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Mohsen Khalili, Mitra Alavi, Elham Esmaeil-Jamaat, Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad, Mehrdad Roghani
Brain inflammation is associated with cognitive dysfunction, especially in elderly. Trigonelline is a plant alkaloid and a major component of coffee and fenugreek with anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. In this study, the beneficial effect of trigonelline against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognitive decline was assessed in the rat. LPS was injected i.p. at a dose of 500 μg/kg to induce neuroinflammation and trigonelline was administered p.o. at doses of 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg/day 1 h after LPS that continued for one week...
June 20, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Xian Wu, Yang-Ge Lv, Yi-Feng Du, Fang Chen, Miranda N Reed, Mei Hu, Vishnu Suppiramaniam, Su-Su Tang, Hao Hong
Increasing evidence demonstrates that the neurotoxicity of amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition plays a causative role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Herein, we evaluated the neuroprotective effects of 6α-ethyl-23(S)-methylcholic acid (S-EMCA, INT-777), a specific G-protein coupled bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5) agonist, in the Aβ1-42 -treated mouse model of acute neurotoxicity. Single intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of aggregated Aβ1-42 (410 pmol/mouse; 5 μl) into the mouse brain induced cognitive impairment, neuroinflammation, apoptosis, and synaptic dysfunction...
June 20, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Bruno F Melo, Brian L Sidlauskas, Kendra Hoekzema, Richard P Vari, Casey B Dillman, Claudio Oliveira
Curimatidae, the fourth largest family of detritivorous Neotropical characiform fishes, encompasses eight extant genera and over 110 species dwelling in diverse freshwater habitats from Costa Rica to Argentina. Extensive phylogenetic analyses of soft anatomy and osteology provided evidence for intergeneric and most interspecific relationships, and formed the basis of curimatid taxonomy for nearly 40 years. However, that morphological phylogeny demonstrated incomplete phylogenetic resolution at various scales and has never been tested with extensive molecular data...
June 20, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Jill T Oberski, Prashant P Sharma, Katya R Jay, Michelle J Coblens, Kaelyn A Lemon, Joanne E Johnson, Sarah L Boyer
Austropurcellia, a genus of dispersal-limited arachnids endemic to isolated patches of coastal rainforest in Queensland, Australia, has a remarkable biogeographic history. The genus is a member of the family Pettalidae, which has a classical temperate Gondwanan distribution; previous work has suggested that Austropurcellia is an ancient lineage, with an origin that predates Gondwanan rifting. Subsequently, this lineage has persisted through major climatic fluctuations, such as major aridification during the Miocene and contraction and fragmentation of forest habitats during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM)...
June 20, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Mohammed Bahir, Driss Ouazar, Salah Ouhamdouch
The aquifer system of Essaouira basin is recognized as one of the most important aquifers in Morocco. The purpose of this study is to highlight the origin and the mechanisms responsible for the salinization of this aquifer system, thus based on the two hydrogeochemical and isotopic approaches. The results indicate that the central and downstream parts are dominated by the facies Cl-Ca-Mg and SO4 -Ca-Mg with the dominance of the first facies, while the facies Cl-Ca-Mg, SO4 -Ca-Mg, and HCO3 -Ca-Mg dominate the upstream part with the dominance of the list facies...
June 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kristin Torre, Janelle Ricketts, Soheil S Dadras
We report a case of a 68-year-old white woman presenting with 5 sebaceous neoplasms, ranging from sebaceous adenoma to sebaceoma on histopathology. Despite the lack of a personal cancer history, her multiple sebaceous neoplasms and a paternal history of colon cancer prompted testing her sebaceous adenomas for microsatellite instability (MSI) by immunohistochemistry. The results showed retained nuclear expressions of MLH1 and PMS2 while MSH2 and MSH6 proteins were absent. The tumor infiltrating lymphocytes expressed both MSH2 and MSH6, providing reliable internal positive controls...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Yan-Ping Wang, Qu-Yuan Wang, Chang-Hui Li, Xue-Wei Li
Elevated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) closely associates with tumor progression and distant metastasis in various human cancers. However, the role of COX-2 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), and its mechanistic details, remain poorly understood. In the present study, we tested hypothesis that COX-2 induces loss of expression of E-cadherin, with resulting promotion of cancer cells' invasiveness in ovarian cancer. First, we observed an inverse relationship between COX-2 and E-cadherin expression as COX-2 was enhanced but E-cadherin was decreased in surgically-resected specimens of EOC...
June 19, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Hong-Bin Wang, Tao Li, Dong-Zhou Ma, Hua Zhi
Neuroblastoma is the most common cancer in infants and the third most common cancer in children after leukemia and brain cancer. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of estrogen receptor (ER)-α36 gene silencing on tau protein phosphorylation, cell proliferation, and cell apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with estrogen or left untreated, to investigate the effects of estrogen stimulation on ERα36 and the ERK/protein B kinase (AKT) signaling pathway...
June 22, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Ju-Hye Yang, Esther Lee, BoHyoung Lee, Won-Kyung Cho, Jin Yeul Ma, Kwang-Il Park
Artemisia apiacea Hance is a traditional herbal medicine used for treating eczema and jaundice in Eastern Asia including China, Korea, and Japan. However, the biological and pharmacological actions of Artemisia apiacea Hance in atopic dermatitis (AD) are not fully understood. An ethanolic extract of Artemisia apiacea Hance (EAH) was tested in vitro and in vivo to investigate its anti-inflammatory activity and anti-atopic dermatitis effects. The results showed that EAH dose-dependence inhibited production of regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC)...
June 22, 2018: Nutrients
Maruhen A D Silveira, Alan S Antonelli, Bruno O Fiorelli, Luciana P G D'arce
Waterpipe smoking is an ancient method of tobacco smoking practiced worldwide. There is a common belief that waterpipe smoking is a safer alternative to cigarette, but many studies showed that some toxicants were associated with cancer risk, significantly higher in waterpipe smoking. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the status of waterpipe smoker's buccal cells and its cancer risk using the buccal micronucleus cytome test. Forty waterpipe smokers (noncigarette smokers) were recruited and paired by gender, age and alcoholic habits with 40 control subjects...
June 2018: Journal of Genetics
V V Ivanova, I V Mil'to, I V Sukhodolo, A A Miller
The major salivary glands of rats release into the saliva and blood a wide spectrum of bioactive substances, essential for many organs, including the testes. Sialoadenectomy leads to the development of degenerative changes in the cells of the twisted testicular tubules. However, the effects of bioactive factors released by the major salivary glands on the morphology and function of Leydig cells remain little studied. Sialoadenectomy in adult rats led (in 1-4 weeks) to a decrease in the nuclear and cytoplasmatic areas of Leydig cells, violation of the plasmalemma integrity, dilatation of perinuclear space and agranular endoplasmatic reticulum vesicles, and to destruction of the mitochondria...
June 21, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Lisheng Zhang, Jiao-Hui Wu, Tai-Qin Huang, Igor Nepliouev, Leigh Brian, Zhushan Zhang, Virginia Wertman, Nathan P Rudemiller, Timothy J McMahon, Sudha K Shenoy, Francis J Miller, Steven D Crowley, Neil J Freedman, Jonathan A Stiber
Aims: The actin-binding protein Drebrin is up-regulated in response to arterial injury and reduces smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration and proliferation through its interaction with the actin cytoskeleton. We therefore tested the hypothesis that SMC Drebrin inhibits angiotensin II-induced remodeling of the proximal aorta. Methods and Results: Angiotensin II was administered via osmotic minipumps at 1000 ng/kg/min continuously for 28 days in SM22-Cre+/Dbnflox/flox (SMC-Dbn-/-) and control mice...
June 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Alu Konno, Shigetoshi Okazaki
Background: Investigation of the internal tissues and organs of a macroscopic organism usually requires destructive processes, such as dissection or sectioning. These processes are inevitably associated with the loss of some spatial information. Recently, aqueous-based tissue clearing techniques, which allow whole-organ or even whole-body clearing of small rodents, have been developed and opened a new method of three-dimensional histology. It is expected that these techniques will be useful tools in the field of zoology, in which organisms with highly diverse morphology are investigated and compared...
2018: Zoological Letters
Xumei Wang, Li Feng, Tao Zhou, Markus Ruhsam, Lei Huang, Xiaoqi Hou, Xiaojie Sun, Kai Fan, Min Huang, Yun Zhou, Jie Song
Medicinal herbs of high quality and with significant clinical effects have been designated as top-geoherbs in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, the validity of this concept using genetic markers has not been widely tested. In this study, we investigated the genetic variation within the Rheum palmatum complex (rhubarb), an important herbal remedy in TCM, using a phylogeographic (six chloroplast DNA regions, five nuclear DNA regions, and 14 nuclear microsatellite loci) and a chemical approach (anthraquinone content)...
June 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Peter W Inglis, Lorena R Mata, Marcos José da Silva, Roberto F Vieira, Rosa de B N Alves, Dijalma B Silva, Vânia C R Azevedo
Plants of the genus Phyllanthus, principally Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus urinaria, Phyllanthus niruri , and Phyllanthus tenellus, are used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat kidney stones as well as other ailments, where the latter two species are listed in the Brazilian Pharmacopeia as quebra-pedra ( stone-breaker ). However, only P. niruri has been shown to be effective in a clinical setting. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 - 5.8S rRNA-ITS2), internal transcribed spacer 2, and chloroplasts rbc L, mat K, psb A- trn H, trn L, and trn L- trn F were screened for their potential as DNA barcodes for the identification of 48 Phyllanthus taxa in Brazilian medicinal plant germplasm banks and in "living pharmacies"...
June 21, 2018: Planta Medica
Mohsen Saeb, Daryoush Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Shahram Monadi
Background: This study aimed to evaluate the overall accuracy of the beam commissioning criteria of targeted image-guided radiation therapy (TiGRT) treatment planning system (TPS) based on the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group Report 119 (TG-119). Methods: The work was performed using 6 MV energy LINAC with a variable dose rate of 200 MU/min which equipped with the high-quality external TiGRT dynamic multileaf collimator model H. The AAPM TG-119 intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) commissioning tests are composed of two preliminary tests and four clinical test cases...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors
Sen Lu, Caizhao Lin, Xiaobin Cheng, Hanju Hua, Tao Xiang, Yu Huang, Xi Huang
It has previously been reported that cardamonin is able to regulate glycometabolism and vasodilation whilst also exhibiting anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties. The antitumor effect of cardamonin is multifaceted, and so it is necessary to investigate the antitumor mechanisms of cardamonin at the molecular level. Cardamonin alters chemotherapy-resistant colon cancer cell growth; however, the underlying mechanism is unknown. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of cardamonin on chemotherapy-resistant colon cancer cells and the possible mechanisms of action...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Chun-Xia Zeng, Peter M Hollingsworth, Jing Yang, Zheng-Shan He, Zhi-Rong Zhang, De-Zhu Li, Jun-Bo Yang
Background: The world's herbaria contain millions of specimens, collected and named by thousands of researchers, over hundreds of years. However, this treasure has remained largely inaccessible to genetic studies, because of both generally limited success of DNA extraction and the challenges associated with PCR-amplifying highly degraded DNA. In today's next-generation sequencing world, opportunities and prospects for historical DNA have changed dramatically, as most NGS methods are actually designed for taking short fragmented DNA molecules as templates...
2018: Plant Methods
Roger Diegel, Brad Black, Jean C Pfau, Tracy McNew, Curtis Noonan, Raja Flores
An increased risk for Systemic Autoimmune Diseases (SAID) has been reported in Libby, Montana, where extensive exposures to fibrous amphiboles occurred due to mining and use of asbestos-laden vermiculite. In addition, positive antinuclear autoantibody tests are associated with exposure to Libby Asbestiform Amphiboles (LAA) in both humans and mice. Among 6603 subjects who underwent health screening at the Center for Asbestos Related Diseases (CARD, Libby MT), 13.8% were diagnosed with an autoimmune disease, with prevalence values for the most common SAID being significantly higher than expected in the United States...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Catherine Trundle, Hannah Gibson, Lara Bell
Medical anthropology overwhelmingly reveals vulnerability as a problem of powerlessness. Vulnerable groups and individuals are those exposed to the pernicious effects of inequalities, injustices, and oppressive political realities. This largely pejorative stance, we argue, simplifies the place of vulnerability within human experience and in relation to the body, health and illness. By showcasing a range of interlocking vulnerabilities, this paper reveal the spectrum of positive and negative vulnerabilities that affect health and recovery...
June 21, 2018: Anthropology & Medicine
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