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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810984/impact-of-a-7-day-field-training-on-oral-health-condition-in-japan-ground-self-defense-force-personnel
#1
Koji Yamashita, Takeshi Nishiyama, Emi Nagata, Atik Ramadhani, Miki Kawada-Matsuo, Hitoshi Komatsuzawa, Takahiko Oho
INTRODUCTION: In the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF), personnel periodically perform intensive training that mimics the conditions seen in battle and during natural disasters. Military training involves intensive, stressful conditions, and changes in immune responses have been found in personnel following training. Good oral condition is important for military personnel to fulfill their duties; however, they have difficulty performing daily oral care under training conditions...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807499/making-the-hard-decisions-ethical-care-decisions-in-wartime-nursing-practice
#2
Janice Agazio, Petra Goodman
BACKGROUND: Codes of ethics set forth standards of ethical conduct for nurses. However, nurses involved in wartime operations, or disasters, may often have their moral compass challenged by the patient care decisions necessary under adverse conditions. Reverse triage, resource allocation, and promotion of patient autonomy present multiple challenges to meeting commonly applied ethical principles. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to use the International Council of Nursing code of ethics as a framework to organize the ethical issues emerging from wartime nursing...
June 30, 2017: Nursing Outlook
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803699/crowdsourcing-samples-in-cognitive-science
#3
REVIEW
Neil Stewart, Jesse Chandler, Gabriele Paolacci
Crowdsourcing data collection from research participants recruited from online labor markets is now common in cognitive science. We review who is in the crowd and who can be reached by the average laboratory. We discuss reproducibility and review some recent methodological innovations for online experiments. We consider the design of research studies and arising ethical issues. We review how to code experiments for the web, what is known about video and audio presentation, and the measurement of reaction times...
August 10, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803221/reflective-student-narratives-honing-professionalism-and-empathy
#4
Upreet Dhaliwal, Satendra Singh, Navjeevan Singh
The affective domain is not explicitly targeted during medical studies and poor skills in this domain may lead to conflict when dealing with patients. Reflective narratives are said to promote humanitarianism and professional development. We aimed to examine reflective narratives written by medical students in our institution for content relating to ethical and professional Attitude and Behaviour, Communication, respect for Diversity and Disability, and Empathy (the ABCDE paradigm). We were also interested in understanding how far the students enjoyed learning through the writing of narratives and in determining their perceived learning from the exercise...
July 18, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801439/validation-of-asthma-recording-in-the-clinical-practice-research-datalink-cprd
#5
Francis Nissen, Daniel R Morales, Hana Mullerova, Liam Smeeth, Ian J Douglas, Jennifer K Quint
OBJECTIVES: The optimal method of identifying people with asthma from electronic health records in primary care is not known. The aim of this study is to determine the positive predictive value (PPV) of different algorithms using clinical codes and prescription data to identify people with asthma in the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). METHODS: 684 participants registered with a general practitioner (GP) practice contributing to CPRD between 1 December 2013 and 30 November 2015 were selected according to one of eight predefined potential asthma identification algorithms...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794547/evolution-of-ethics-in-clinical-research-and-ethics-committee
#6
Nilay Kanti Das, Amrita Sil
Ethics are the moral values of human behavior and the principles which govern these values. The situation becomes challenging for a doctor when he assumes the role of researcher. The doctor-researcher has to serve both the roles and at times the zeal of an investigator has the potential to cloud the morality of the physician inside. It is very important to realize that exploiting the faith of patients is an offence that tantamount to a crime. Medical science is one discipline where the advancement of knowledge is hugely guided by research and mankind has benefitted from many experiments...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776213/-standards-for-treatment-in-forensic-committment-according-to-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-63-and-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-64-of-the-german-criminal-code-interdisciplinary-task-force-of-the-dgppn
#7
REVIEW
J L Müller, N Saimeh, P Briken, S Eucker, K Hoffmann, M Koller, T Wolf, M Dudeck, C Hartl, A-K Jakovljevic, V Klein, G Knecht, R Müller-Isberner, J Muysers, K Schiltz, D Seifert, A Simon, H Steinböck, W Stuckmann, W Weissbeck, C Wiesemann, R Zeidler
People who have been convicted of a crime due to a severe mental disorder and continue to be dangerous as a result of this disorder may be placed in a forensic psychiatric facility for improvement and safeguarding according to § 63 and § 64 of the German Criminal Code (StGB). In Germany, approximately 9000 patients are treated in clinics for forensic psychiatry and psychotherapy on the basis of § 63 of the StGB and in withdrawal centers on the basis of § 64 StGB. The laws for treatment of patients in forensic commitment are passed by the individual States, with the result that even the basic conditions differ in the individual States...
August 3, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768541/key-populations-and-human-rights-in-the-context-of-hiv-services-rendition-in-ghana
#8
Amos Laar, Debra DeBruin
BACKGROUND: In line with its half century old penal code, Ghana currently criminalizes and penalizes behaviors of some key populations - populations deemed to be at higher risk of acquiring or transmitting Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Men who have sex with men (MSM), and sex workers (SWs) fit into this categorization. This paper provides an analysis of how enactment and implementation of rights-limiting laws not only limit rights, but also amplify risk and vulnerability to HIV in key and general populations...
August 2, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766395/dual-loyalties-everyday-ethical-problems-of-registered-nurses-and-physicians-in-combat-zones
#9
Kristina Lundberg, Sofia Kjellström, Lars Sandman
BACKGROUND: When healthcare personnel take part in military operations in combat zones, they experience ethical problems related to dual loyalties, that is, when they find themselves torn between expectations of doing caring and military tasks, respectively. AIM: This article aims to describe how Swedish healthcare personnel reason concerning everyday ethical problems related to dual loyalties between care and military tasks when undertaking healthcare in combat zones...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763179/-editorial-italian-code-of-ethics-for-nurses-and-icn-international-nursing-day-2017
#10
Cecilia Sironi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Professioni Infermieristiche
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760787/bridging-the-age-gap-in-breast-cancer-evaluation-of-decision-support-interventions-for-older-women-with-operable-breast-cancer-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Karen Collins, Malcolm Reed, Kate Lifford, Maria Burton, Adrian Edwards, Alistair Ring, Katherine Brain, Helena Harder, Thompson Robinson, Kwok Leung Cheung, Jenna Morgan, Riccardo Audisio, Susan Ward, Paul Richards, Charlene Martin, Tim Chater, Kirsty Pemberton, Anthony Nettleship, Christopher Murray, Stephen Walters, Oscar Bortolami, Fiona Armitage, Robert Leonard, Jacqui Gath, Deirdre Revell, Tracy Green, Lynda Wyld
INTRODUCTION: While breast cancer outcomes are improving steadily in younger women due to advances in screening and improved therapies, there has been little change in outcomes among the older age group. It is inevitable that comorbidities/frailty rates are higher, which may increase the risks of some breast cancer treatments such as surgery and chemotherapy, many older women are healthy and may benefit from their use. Adjusting treatment regimens appropriately for age/comorbidity/frailty is variable and largely non-evidence based, specifically with regard to rates of surgery for operable oestrogen receptor-positive disease and rates of chemotherapy for high-risk disease...
July 31, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748395/variation-in-caries-treatment-proposals-among-dentists-in-norway-the-best-interest-of-the-child
#12
A Rønneberg, A B Skaare, B Hofmann, I Espelid
AIM: To explore variation in treatment-related-decisions for severe caries in children among dentists in the Public Dental Service (PDS) in Norway. It was also to evaluate the treatment choices in relation to the best interest of children and a child's rights to enjoy the highest standard of health care. METHODS: A pre-coded questionnaire was sent electronically to all general dental practitioners (GDPs) working in the PDS in eight counties in Norway (n = 611)...
July 26, 2017: European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748064/publication-practices-and-responsible-authorship-a-review-article
#13
REVIEW
Elvis E Tarkang, Margaret Kweku, Francis B Zotor
Dissemination of research findings through the publication of one's work or a group of contributors is an important part of the research process, as this allows the passing on of benefits to a much wider community. In whatever evocative form this dissemination may take, the onus lies on the author(s) to ensure adherence to the code of ethics as it pertains to the integrity of the information being put out. We publish because we want our findings to be adapted into practice and application, or in some cases may be relevant to policy makers in decision-making...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737330/-mobility-of-physicians-in-europe-health-policies-and-health-care-provision
#14
Alain Jourdain, Tam Pham
Objective: To define the place of geographical mobility of physicians in medical demography policies in EU countries. Methods: Review of international migration assumptions in national projection models of numbers of physicians by broad categories of social protection systems in the EU. Results: Some countries fail to achieve medium-term projections of the number of physicians and those that do adopt the assumption of net migration, assume that they converge to zero. Migration is not considered to be a solution to the expected shortage of physicians, but rather a problem to be solved...
March 6, 2017: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726453/ethical-and-legal-considerations-in-psychobiography
#15
Joseph G Ponterotto, Jason D Reynolds Taewon Choi
Despite psychobiography's long-standing history in the field of psychology, there has been relatively little discussion of ethical issues and guidelines in psychobiographical research. The Ethics Code of the American Psychological Association (APA) does not address psychobiography. The present article highlights the value of psychobiography to psychology, reviews the history and current status of psychobiography in the field, examines the relevance of existing APA General Principles and Ethical Standards to psychobiographical research, and introduces a best practice ethical decision-making model to assist psychologists working in psychobiography...
July 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726451/integrating-psychobiography-into-psychology-s-mainstream-introduction-to-the-special-section
#16
Tim Kasser
Psychobiography, the intense study of a particular person, has long existed at the fringes of mainstream psychology. This special section is comprised of two articles that take important steps to integrate psychobiography into the mainstream of psychology. Schultz and Lawrence (2017) do so by reviewing recent examples of how contemporary psychobiographers have used empirically supported methods and theories to reach conclusions about the individuals under study. Ponterotto and Reynolds (2017) do so by articulating important ethical issues relevant to the practice of psychobiography, a topic on which the American Psychological Association's current ethical code provides little guidance (American Psychological Association, 2017)...
July 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723309/moral-distress-as-experienced-by-hospital-social-workers-in-south-korea-and-australia
#17
Patricia Fronek, Lynne Briggs, Myung Hun Kim, Hye Bin Han, Quinn Val, Sungmin Kim, Donna McAuliffe
This exploratory, qualitative research explored the ethical problems faced by hospital social workers in South Korea and Australia, and what and who influenced their decision making using a focus group design. Although dilemmas of boundaries, confidentiality, self-determination, and other complex scenarios found in practice were identified, moral distress, a consequence of the unresolvable conflicts, dominated participants' narratives. This was particularly the case for the Korean social workers in this sample...
July 19, 2017: Social Work in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716785/imbuing-medical-professionalism-in-relation-to-safety-a-study-protocol-for-a-mixed-methods-intervention-focused-on-trialling-an-embedded-learning-approach-that-centres-on-the-use-of-a-custom-designed-board-game
#18
Marie Ward, Eilish McAuliffe, Éidín Ní Shé, Ann Duffy, Una Geary, Una Cunningham, Catherine Holland, Nick McDonald, Karen Egan, Christian Korpos
INTRODUCTION: Healthcare organisations have a responsibility for ensuring that the governance of workplace settings creates a culture that supports good professional practice. Encouraging such a culture needs to start from an understanding of the factors that make it difficult for health professionals to raise issues of concern in relation to patient safety. The focus of this study is to determine whether a customised education intervention, developed as part of the study, with interns and senior house officers (SHOs) can imbue a culture of medical professionalism in relation to patient safety and support junior doctors to raise issues of concern, while shaping a culture of responsiveness and learning...
July 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715491/towards-the-development-of-a-comprehensive-framework-qualitative-systematic-survey-of-definitions-of-clinical-research-quality
#19
Belinda von Niederhäusern, Stefan Schandelmaier, Marie Mi Bonde, Nicole Brunner, Lars G Hemkens, Marielle Rutquist, Neera Bhatnagar, Gordon H Guyatt, Christiane Pauli-Magnus, Matthias Briel
OBJECTIVE: To systematically survey existing definitions, concepts, and criteria of clinical research quality, both developed by stakeholder groups as well as in the medical literature. This study serves as a first step in the development of a comprehensive framework for the quality of clinical research. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We systematically and in duplicate searched definitions, concepts and criteria of clinical research quality on websites of stakeholders in clinical research until no further insights emerged and in MEDLINE up to February 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713517/developing-the-concept-of-caring-in-nursing-education
#20
Maryam Salehian, Abbas Heydari, Hossein Karimi Moonaghi, Nahid Aghebati
BACKGROUND: Caring is a value-based concept in the nursing field and in education. Exact understanding of caring in education and developing this concept in nursing will result in the evolution of the position of nursing science and profession. AIM: The aim of this study was to attempt to develop the concept of caring in nursing education. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted in 2016 using directed content analysis. Participants were thirteen subjects (6 instructors and 7 senior and junior nursing students) who were selected using purposeful sampling method...
May 2017: Electronic Physician
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