereas knockdown of GDF15 increased, the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells...
February 27, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Run-Shan Duan, Gang-Bin Tang, Hong-Zhen Du, Yi-Wen Hu, Pei-Pei Liu, Ya-Jie Xu, Yu-Qiang Zeng, Shuang-Feng Zhang, Rui-Ying Wang, Zhao-Qian Teng, Chang-Mei Liu
Neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) lose their intrinsic ability and fail to regenerate, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins, which include PRC1 and PRC2 complexes function as gene repressors and are involved in many biological processes. Here we report that PRC1 components (polycomb chromobox (CBX) 2, 7, and 8) are novel regulators of axon growth and regeneration. Especially, knockdown of CBX7 in either embryonic cortical neurons or adult dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons enhances their axon growth ability...
February 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Houliang Deng, Jianming Zeng, Ting Zhang, Longcai Gong, Hongjie Zhang, Edwin Cheung, Chris Jones, Gang Li
Lysine to Methionine mutations at position 27 (K27M) in the histone H3 (H3.3 and H3.1) are highly prevalent in pediatric high-grade gliomas (HGG) that arise in the midline of the central nervous system. H3K27M perturbs the activity of polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2) and correlates with DNA hypomethylation; however, the pathways whereby H3K27M drive the development of pediatric HGG remain poorly understood. To understand the mechanism of pediatric HGG development driven by H3.3K27M and discover potential therapeutic targets or biomarkers, we established pediatric glioma cell model systems harboring H3...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Nolwenn Briand, Anne-Claire Guénantin, Dorota Jeziorowska, Akshay Shah, Matthieu Mantecon, Emilie Capel, Marie Garcia, Anja Oldenburg, Jonas Paulsen, Jean-Sebastien Hulot, Corinne Vigouroux, Philippe Collas
The p.R482W hotspot mutation in A-type nuclear lamins causes familial partial lipodystrophy of Dunnigan-type (FPLD2), a lipodystrophic syndrome complicated by early-onset atherosclerosis. Molecular mechanisms underlying endothelial cell dysfunction conferred by the lamin A mutation remain elusive. However, lamin A regulates epigenetic developmental pathways and mutations could perturb these functions. Here, we demonstrate that lamin A R482W elicits endothelial differentiation defects in a developmental model of FPLD2...
February 9, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Xiangdong Lv, Hao Chen, Shuo Zhang, Zhao Zhang, Chenyu Pan, Yuanxin Xia, Jialin Fan, Wenqing Wu, Yi Lu, Lei Zhang, Hailong Wu, Yun Zhao
The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays important roles in both embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. Such biological functions are mediated by the transcription factor Cubitus interruptus (Ci). Yet the transcriptional regulation of the effector Ci itself is poorly investigated. Through an RNAi-based genetic screen, we identified that female sterile (1) homeotic (Fsh), a transcription co-activator, directly activates Ci transcription. Biochemistry assays demonstrated physical interactions among Fsh,Sex combs extra (Sce) and Polycomb (Pc)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
Patrice Penfornis, Joseph D Fernandes, Radhika R Pochampally
Human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) provide support for cancer progression, partly through their secretome that includes extracellular vesicles (EVs). Based on deep-sequencing of small RNA from EVs of MSCs, we now report the characterization of novel small RNA, named n-miR-G665, which exhibits typical properties of miRNAs. n-miR-G665 sequence is conserved and expressed in most cell types. Knockdown studies using anti-agomirs and shRNA studies demonstrated that n-miR-G665 plays an important role in cell proliferation...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Francesca Cura, Annalisa Palmieri, Ambra Girardi, Francesco Carinci, Paolo Giovanni Morselli, Nayereh Nouri, Furio Pezzetti, Luca Scapoli, Marcella Martinelli
OBJECTIVE: Orofacial development is a complex process subjected to failure impairing. Indeed, the cleft of the lip and/or of the palate is among the most frequent inborn malformations. The JARID2 gene has been suggested to be involved in non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (nsCL/P) etiology. JARID2 interacts with the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) in regulating the expression patterns of developmental genes by modifying the chromatin state. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genes coding for the PRC2 components, as well as other genes active in cell differentiation and embryonic development, were selected for a family-based association study to verify their involvement in nsCL/P...
January 27, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Quentin Bazot, Kostas Paschos, Martin J Allday
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes latent infection in human B cells and is associated with a wide range of cancers. The EBV nuclear antigen 3 (EBNA3) family proteins are critical for B cell transformation and function as transcriptional regulators. It is well established that EBNA3A and EBNA3C co-operate in the regulation of cellular genes. Here we demonstrate that the gene STK39 is repressed only by EBNA3A. This is the first example of a gene regulated only by EBNA3A in EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) without the help of EBNA3C...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Virology
Abheepsa Mishra, Kamesh Ayasolla, Vinod Kumar, Xiqian Lan, Himanshu Vashistha, Rukhsana Aslam, Ali Hussain, Sheetal Chowdhary, Shadafarin Marashi Shoshtari, Nitpriya Paliwal, Waldemar Popik, Moin A Saleem, Ashwani Malhotra, Leonard G Meggs, Karl Skorecki, Pravin C Singhal
The loss of podocyte (PD) molecular phenotype is an important feature of diabetic podocytopathy. We hypothesized that high glucose (HG) induces dedifferentiation in differentiated podocytes (DPD) through alterations in APOL1-microRNA (miR) 193a axis. HG-induced DPDs dedifferentiation manifested in the form of down regulation of WT1 and upregulation of PAX2 expression. WT1- silenced DPDs displayed enhanced expression of PAX2. Immunoprecipitation (IP) of DPD cellular lysates with anti-WT1 antibody revealed formation of WT1 repressor complexes containing Polycomb group proteins (PcG), EZH2, Menin, and DNA methyl transferase (DNMT1), whereas, silencing of either WT1 or DNMT1 disrupted this complex with enhanced expression of PAX2...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
William M Skiles, Avery Kester, Jane H Pryor, Mark E Westhusin, Michael C Golding, Charles R Long
Embryo culture and assisted reproductive technologies have been associated with a disproportionately high number of epigenetic abnormalities in the resulting offspring. However, the mechanisms by which these techniques influence the epigenome remain poorly defined. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of oxygen concentration to influence the transcriptional control of a selection of key enzymes regulating chromatin structure. In mouse embryonic stem cells, oxygen concentrations modulated the transcriptional regulation of the TET family of enzymes, as well as the de novo methyltransferase Dnmt3a...
January 12, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Zheng Wang, Micah D Gearhart, Yu-Wei Lee, Ishan Kumar, Bulat Ramazanov, Yan Zhang, Charles Hernandez, Alice Y Lu, Nils Neuenkirchen, Jingjing Deng, Jiaqi Jin, Yuval Kluger, Thomas A Neubert, Vivian J Bardwell, Natalia B Ivanova
Polycomb group proteins regulate self-renewal and differentiation in many stem cell systems. When assembled into two canonical complexes, PRC1 and PRC2, they sequentially deposit H3K27me3 and H2AK119ub histone marks and establish repressive chromatin, referred to as Polycomb domains. Non-canonical PRC1 complexes retain RING1/RNF2 E3-ubiquitin ligases but have unique sets of accessory subunits. How these non-canonical complexes recognize and regulate their gene targets remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the BCL6 co-repressor (BCOR), a member of the PRC1...
January 8, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
Madhurima Saxena, Adrianna K San Roman, Nicholas K O'Neill, Rita Sulahian, Unmesh Jadhav, Ramesh A Shivdasani
Compacted chromatin and nucleosomes are known barriers to gene expression; the nature and relative importance of other transcriptional constraints remain unclear, especially at distant enhancers. Polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2) places the histone mark H3K27me3 predominantly at promoters, where its silencing activity is well documented. In adult tissues, enhancers lack H3K27me3, and it is unknown whether intergenic H3K27me3 deposits affect nearby genes. In primary intestinal villus cells, we identified hundreds of tissue-restricted enhancers that require the transcription factor (TF) CDX2 to prevent the incursion of H3K27me3 from adjoining areas of elevated basal marking into large well-demarcated genome domains...
December 1, 2017: Genes & Development
Jean-Luc C Mougeot, Braxton Noll, Farah K Bahrani Mougeot
Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting exocrine glands leading to mouth and eyes dryness. The extent to which epigenetic DNA methylation changes are responsible for an X-chromosome dose effect has yet to be determined. Our objectives were to (i) describe how epigenetic DNA methylation changes could explain an X-chromosome dose effect in SS for women with normal 46,XX genotype and (ii) determine the relevant relationships to this dose effect, between X-linked genes, genes controlling X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) and genes encoding associated transcription factors, all of which are differentially expressed and/or differentially methylated in the salivary glands of SS patients...
January 9, 2018: Oral Diseases
Aaron Lomax, Daniel P Woods, Yinxin Dong, Frédéric Bouché, Ying Rong, Kevin S Mayer, Xuehua Zhong, Richard M Amasino
Many plants require prolonged cold exposure to acquire the competence to flower. The process by which cold exposure results in competence is known as vernalization. In Arabidopsis thaliana, vernalization leads to the stable repression of the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C via chromatin modification including an increase of trimethylation on lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) by Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2). Vernalization in pooids is associated with the stable induction of a floral promoter, VERNALIZATION 1...
January 4, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Jing Feng, Jiang Lu
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins within the polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and PRC2 are significant epigenetic regulatory factors involved in important cellular and developmental processes in eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis, LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 (LHP1), also known as TERMINAL FLOWER 2, has been proposed as a plant specific subunit of PRC1 that could bind the trimethylated lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3), which is established by PRC2 and is required for a functional plant PcG system. LHP1 not only interacts with PRC1 to catalyze monoubiquitination at lysine 119 of histone H2A but also functions with PRC2 to establish H3K27me3...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Dang Ngoc Anh Suong, Kouhei Shimaji, Jung-Hoon Pyo, Joung-Sun Park, Hideki Yoshida, Mi-Ae Yoo, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
Jumonji (Jmj)/Jarid2 is a DNA-binding transcriptional repressor mediated via histone methylation. Nevertheless, the well-known function of Jmj is as a scaffold for the recruitment of various complexes including Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), and required for mouse embryonic stem cell development. However, PRC2 independent function is suggested for Drosophila Jumonji (dJmj). To clarify the function of dJmj during cell differentiation, we used Drosophila adult intestinal stem cell system that allows to follow stem cell behaviors in vivo...
January 2018: Cellular Signalling
Mariaelena Pistoni, Nicky Helsen, Jolien Vanhove, Ruben Boon, Zhuofei Xu, Laura Ordovas, Catherine M Verfaillie
Currently, drug metabolization and toxicity studies rely on the use of primary human hepatocytes and hepatoma cell lines, which both have conceivable limitations. Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) are an alternative and valuable source of hepatocytes that can overcome these limitations. EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2), a transcriptional repressor of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), may play an important role in hepatocyte development, but its role during in vitro hPSC-HLC differentiation has not yet been assessed...
2017: PloS One
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