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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341159/clinicopathological-genomic-and-immunological-factors-in-colorectal-cancer-prognosis
#1
REVIEW
K M Marks, N P West, E Morris, P Quirke
BACKGROUND: Numerous factors affect the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC), many of which have long been identified, such as patient demographics and the multidisciplinary team. In more recent years, molecular and immunological biomarkers have been shown to have a significant influence on patient outcomes. Whilst some of these biomarkers still require ongoing validation, if proven to be worthwhile they may change our understanding and future management of CRC. The aim of this review was to identify the key prognosticators of CRC, including new molecular and immunological biomarkers, and outline how these might fit into the whole wider context for patients...
January 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331556/polypoidal-choroidal-vasculopathy-definition-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-management
#2
REVIEW
Chui Ming Gemmy Cheung, Timothy Y Y Lai, Paisan Ruamviboonsuk, Shih-Jen Chen, Youxin Chen, K Bailey Freund, Fomi Gomi, Adrian H Koh, Won-Ki Lee, Tien Yin Wong
Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is an age-related macular degeneration (AMD) subtype and is seen particularly in Asians. Previous studies have suggested disparity in response to intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents between PCV and typical AMD, and thus, the preferred treatment for PCV has remained unclear. Recent research has provided novel insights into the pathogenesis of PCV, and imaging studies based on OCT suggest that PCV belongs to a spectrum of conditions characterized by pachychoroid, in which disturbance in the choroidal circulation seems to be central to its pathogenesis...
January 10, 2018: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326424/assessing-treatment-outcomes-in-multiple-sclerosis-trials-and-in-the-clinical-setting
#3
REVIEW
Carmen Tur, Marcello Moccia, Frederik Barkhof, Jeremy Chataway, Jaume Sastre-Garriga, Alan J Thompson, Olga Ciccarelli
Increasing numbers of drugs are being developed for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Measurement of relevant outcomes is key for assessing the efficacy of new drugs in clinical trials and for monitoring responses to disease-modifying drugs in individual patients. Most outcomes used in trial and clinical settings reflect either clinical or neuroimaging aspects of MS (such as relapse and accrual of disability or the presence of visible inflammation and brain tissue loss, respectively). However, most measures employed in clinical trials to assess treatment effects are not used in routine practice...
January 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318354/li-rads-a-glimpse-into-the-future
#4
REVIEW
Claude B Sirlin, Ania Z Kielar, An Tang, Mustafa R Bashir
This article provides a glimpse into the future of the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS), discussing the immediate and long-term plans for its continuing improvement and expansion. To complement the Core and Essentials components of the latest version of LI-RADS, a comprehensive manual will be released soon, and it will include technical recommendations, management guidance, as well as reporting instructions and templates. In this article, we briefly review the process by which LI-RADS has been developed until now, a process guided by a variable combination of data, expert opinion, and desire for congruency with other diagnostic systems in North America...
January 9, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315051/vertebral-compression-fractures
#5
Omar Musbahi, Adam M Ali, Hamid Hassany, Reza Mobasheri
This review gives a practical guide to the investigation and management of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. With an ageing population, the burden of disease and health system costs attributable to this common injury continue to rise. This article outlines the epidemiology, clinical and radiological assessment of vertebral compression fractures, and key decisions that must be made in their management. It reviews the indications and evidence for conservative vs operative treatment, discusses the rationale for vertebroplasty, kyphoplasty and spinal stabilization, and looks at outcomes in this vulnerable patient population...
January 2, 2018: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301613/testing-olfactory-function-and-mapping-the-structural-olfactory-networks-in-the-brain
#6
Alexander Fjældstad
We perceive the world through our senses. The dependence on these sensory stimuli becomes obvious when we see a visually impaired individual with a guide dog or an individual using sign language. However, individuals with olfactory deficits suffer from a more concealed impairment without any opportunity for diagnostics or treatment in the Danish healthcare system. Around a fifth of the population experience olfactory deficits, of which 1-2% are functionally anosmic. The personal consequences for anosmics can be extensive, lacking not only in hedonic yield related to eating and drinking, but also the socialization during dinners can become niggling...
January 2018: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295811/stage-based-mobile-intervention-for-substance-use-disorders-in-primary-care-development-and-test-of-acceptability
#7
Deborah Levesque, Cindy Umanzor, Emma de Aguiar
BACKGROUND: In 2016, 21 million Americans aged 12 years and older needed treatment for a substance use disorder (SUD). However, only 10% to 11% of individuals requiring SUD treatment received it. Given their access to patients, primary care providers are in a unique position to perform universal Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) to identify individuals at risk, fill gaps in services, and make referrals to specialty treatment when indicated. Major barriers to SBIRT include limited time among providers and low motivation to change among many patients...
January 2, 2018: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261194/calcium-based-biomaterials-for-diagnosis-treatment-and-theranostics
#8
REVIEW
Chao Qi, Jing Lin, Lian-Hua Fu, Peng Huang
Calcium-based (CaXs) biomaterials including calcium phosphates, calcium carbonates, calcium silicate and calcium fluoride have been widely utilized in the biomedical field owing to their excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. In recent years, CaXs biomaterials have been strategically integrated with imaging contrast agents and therapeutic agents for various molecular imaging modalities including fluorescence imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging or multimodal imaging, as well as for various therapeutic approaches including chemotherapy, gene therapy, hyperthermia therapy, photodynamic therapy, radiation therapy, or combination therapy, even imaging-guided therapy...
December 20, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251666/advanced-pet-imaging-in-oncology-status-and-developments-with-current-and-future-relevance-to-lung-cancer-care
#9
Wieland Voigt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the status and developments of PET imaging in oncology, with particular emphasis on lung cancer. We discuss the significance of PET for diagnosis, staging, decision-making, monitoring of treatment response, and drug development. The PET key advantage, the noninvasive assessment of functional and molecular tumor characteristics including tumor heterogeneity, as well as PET trends relevant to cancer care are exemplified. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances of PET and radiotracer technology are encouraging for multiple fields of oncological research and clinical application, including in-depth assessment of PET images by texture analysis (radiomics)...
December 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198507/british-society-for-sexual-medicine-guidelines-on-adult-testosterone-deficiency-with-statements-for-uk-practice
#10
REVIEW
Geoff Hackett, Michael Kirby, David Edwards, Thomas Hugh Jones, Kevan Wylie, Nick Ossei-Gerning, Janine David, Asif Muneer
BACKGROUND: Testosterone deficiency (TD) is an increasingly common problem with significant health implications, but its diagnosis and management can be challenging. AIM: To review the available literature on TD and provide evidence-based statements for UK clinical practice. METHODS: Evidence was derived from Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane searches on hypogonadism, testosterone (T) therapy, and cardiovascular safety from May 2005 to May 2015...
December 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184455/using-proms-to-guide-patients-and-practitioners-through-the-head-and-neck-cancer-journey
#11
REVIEW
Simon N Rogers, Brittany Barber
The measurement of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) following head and neck cancer (HNC) has the capacity to substantially enhance the care of patients and their care-givers following the diagnosis and treatment of HNC. Literature concerning PROMs has increased exponentially in the past 2 decades, producing a vast array of data upon which the multidisciplinary team can reflect. For this review, "Handle On QOL" has been used as a source of references to illustrate the points raised. PROMs are contextualized by considering the clinically-distinct key stages that cancer patients endure: diagnosis, treatment, acute toxicity, early recovery, late effects, recurrence, and palliation...
2017: Patient related Outcome Measures
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160119/a-review-of-the-infection-pathogenesis-and-prophylaxis-recommendations-in-patients-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#12
Tamar Tadmor, Manfred Welslau, Iwoma Hus
The majority of patients with CLL will suffer from infections during their disease, accounting for approximately 60% of deaths in CLL. Patients are predisposed to infection due to immune defects related to the primary disease, and as a result of therapy. The range of infectious complications has evolved alongside therapeutic advances in the treatment of CLL. More recently several novel therapeutic compounds have been introduced in CLL, whose unique safety profiles will probably have an impact on the prophylaxis and management of infections in these patients...
November 27, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111107/mind-the-gap-current-challenges-and-future-state-of-heart-failure-care
#13
REVIEW
Michael A McDonald, Euan A Ashley, Paul W M Fedak, Nathaniel Hawkins, James L Januzzi, John J V McMurray, Victoria N Parikh, Vivek Rao, Daniyil Svystonyuk, John R Teerlink, Sean Virani
The past decade has seen many advances in the management of heart failure (HF) that have improved survival and quality of life for patients living with this condition. A number of gaps remain in our understanding of the pathophysiology of HF, and the application of emerging treatment strategies is an exciting but daunting challenge. It is possible that advances in genetic evaluation of cardiomyopathy will provide a more refined approach to characterizing HF syndromes, whereas large-scale clinical trials on the horizon should further clarify the role of novel pharmacologic agents and invasive therapies...
November 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108840/use-of-the-coronary-artery-calcium-score-in-discussion-of-initiation-of-statin-therapy-in-primary-prevention
#14
Erin D Michos, Michael J Blaha, Roger S Blumenthal
Clinical guidelines for instituting pharmacotherapy for the primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), specifically lipid management and aspirin, have long been based on absolute risk. However, lipid management in the current era remains challenging to both patients and clinicians in the setting of somewhat discordant recommendations from various organizations. All guidelines endorse the use of statins for primary prevention for those at sufficient absolute risk, and treatment recommendations are generally "risk-based" rather than exclusively targeting specific low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels...
November 3, 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108106/measurement-tools-for-assessment-of-older-age-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review-of-the-recent-global-literature
#15
Soham Rej, William Quayle, Brent P Forester, Annemiek Dols, Jennifer Gatchel, Peijun Chen, Sarah Gough, Rebecca Fox, Martha Sajatovic, Sergio A Strejilevich, Lisa T Eyler
OBJECTIVES: More than 50% of people with bipolar disorder will be age 60 years or older by 2030. There is a need for more data to guide assessment and treatment in older age bipolar disorder (OABD); however, interpretation of findings from small, single-site studies may not be generalizable and there are few large trials. As a step in the direction of coordinated large-scale OABD data collection, it is critical to identify which measurements are currently used and identify potential gaps in domains typically assessed...
November 6, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101985/acr-appropriateness-criteria%C3%A2-monitoring-response-to-neoadjuvant-systemic-therapy-for%C3%A2-breast-cancer
#16
Priscilla J Slanetz, Linda Moy, Paul Baron, Roberta M diFlorio, Edward D Green, Samantha L Heller, Anna I Holbrook, Su-Ju Lee, Alana A Lewin, Ana P Lourenco, Bethany Niell, Ashley R Stuckey, Sunita Trikha, Nina S Vincoff, Susan P Weinstein, Monica M Yepes, Mary S Newell
Patients with locally advanced invasive breast cancers are often treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to definitive surgical intervention. The primary aims of this approach are to: 1) reduce tumor burden thereby permitting breast conservation rather than mastectomy; 2) promptly treat possible metastatic disease, whether or not it is detectable on preoperative staging; and 3) potentially tailor future chemotherapeutic decisions by monitoring in-vivo tumor response. Accurate radiological assessment permits optimal management and planning in this population...
November 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092085/appropriate-use-criteria-for-fluoroscopically-guided-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-sacroiliac-interventions-results-from-the-spine-intervention-society-convened-multispecialty-collaborative
#17
John MacVicar, D Scott Kreiner, Belinda Duszynski, David J Kennedy
Objective: To provide an overview of a multisociety effort to formulate appropriate use criteria for image-guided injections and radiofrequency procedures in the diagnosis and treatment of sacroiliac joint and posterior sacroiliac complex pain. Methods: The Spine Intervention Society convened a multisociety effort to guide physicians and define for payers the appropriate use of image-guided injections and radiofrequency procedures. An evidence panel was established to write systematic reviews, define key terms and assumptions, and develop clinical scenarios to be addressed...
November 1, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090457/annual-research-review-suicide-among-youth-epidemiology-potential-etiology-and-treatment
#18
REVIEW
Christine B Cha, Peter J Franz, Eleonora M Guzmán, Catherine R Glenn, Evan M Kleiman, Matthew K Nock
BACKGROUND: Suicide is a leading cause of death and a complex clinical outcome. Here, we summarize the current state of research pertaining to suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth. We review their definitions/measurement and phenomenology, epidemiology, potential etiological mechanisms, and psychological treatment and prevention efforts. RESULTS: We identify key patterns and gaps in knowledge that should guide future work. Regarding epidemiology, the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among youth varies across countries and sociodemographic populations...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080723/no-351-transvaginal-mesh-procedures-for-pelvic-organ-prolapse
#19
Maryse Larouche, Roxana Geoffrion, Jens-Erik Walter
OBJECTIVE: This guideline reviews the evidence related to the risks and benefits of using transvaginal mesh in pelvic organ prolapse repairs in order to update recommendations initially made in 2011. INTENDED USERS: Gynaecologists, residents, urologists, urogynaecologists, and other health care providers who assess, counsel, and care for women with pelvic organ prolapse. TARGET POPULATION: Adult women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse considering surgery and those who have previously undergone transvaginal mesh procedures for the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse...
November 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075194/pharmacogenomics-dna-biomarkers-in-colorectal-cancer-current-update
#20
REVIEW
Nurul-Syakima Ab Mutalib, Najwa F Md Yusof, Shafina-Nadiawati Abdul, Rahman Jamal
Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains as one of the most common cause of worldwide cancer morbidity and mortality. Improvements in surgical modalities and adjuvant chemotherapy have increased the cure rates in early stage disease, but a significant portion of the patients will develop recurrence or advanced disease. The efficacy of chemotherapy of recurrence and advanced CRC has improved significantly over the last decade. Previously, the historical drug 5-fluorouracil was used as single chemotherapeutic agent. Now with the addition of other drugs such as capecitabine, irinotecan, oxaliplatin, bevacizumab, cetuximab, panitumumab, vemurafenib, and dabrafenib, the median survival of patients with advanced CRC has significantly improved from less than a year to the current standard of almost 2 years...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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