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Chance E Jones, Anthony Maddox, Dorset Hurley, Andrei L Barkovskii
Intertidal creeks form the primary hydrologic link between estuaries and land-based activities on barrier islands. Fecal indicators Enterococcus spp. (Entero1), pathogens Shigella spp. (ipaH), Salmonella spp. (invA), E. coli of EHEC/EPEC groups (eaeA), E. coli of EAEC, EIEC, and UPEC groups (set1B), E. coli of STEC group (stx1); and tetracycline resistance genes (tet(B), tet(C), tet(D), tet(E), tet(K), tet(Q), tet(W), and tet(X); TRG) were detected in the headwater of Oakdale Creek (Sapelo Island, GA) receiving runoffs from Hog Hammock village...
May 19, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Mayur Shirish Jain, Ajay S Kalamdhad
Invasive aquatic weed management is one of the biggest challenges in the field of solid waste management. Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes and Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle pose some of the world's most noted aquatic weed problems. Previously reported studies on management of H. verticillata, a submersed aquatic plant, have shown that temporary removal, chemical treatment or biological control methods each have advantages and disadvantages. Removal programs that propose to compost harvested H. verticillata biomass may provide a novel technique to manage this issue...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Edoardo Bertone, Michele A Burford, David P Hamilton
In recent years, there has been a widespread deployment of submersible fluorescence sensors by water utilities. They are used to measure diagnostic pigments and estimate algae and cyanobacteria abundance in near real-time. Despite being useful and promising tools, operators and decision-makers often rely on the data provided by these probes without a full understanding of their limitations. As a result, this may lead to wrong and misleading estimations which, in turn, means that researchers and technicians distrust these sensors...
May 10, 2018: Water Research
Bihai Zhu, Zengqi Ji, Zhengkun Lou, Pengcheng Qian
The torque in the Taylor-Couette flow for radius ratios η≥0.97, with smooth or grooved wall static outer cylinders, is studied experimentally, with the Reynolds number of the inner cylinder reaching up to Re_{i}=2×10^{5}, corresponding to the Taylor number up to Ta=5×10^{10}. The grooves are perpendicular to the mean flow, and similar to the structure of a submersible motor stator. It is found that the dimensionless torque G, at a given Re_{i} and η, is significantly greater for grooved cases than smooth cases...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Jeppe Kaczmarek, Colleen Reichmuth, Birgitte I McDonald, Jakob H Kristensen, Josefin Larson, Fredrik Johansson, Jenna L Sullivan, Peter T Madsen
Long and deep dives in marine mammals are enabled by high mass-specific oxygen stores and the dive response (DR), which reduces oxygen consumption in concert with increased peripheral vasoconstriction and a lowered heart rate during dives. Diving heart rates of pinnipeds are highly variable and modulated by many factors, such as breath holding (apnea), pressure, swimming activity, temperature, and even cognitive control. However, the individual effects of these factors on diving heart rate are poorly understood due to the difficulty of parsing their relative contributions in diving pinnipeds...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Markus Falk, Snorri Donaldsson, Thomas Drevhammar
INTRODUCTION: Access to inexpensive respiratory support to newborn infants improves survival in low-income countries. Standard bubble continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been extensively used worldwide for more than 30 years. One project aimed at providing affordable CPAP is the Pumani system developed by Rice 360°. Compared to standard bubble CPAP the system has an unconventional design. The aim was to compare the Pumani system with two traditional bubble CPAP systems, focusing on in-vitro performance and safety...
2018: PloS One
Nolan J Tiersch, William M Childress, Terrence R Tiersch
Vitrification is a method of cryopreservation that freezes samples rapidly, while forming an amorphous solid ("glass"), typically in small (μL) volumes. The goal of this project was to create, by three-dimensional (3D) printing, open vitrification devices based on an elliptical loop that could be efficiently used and stored. Vitrification efforts can benefit from the application of 3D printing, and to begin integration of this technology, we addressed four main variables: thermoplastic filament type, loop length, loop height, and method of loading...
May 16, 2018: Zebrafish
A Zhukouski, O Anshakou, S Kutsen
A gamma spectrometric method is presented for in situ radiation monitoring of bottom sediments with contaminated layer of unknown thickness to be determined. The method, based on the processing of experimental spectra using the results of their simulation by the Monte Carlo method, is proposed and tested in practice. A model for the transport of gamma radiation from deposited radionuclides 137 Cs and 134 Cs to a scintillation detection unit located on the upper surface of the contaminated layer of sediments is considered...
April 30, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Emmanuel Boss, Nils Haëntjens, Toby K Westberry, Lee Karp-Boss, Wayne H Slade
High spatial and temporal resolution estimates of the particle size distribution (PSD) in the surface ocean can enable improved understanding of biogeochemistry and ecosystem dynamics. Oceanic PSD measurements remain rare due to the time-consuming, manual sampling methods of common particle sizing instruments. Here, we evaluate the utility of measuring particle size data at high spatial resolution with a commercially-available submersible laser diffraction particle sizer (LISST-100X, Sequoia Scientific), operating in an automated mode with continuously flowing seawater...
April 30, 2018: Optics Express
Habiba Lais, Premesh S Lowe, Tat-Hean Gan, Luiz C Wrobel
Fouling build up is a well-known problem in the offshore industry. Accumulation of fouling occurs in different structures, e.g. offshore pipes, ship hulls, floating production platforms. The type of fouling that accumulates is dependent on environmental conditions surrounding the structure itself. Current methods deployed for fouling removal span across hydraulic, chemical and manual, all sharing the common disadvantage of necessitating halting production for the cleaning process to commence. Conventionally, ultrasound is used in ultrasonic baths to clean a submerged component by the generation and implosion of cavitation bubbles on the fouled surface; this method is particularly used in Reverse Osmosis applications...
July 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Shunichi Kurumaya, Brennan T Phillips, Kaitlyn P Becker, Michelle H Rosen, David F Gruber, Kevin C Galloway, Koichi Suzumori, Robert J Wood
This article presents the development of modular soft robotic wrist joint mechanisms for delicate and precise manipulation in the harsh deep-sea environment. The wrist consists of a rotary module and bending module, which can be combined with other actuators as part of a complete manipulator system. These mechanisms are part of a suite of soft robotic actuators being developed for deep-sea manipulation via submersibles and remotely operated vehicles, and are designed to be powered hydraulically with seawater...
April 19, 2018: Soft Robotics
Celia Seguin, Gilles Blaquière, Anderson Loundou, Pierre Michelet, Thibaut Markarian
BACKGROUND: Drowning literature have highlighted the submersion time as the most powerful predictor in assessing the prognosis. Reducing the time taken to provide a flotation device and prevent submersion appears of paramount importance. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can provide the location of the swimmer and a flotation device. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this simulation study was to evaluate the efficiency of a UAV in providing a flotation device in different sea conditions, and to compare the times taken by rescue operations with and without a UAV (standard vs UAV intervention)...
April 10, 2018: Resuscitation
Parisa Nikpour, Hamed Salimi-Kenari, Farahnaz Fahimipour, Sayed Mahmood Rabiee, Mohammad Imani, Erfan Dashtimoghadam, Lobat Tayebi
A series of nanocomposite scaffolds comprised of dextran (Dex) and sol-gel derived bioactive glass ceramic nanoparticles (nBGC: 0-16 (wt%)) were fabricated as bioactive scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Scanning electron microscopy showed Dex/nBGC scaffolds were consisting of a porous 3D microstructure with an average pore size of 240 μm. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy illustrated nBGC nanoparticles were homogenously distributed within the Dex matrix at low nBGC content (2 wt%), while agglomeration was observed at higher nBGC contents...
June 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Esperança Gacia, Teresa Buchaca, Nayeli Bernal-Mendoza, Ibor Sabás, Enric Ballesteros, Marc Ventura
Submersed aquatic plants are a key component of shallow, clear water lakes contributing to primary production and water quality. High mountain lakes are naturally fishless although invasive trout and most recently minnows have been introduced causing a major impact on fauna richness. The Pyrenean high mountain range has preserved soft-water oligotrophic boreal isoetids in their southern limit of distribution but the recent fish introduction is a potential factor of stress that needs to be addressed. We here work under the hypothesis that due to contrasting ecological features, trout will not be heavily affecting quillwort populations while minnows will have a stronger effect on zooplankton and zoobenthos that will promote algal growth and reduce light availability for the underwater meadows...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Holly Hedegaard, Michael Schoenbaum, Cynthia Claassen, Alex Crosby, Kristin Holland, Scott Proescholdbell
Suicide and intentional self-harm are among the leading causes of death in the United States. To study this public health issue, epidemiologists and researchers often analyze data coded using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Prior to October 1, 2015, health care organizations and providers used the clinical modification of the Ninth Revision of ICD (ICD-9-CM) to report medical information in electronic claims data. The transition in October 2015 to use of the clinical modification of the Tenth Revision of ICD (ICD-10-CM) resulted in the need to update methods and selection criteria previously developed for ICD-9-CM coded data...
February 2018: National Health Statistics Reports
Briana L Scott, Jennifer I Sherwin, Kyle J Rehder, Michael J Campbell, Caroline P Ozment
Mud runs are an increasingly popular recreational fitness activity across the United States, combining a running race through an obstacle course with submersion in mud. Recent reports estimate 4 million people have participated in these types of events over the last 5 years. We describe an atypical case of myocarditis and multiorgan failure from disseminated histoplasmosis in a previously healthy pediatric patient, likely acquired during participation in a mud run. Although cases of histoplasmosis-associated endocarditis and pericarditis have been reported in the literature, cases of histoplasmosis myocarditis are rare...
April 2018: Pediatrics
Luis Martell, Roberta Bracale, Steven A Carrion, Jennifer E Purcell, Marco Lezzi, Cinzia Gravili, Stefano Piraino, Ferdinando Boero
Aquaculture is increasing rapidly to meet global seafood demand. Some hydroid populations have been linked to mortality and health issues in finfish and shellfish, but their dynamics in and around aquaculture farms remain understudied. In the present work, two experiments, each with 36 panels, tested colonization (factors: depth, season of immersion) and succession (factors: depth, submersion duration) over one year. Hydroid surface cover was estimated for each species, and data were analyzed with multivariate techniques...
2018: PloS One
Steven M Kane, Jacob Davis
The authors discuss about a patient who, while undergoing a routine procedure to drain a subcutaneous abscess within his forehead, suffered cardiac arrest that we conclude was caused by an activation of the diving response. This reflex affects homeostatic function which alters respiration and preferentially distributes oxygen stores to the heart and brain. Under some conditions, however, this reflex can also trigger cardiovascular collapse and death. The diving reflex is can begin with triggering receptors that are sensitive to cold water, submersion, or pressure within the nasal cavity and other areas supplied by the trigeminal nerve...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Héctor Rodríguez Pérez, Guillaume Borrel, Céline Leroy, Jean-François Carrias, Bruno Corbara, Diane S Srivastava, Régis Céréghino
Future climate scenarios forecast a 10-50% decline in rainfall in Eastern Amazonia. Altered precipitation patterns may change important ecosystem functions like decomposition through either changes in physical and chemical processes or shifts in the activity and/or composition of species. We experimentally manipulated hydroperiods (length of wet:dry cycles) in a tank bromeliad ecosystem to examine impacts on leaf litter decomposition. Gross loss of litter mass over 112 days was greatest in continuously submersed litter, lowest in continuously dry litter, and intermediate over a range of hydroperiods ranging from eight cycles of 7 wet:7 dry days to one cycle of 56 wet:56 dry days...
March 24, 2018: Oecologia
C C Baldwin, L Tornabene, D R Robertson
Mesophotic coral ecosystems, which occur at depths of ~40 to 150 m, have received recent scientific attention as potential refugia for organisms inhabiting deteriorating shallow reefs. These ecosystems merit research in their own right, as they harbor both depth-generalist species and a distinctive reef-fish fauna. Reef ecosystems just below the mesophotic are globally underexplored, and the scant recent literature that mentions them often suggests that mesophotic ecosystems transition directly into those of the deep sea...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
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