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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430540/demystifying-orbital-emergencies-a-pictorial-review
#1
Viet D Nguyen, Achint K Singh, Wilson B Altmeyer, Bundhit Tantiwongkosi
Imaging of the orbit plays an important role in the workup of orbital emergencies. Orbital imaging is particularly useful in the emergency department, where clinical history and physical examination may be limited or delayed until the exclusion or treatment of more life-threatening conditions. Cross-sectional orbital imaging with multidetector computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is commonly performed in addition to ultrasonography. In an emergent setting, CT is the preferred modality when evaluating for intraorbital foreign bodies, fractures, or calcifications within a mass lesion...
April 21, 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399577/drug-development-concepts-as-guides-for-optimizing-clinical-trials-of-supplemental-zinc-for-populations-at-risk-of-deficiency-or-diarrhea
#2
David H Alpers, Graeme P Young, Cuong D Tran, Elissa K Mortimer, Geetha L Gopalsamy, Nancy F Krebs, Mark J Manary, Balakrishnan S Ramakrishna, Henry J Binder, Ian L Brown, Leland V Miller
Studies on the efficacy of zinc supplementation for treatment or prevention of diarrhea have shown an inconsistent effect in populations at risk for zinc deficiency. Unlike drugs, which have no preexisting presence in the body, endogenous zinc must be assessed pharmacokinetically by isotope tracer studies. Although such methods have produced much data, very few studies have estimated the dose and the timing of dosing of zinc supplementation. This review examines drug kinetics used to establish the best dose, the timing of such doses, and the mechanism of action through pharmacodynamic markers and applies them, where possible, to zinc supplements...
March 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361017/lower-limb-stress-fractures-in-sport-optimising-their-management-and-outcome
#3
REVIEW
Greg A J Robertson, Alexander M Wood
Stress fractures in sport are becoming increasing more common, comprising up to 10% of all of sporting injuries. Around 90% of such injuries are located in the lower limb. This articles aims to define the optimal management of lower limb stress fractures in the athlete, with a view to maximise return rates and minimise return times to sport. Treatment planning of this condition is specific to the location of the injury. However, there remains a clear division of stress fractures by "high" and "low" risk. "Low risk" stress fractures are those with a low probability of fracture propagation, delayed union, or non-union, and so can be managed reliably with rest and exercise limitation...
March 18, 2017: World Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359250/insight-into-discovery-of-next-generation-reversible-tmlr-inhibitors-targeting-egfr-activating-and-drug-resistant-t790m-mutants
#4
Subhash Mohan Agarwal, Divyani Pal, Mansi Gupta, Ravi Saini
Cancer is one of the most challenging diseases among the various causes of deaths worldwide. Among cancer, lung cancer rules as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths annually.The majority of the lung cancers identified are non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Clinically, the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is a therapeutically accepted target for NSCLC. Many therapeutic leads that target this transmembrane receptor protein were tested for anti-EGFR activity that led to the discovery of gefitinib and erlotinib...
March 30, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344786/united-european-gastroenterology-evidence-based-guidelines-for-the-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-chronic-pancreatitis-hapaneu
#5
REVIEW
J Matthias Löhr, Enrique Dominguez-Munoz, Jonas Rosendahl, Marc Besselink, Julia Mayerle, Markus M Lerch, Stephan Haas, Fatih Akisik, Nikolaos Kartalis, Julio Iglesias-Garcia, Jutta Keller, Marja Boermeester, Jens Werner, Jean-Marc Dumonceau, Paul Fockens, Asbjorn Drewes, Gürlap Ceyhan, Björn Lindkvist, Joost Drenth, Nils Ewald, Philip Hardt, Enrique de Madaria, Heiko Witt, Alexander Schneider, Riccardo Manfredi, Frøkjer J Brøndum, Sasa Rudolf, Thomas Bollen, Marco Bruno
BACKGROUND: There have been substantial improvements in the management of chronic pancreatitis, leading to the publication of several national guidelines during recent years. In collaboration with United European Gastroenterology, the working group on 'Harmonizing diagnosis and treatment of chronic pancreatitis across Europe' (HaPanEU) developed these European guidelines using an evidence-based approach. METHODS: Twelve multidisciplinary review groups performed systematic literature reviews to answer 101 predefined clinical questions...
March 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335858/netting-novel-regulators-of-hematopoiesis-and-hematologic-malignancies-in-zebrafish
#6
Wanda Kwan, Trista E North
Zebrafish are one of the preeminent model systems for the study of blood development (hematopoiesis), hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) biology, and hematopathology. The zebrafish hematopoietic system shares strong similarities in functional populations, genetic regulators, and niche interactions with its mammalian counterparts. These evolutionarily conserved characteristics, together with emerging technologies in live imaging, compound screening, and genetic manipulation, have been employed to successfully identify and interrogate novel regulatory mechanisms and molecular pathways that guide hematopoiesis...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328160/co-morbidities-in-severe-asthma-clinical-impact-and-management
#7
REVIEW
Celeste Porsbjerg, Andrew Menzies-Gow
Patients with severe asthma represent a minority of the total asthma population, but carry a majority of the morbidity and healthcare costs. Achieving better asthma control in this group of patients is therefore of key importance. Systematic assessment of patients with possible severe asthma to identify treatment barriers and triggers of asthma symptoms, including co-morbidities, improves asthma control and reduces healthcare costs and is recommended by international guidelines on management of severe asthma...
March 22, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303481/morphea-and-eosinophilic-fasciitis-an-update
#8
REVIEW
Jorre S Mertens, Marieke M B Seyger, Rogier M Thurlings, Timothy R D J Radstake, Elke M G J de Jong
Morphea, also known as localized scleroderma, encompasses a group of idiopathic sclerotic skin diseases. The spectrum ranges from relatively mild phenotypes, which generally cause few problems besides local discomfort and visible disfigurement, to subtypes with severe complications such as joint contractures and limb length discrepancies. Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF, Shulman syndrome) is often regarded as belonging to the severe end of the morphea spectrum. The exact driving mechanisms behind morphea and EF pathogenesis remain to be elucidated...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291375/juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-what-is-the-utility-of-ultrasound
#9
Hershernpal A S Basra, Paul D Humphries
Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis is a heterogeneous condition and an important cause of acquired disability in children. Evidence supports early treatment to prevent future complications. This relies on prompt diagnosis, achieved by a high index of clinical suspicion and supportive evidence, including the detection of joint and or tendon inflammation. Ultrasound is a readily accessible, well tolerated, safe and accurate modality for assessing joints and the surrounding soft tissues. It can also be used to guide therapy into those joints and tendon sheaths, resistant to systemic treatments...
March 14, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280299/a-practical-guide-about-biosimilar-data-for-health-care-providers-treating-inflammatory-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Joseph Markenson, Daniel F Alvarez, Ira Jacobs, Carol Kirchhoff
To make informed decisions about the safety, efficacy, and clinical utility of a biosimilar, health care providers should understand the types and be able to analyze data generated from a biosimilar development program. This article reviews the biosimilar guidelines, the biosimilar development process to provide education and context about biosimilarity, and uses examples from infliximab biosimilars to review the terminology and potential types of analyses that may be used to compare potential biosimilars to the originator biologic...
2017: Biologics: Targets & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277880/genomic-tests-to-guide-prostate-cancer-management-following-diagnosis
#11
Michele Colicchia, Alessandro Morlacco, John C Cheville, R Jeffrey Karnes
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a common cancer in men, but variable clinical behaviors make its management challenging. Risk stratification is a key issue in disease management. Patient-tailored strategies are strongly advocated to reduce unnecessary treatment while maximizing the oncological outcomes of patient who need active treatment in the primary, adjuvant or salvage setting. Recently, tissue-based biomarkers or genomic tests have become available to improve the clinical decision-making. Areas covered: In this review, the authors present recent evidence about these tissue-based biomarkers, discussing the application of each of them in the clinical setting, focusing on the tests aimed to provide a better risk stratification and to guide decision-making after the diagnosis of PCa (i...
March 13, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274138/role-of-interferon-in-melanoma-old-hopes-and-new-perspectives
#12
Martina Sanlorenzo, Igor Vujic, Fabrizio Carnevale-Schianca, Pietro Quaglino, Loretta Gammaitoni, Maria Teresa Fierro, Massimo Aglietta, Dario Sangiolo
Interferons (IFNs) play a key role in modulating anti-microbial and antitumor immune responses. In oncology, past attempts to exploit IFNs therapeutically did not fulfill expectations, and had only modest clinical results, mostly limited to adjuvant melanoma treatment. The recent successes of immunotherapy in oncology have brought new attention to the potential of immune-modulatory agents like the IFNs. Areas covered: The authors review the biological effects of IFN on melanoma and immune cells. Then, the authors summarize the clinical results of adjuvant and therapeutic IFN in melanoma, giving focus to possible prognostic factors and new on-going clinical trials...
April 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258721/cancer-genomics-guide-clinical-practice-in-personalized-medicine
#13
Jacqueline Lehmann-Che, Brigitte Poirot, Jean-Christophe Boyer, Alexandre Evrard
Targeted therapy has revolutionized the treatment of many cancers. Widely developed over the last decade, this new concept of precision medicine relies on the use of genomic technologies to analyze tumor samples in order to identify actionable targets and biomarkers of resistance. The goal is to optimize treatment by identifying which therapeutic approach is best for each patient, i.e. the treatment that is effective, has minimal adverse effects, and avoids unnecessary intervention and cost. The purpose of this review is to highlight, using a few seminal examples of therapeutic targets, the important contribution of appropriate analysis of key oncogenes or driver genes makes to clinical decision-making...
January 30, 2017: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256436/parkinsonian-pyramidal-syndromes-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Christine Tranchant, Meriam Koob, Mathieu Anheim
INTRODUCTION: Parkinsonian-Pyramidal syndrome (PPS), defined as the combination of both pyramidal and parkinsonian signs is a concept that recently emerged. PPS may manifest itself in numerous neurodegenerative diseases, many of these being inherited. Their diagnosis is a major challenge for the clinical management, for the prognosis, for genetic counselling and, in a few cases, which should not be neglected, for specific treatment. OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to provide a review of PPS and an algorithm in order to guide their diagnosis in clinical practice...
February 22, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256213/update-on-molecular-findings-in-rhabdomyosarcoma
#15
REVIEW
Dina El Demellawy, Jean McGowan-Jordan, Joseph de Nanassy, Elizaveta Chernetsova, Ahmed Nasr
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common malignant soft tissue tumour in children and adolescents. Histologically RMS resembles developing fetal striated skeletal muscle. RMS is stratified into different histological subtypes which appear to influence management plans and patient outcome. Importantly, molecular classification of RMS seems to more accurately capture the true biology and clinical course and prognosis of RMS to guide therapeutic decisions. The identification of PAX-FOXO1 fusion status in RMS is one of the most important updates in the risk stratification of RMS...
April 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229282/clinical-studies-in-hematologic-microtransplantation
#16
REVIEW
Kevin A David, Dennis Cooper, Roger Strair
The anti-tumor effects of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation depend upon engraftment of donor cells followed by a graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect. However, pre-clinical and clinical studies have established that under certain circumstances, anti-tumor responses can occur despite the absence of high levels of durable donor cell engraftment. Tumor response with little or no donor engraftment has been termed "microtransplantation." It has been hard to define conditions leading to tumor responses without donor cell persistence in humans because the degree of engraftment depends very heavily upon many patient-specific factors, including immune status and degree of prior therapy...
February 2017: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229252/pain-in-patients-with-pancreatic-cancer-prevalence-mechanisms-management-and-future-developments
#17
REVIEW
Andreas I Koulouris, Paul Banim, Andrew R Hart
Pain affects approximately 80% of patients with pancreatic cancer, with half requiring strong opioid analgesia, namely: morphine-based drugs on step three of the WHO analgesic ladder (as opposed to the weak opioids: codeine and tramadol). The presence of pain is associated with reduced survival. This article reviews the literature regarding pain: prevalence, mechanisms, pharmacological, and endoscopic treatments and identifies areas for research to develop individualized patient pain management pathways. The online literature review was conducted through: PubMed, Clinical Key, Uptodate, and NICE Evidence...
April 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154821/systematic-review-of-interventions-to-improve-patient-uptake-and-completion-of-pulmonary-rehabilitation-in-copd
#18
REVIEW
Arwel W Jones, Abigail Taylor, Holly Gowler, Noel O'Kelly, Sudip Ghosh, Christopher Bridle
Pulmonary rehabilitation is considered a key management strategy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but its effectiveness is undermined by poor patient uptake and completion. The aim of this review was to identify, select and synthesise the available evidence on interventions for improving uptake and completion of pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD. Electronic databases and trial registers were searched for randomised trials evaluating the effect of an intervention compared with a concurrent control group on patient uptake and completion...
January 2017: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127180/cytoreductive-surgery-in-the-management-of-renal-tumours-rationale-current-evidence-and-future-perspectives
#19
Makarand V Khochikar
Renal cell carcinoma accounts for 3% of adult solid malignant tumours. Approximately 25% of the patients present with metastatic disease at presentation. In the era of immunotherapy (interferon alpha-2b and interleukin-2), studies showed significant survival benefit with cytoreductive nephrectomy (CRN) followed by interferon alpha-2b than interferon alpha 2-b alone. Introduction of targeted therapies (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors) in 2005 generated a great interest in the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) as these drugs exhibited tumour shrinkage in the primary tumour as well as in the metastatic site/s...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111181/charcot-shoulder-and-elbow-a-review-of-the-literature-and-update-on-treatment
#20
REVIEW
Mark C Snoddy, Donald H Lee, John E Kuhn
Charcot arthropathy of the shoulder and elbow is a rare disease process initially described in the 1700s; however, it was not until the 19th century that physicians understood its association with other disease processes such as cervical spine pathology and diabetes. A primary complaint is painful or painless joint dysfunction, meaning the orthopedic surgeon is regularly the first physician to evaluate the patient. Frequently, the condition of these patients is misdiagnosed. Although the pathogenesis of the disease is controversial, the etiology is commonly due to syringomyelia...
March 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
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