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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691708/generation-of-insulin-deficient-piglets-by-disrupting-ins-gene-using-crispr-cas9-system
#1
Bumrae Cho, Su Jin Kim, Eun-Jin Lee, Sun Mi Ahn, Jin Seok Lee, Dal-Young Ji, Kiho Lee, Jung-Taek Kang
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease with accompanying severe complications. Various animal models, mostly rodents due to availability of genetically modified lines, have been used to investigate the pathophysiology of diabetes. Using pigs for diabetic research can be beneficial because of their similarity in size, pathogenesis pathway, physiology, and metabolism with human. However, the use of pigs for diabetes research has been hampered due to only few pig models presenting diabetes symptoms. In this study, we have successfully generated insulin-deficient pigs by generating the indels of the porcine INS gene in somatic cells using CRISPR/Cas9 system followed by somatic cell nuclear transfer...
April 24, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690883/gamma-rays-excited-radioluminescence-tomographic-imaging
#2
Xuanxuan Zhang, Shouping Zhu, Yang Li, Yonghua Zhan, Xueli Chen, Fei Kang, Jing Wang, Xu Cao
BACKGROUND: Radionuclide-excited luminescence imaging is an optical radionuclide imaging strategy to reveal the distributions of radioluminescent nanophosphors (RLNPs) inside small animals, which uses radioluminescence emitted from RLNPs when excited by high energy rays such as gamma rays generated during the decay of radiotracers used in clinical nuclear medicine imaging. Currently, there is no report of tomographic imaging based on radioluminescence. METHODS: In this paper, we proposed a gamma rays excited radioluminescence tomography (GRLT) to reveal three-dimensional distributions of RLNPs inside a small animal using radioluminescence through image reconstruction from surface measurements of radioluminescent photons using an inverse algorithm...
April 24, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689732/a-novel-algorithm-for-thermal-image-encryption
#3
Iqtadar Hussain, Amir Anees, Abdulmohsen Algarni
Thermal images play a vital character at nuclear plants, Power stations, Forensic labs biological research, and petroleum products extraction. Safety of thermal images is very important. Image data has some unique features such as intensity, contrast, homogeneity, entropy and correlation among pixels that is why somehow image encryption is trickier as compare to other encryptions. With conventional image encryption schemes it is normally hard to handle these features. Therefore, cryptographers have paid attention to some attractive properties of the chaotic maps such as randomness and sensitivity to build up novel cryptosystems...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689262/dual-function-model-revised-by-thyroid-hormone-receptor-alpha-knockout-frogs
#4
REVIEW
Daniel R Buchholz, Yun-Bo Shi
All vertebrates require thyroid hormone (TH) for normal growth and development. Plasma TH enters cells and alters gene expression via nuclear receptors TRα and TRβ. In-vitro studies showed that TRs function as repressors of TH-inducible genes in the absence of TH and as activators of those same genes in the presence of TH. A dual function model was proposed to harmonize these molecular TR actions with the dynamic expression of TRs and peak in production of TH experienced during development. Conclusive tests of the repression activity of TRs early in development as predicted by the model awaited gene knockout technology targeting TRα...
April 21, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688761/community-endocrine-surgical-experience-with-false-negative-afirma-gec-%C3%A2-results-2011-2017
#5
R Mack Harrell, Stephanie A Eyerly-Webb, Nat E Pinnar, Allan C Golding, Courtney M Edwards, David N Bimston
OBJECTIVE: Afirma Gene Expression Classifier® (Afirma GEC® ) molecular analysis (Veracyte, Inc.; San Francisco, CA) is a negative predictive value (NPV) test developed to reduce the number of thyroidectomies in thyroid nodule patients with indeterminate cytology. GEC technology has reportedly reduced unnecessary thyroid surgery, but few studies have examined Afirma GEC false negative rates since usually patients with GEC benign nodules do not undergo surgery for definitive diagnosis...
April 24, 2018: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687413/protective-effect-of-apigenin-on-acrylonitrile-induced-inflammation-and-apoptosis-in-testicular-cells-via-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-rats
#6
Yuhui Dang, Zhilan Li, Qian Wei, Ruiping Zhang, Hongli Xue, Yingmei Zhang
Apigenin (AP) as a plant flavonoid is found to attenuate acrylonitrile (ACN) toxicity by reducing ROS production and inhibiting apoptosis. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the role of AP on ACN-induced inflammation and apoptosis in germ cells and whether it is through the NF-κB signaling pathway. AP increased the concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase isozyme (LDH) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), while the concentrations of interleukin β (IL-1β), tumor-necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were significantly reduced...
April 23, 2018: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686987/recognition-and-relevance-of-anti-dfs70-autoantibodies-in-routine-antinuclear-autoantibodies-testing-at-a-community-hospital
#7
John B Carter, Sara Carter, Sandra Saschenbrecker, Bruce E Goeckeritz
Antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) displaying a dense fine speckled pattern (DFS, ICAP AC-2) on HEp-2 cells are frequently observed in clinical laboratory referrals, often associated with anti-DFS70 specificity. Anti-DFS70 positive patients rarely develop systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease (SARD), especially in the absence of clinical evidence or additional anti-extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) antibodies, prompting suggestions that an isolated DFS70-specific ENA may be an exclusionary finding for SARD. In this study, the frequency and diagnostic significance of anti-DFS70 autoantibodies was investigated in a community hospital cohort of patients undergoing routine ANA testing...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686604/ultrasound-triggered-effects-of-the-microbubbles-coupled-to-gdnf-plasmid-loaded-pegylated-liposomes-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Peijian Yue, Wang Miao, Lin Gao, Xinyu Zhao, Junfang Teng
Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate ultrasound-triggered effects of PEGylated liposomes-coupled microbubbles mediated gene transfer of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) plasmid (PLs-GDNF-MBs) on behavioral deficits and neuron loss in a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: The unloaded PLs-MBs were characterized for particle size, concentration and zeta potential. PD rat model was established by a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion. Rotational, climbing pole, and suspension tests were used to evaluate behavioral deficits...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685509/rankl-mediated-osteoclastogenic-differentiation-of-macrophages-in-the-abdominal-aorta-of-angiotensin-ii-infused-apolipoprotein-e-knockout-mice
#9
Teruyoshi Tanaka, Matthew Kelly, Yuichiro Takei, Dai Yamanouchi
OBJECTIVE: Osteoclastogenic activation of macrophages (OCG) occurs in human abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and in calcium chloride-induced degenerative AAAs in mice, which have increased matrix metalloproteinase activity. As the activity of OCG in dissecting aneurysms is not clear, we tested the hypothesis that OCG contributes to angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced dissecting aneurysm (Ang II-induced AAA) in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. METHODS: AAAs were produced in apolipoprotein E knockout mice via the administration of Ang II...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684757/microrna-144-suppresses-the-expression-of-cytokines-through-targeting-rankl-in-the-matured-immune-cells
#10
Rui-Dong Li, Cong-Huan Shen, Yi-Feng Tao, Xiao-Fei Zhang, Quan-Bao Zhang, Zhen-Yu Ma, Zheng-Xin Wang
To investigate whether the microRNA-144 (miR-144) had immune regulation effect on matured immune cells, we firstly used quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to detect the expression changes of miR-144 between the matured and immature dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Then we went on inspecting the expression changes of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23 in the matured DCs treated with miR-144 mimics or inhibitors using qRT-PCR, and also performed western blot to test phosphorylation state of ERK, JNK, p38 and p65 in these cells...
April 20, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684657/engineering-low-cadmium-rice-through-stress-inducible-expression-of-oxs3-family-member-genes
#11
Changhu Wang, Weili Guo, Xingzhe Cai, Ruyu Li, David W Ow
Cadmium (Cd) as a carcinogen poses a great threat to food security and public health through plant-derived foods such as rice, the staple for nearly half of the world's population. We have previously reported that overexpression of truncated gene fragments derived from the rice genes OsO3L2 and OsO3L3 could reduce Cd accumulation in transgenic rice. However, we did not test the full length genes due to prior work in Arabidopsis where overexpression of these genes caused seedling lethality. Here, we report on limiting the overexpression of OsO3L2 and OsO3L3 through the use of the stress- inducible promoter RD29B...
April 20, 2018: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684505/protective-effects-of-sulforaphane-on-cognitive-impairments-and-ad-like-lesions-in-diabetic-mice-are-associated-with-the-upregulation-of-nrf2-transcription-activity
#12
Die Pu, Yuxing Zhao, Jinliang Chen, Yue Sun, Ankang Lv, Shiyu Zhu, Cheng Luo, Kexiang Zhao, Qian Xiao
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-associated oxidative stress contributes to cognitive deficiencies and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sulforaphane (SFN) is a pharmacological activator of Nrf2 that provokes Nrf2-mediated intracellular defenses, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses, under oxidative stress (OS) conditions. This study investigated the effects of SFN on DM-related cognitive decline and its potential mechanisms. Morris water maze (MWM) tests showed that SFN (1 mg/kg i.p. for 28 days) mitigated the cognitive decline of db/db mice, a transgenic mouse model of T2DM...
April 20, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684396/jsh-23-prevents-depressive-like-behaviors-in-mice-subjected-to-chronic-mild-stress-effects-on-inflammation-and-antioxidant-defense-in-the-hippocampus
#13
Qi Wang, Xiaomei Dong, Nannan Li, Yan Wang, Xiaofeng Guan, Yiwei Lin, Jiguang Kang, Xia Zhang, Yuchen Zhang, Xiaobai Li, Tianchao Xu
Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), which is reported to play an important role in the pathogenesis of depression, also has a central role in the genesis and progression of inflammation. Here, we have targeted the nuclear translocation of NF-κB using 4-methyl-N1-(3-phenyl-propyl)-benzene-1,2-diamine (JSH-23) to elucidate its role in depression. We investigated the antidepressant-like effects of JSH-23 in the chronic mild stress (CMS) mouse model, which is a valid, reasonably reliable, and useful model of depression...
April 20, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684152/association-between-proportion-of-nuclei-with-high-chromatin-entropy-and-prognosis-in-gynecological-cancers
#14
Birgitte Nielsen, Andreas Kleppe, Tarjei Sveinsgjerd Hveem, Manohar Pradhan, Rolf Anders Syvertsen, John Arne Nesheim, Gunnar Balle Kristensen, Jone Trovik, David James Kerr, Fritz Albregtsen, Håvard Emil Danielsen
Background: Nuclear texture analysis measuring differences in chromatin structure has provided prognostic biomarkers in several cancers. There is a need for improved cell-by-cell chromatin analysis to detect nuclei with highly disorganized chromatin. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for detecting nuclei with high chromatin entropy and to evaluate the association between the presence of such deviating nuclei and prognosis. Methods: A new texture-based biomarker that characterizes each cancer based on the proportion of high-chromatin entropy nuclei (<25% vs ≥25%) was developed on a discovery set of 175 uterine sarcomas...
April 18, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683733/cep55-overexpression-causes-male-specific-sterility-in-mice-by-suppressing-foxo1-nuclear-retention-through-sustained-activation-of-pi3k-akt-signaling
#15
Debottam Sinha, Murugan Kalimutho, Josephine Bowles, Ai-Leen Chan, D Jo Merriner, Amanda L Bain, Jacinta L Simmons, Raimundo Freire, J Alejandro Lopez, Robin M Hobbs, Moira K O'Bryan, Kum Kum Khanna
Spermatogenesis is a dynamic process involving self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells, meiosis, and ultimately, the differentiation of haploid spermatids into sperm. Centrosomal protein (CEP)-55 is necessary for somatic cell abscission during cytokinesis. It facilitates equal segregation of cytoplasmic contents between daughter cells by recruiting endosomal sorting complex required for transport machinery (ESCRT) at the midbody. In germ cells, CEP55, in partnership with testes expressed-14 protein (TEX14), has also been shown to be an integral component of intercellular bridge before meiosis...
April 17, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683529/morphology-combined-with-ancillary-techniques-an-algorithm-approach-for-thyroid-nodules
#16
Esther Diana Rossi, Maurizio Martini, Sara Capodimonti, Tonia Cenci, Mirna Bilotta, Francesco Pierconti, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Celestino Pio Lombardi, Guido Fadda, Luigi Maria Larocca
OBJECTIVE: Several authors have underlined the limits of morphological analysis mostly in the diagnosis of follicular neoplasms (FN). The application of ancillary techniques (AT), including immunocytochemistry(ICC) and molecular testing (MT), contributes to a better definition of the risk of malignancy(ROM) and management of FN. According to literature, the application of models, including the evaluation of ICC, somatic mutations (i.e. BRAFV 600E ), miRNA analysis is proposed for FNs...
April 23, 2018: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681450/concurrent-hearing-genetic-and-cytomegalovirus-screening-in-newborns-taiwan
#17
Chun-Yi Lu, Po-Nien Tsao, Ying-Ying Ke, Yi-Hsin Lin, Yin-Hung Lin, Chia-Cheng Hung, Yi-Ning Su, Wei-Chung Hsu, Wu-Shiun Hsieh, Li-Min Huang, Chen-Chi Wu, Chuan-Jen Hsu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and potential benefits of incorporating genetic and cytomegalovirus (CMV) screenings into the current newborn hearing screening (NHS) programs. STUDY DESIGN: Newborns were recruited prospectively from a tertiary hospital and a maternity clinic between May 2016 and December 2016 and were subjected to hearing screening, CMV screening, and genetic screening for 4 common mutations in deafness genes (p.V37I and c.235delC of GJB2 gene, c...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680814/spect-v-q-for-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-embolism-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-diagnostic-accuracy-and-clinical-outcome
#18
Pierre-Yves Le Roux, Philippe Robin, Cécile Tromeur, Alexandra Davis, Helia Robert-Ebadi, Marc Carrier, Francis Couturaud, Grégoire Le Gal, Pierre-Yves Salaun
INTRODUCTION: Single photon emission computed tomography ventilation/perfusion (SPECT V/Q) imaging has many proponents within the nuclear medicine community and has already largely replaced planar V/Q scintigraphy in daily practice for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). However, the test is still described in clinical guidelines as an experimental test because of insufficient evidence. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a systematic review and a meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy and management outcome studies involving patients evaluated with V/Q SPECT for suspected acute PE...
April 21, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680672/targeting-of-folate-conjugated-liposomes-with-co-entrapped-drugs-to-prostate-cancer-cells-via-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-psma
#19
Yogita Patil, Hilary Shmeeda, Yasmine Amitay, Patricia Ohana, Saran Kumar, Alberto Gabizon
Folate-targeted liposomes (FTL) were tested as drug delivery vehicles to PSMA-positive cancer cells. We used FL with co-entrapped mitomycin C lipophilic prodrug (MLP) and doxorubicin (DOX), and the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line which expresses PSMA but is negative for folate receptor. A major increase in cell drug levels was observed when LNCaP cells were incubated with FTL as compared to non-targeted liposomes (NTL). MLP was activated to mitomycin C, and intracellular and nuclear fluorescence of DOX was detected, indicating FTL processing and drug bioavailability...
April 19, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680662/insulin-sensitivity-linked-skeletal-muscle-nr4a1-dna-methylation-is-programmed-by-the-maternal-diet-and-modulated-by-voluntary-exercise-in-mice
#20
Juliane Kasch, Isabel Kanzleiter, Sophie Saussenthaler, Annette Schürmann, Jaap Keijer, Evert van Schothorst, Susanne Klaus, Sara Schumann
Perinatal maternal high-fat consumption is known to increase the obesity and type 2 diabetes susceptibility and to impair exercise performance in the offspring. We hypothesize that epigenetic modifications in the skeletal muscle are partly responsible for this phenotype. To detect skeletal muscle genes affected by maternal nutrition, male offspring of low-fat (LF) and high-fat (HF) diet fed dams (BL6 mice) received LF diet upon weaning and were sacrificed at 6 or 25 weeks of age. Gene expression of Musculus quadriceps was investigated by microarray analysis revealing an up-regulation of the nuclear receptor Nr4a1 by maternal HF feeding...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
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