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Nathaniel Bell, Bo Cai
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to evaluate the reliability and predictability of ten socioeconomic indicators obtained from the 2006-2013 annual and multi-year ACS data cycles for unintentional drowning and submersion injury surveillance. METHODS: Each indicator was evaluated using its margin of error and coefficient of variation. For the multi-year data cycles we calculated the frequency that estimates for the same geographic areas from consecutive surveys were statistically significantly different...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Haci Polat, Umut Gulacti
PURPOSE: To find answers to some catheter-related questions in hypospadias repair such as which type of catheter should be used, with which catheter balloon inflation volume, and when should the catheter be removed from the urethra? As catheter use and post-op retention time varies among surgeons in hypospadias repair. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-four 10 French all-silicone- and 54 latex Foley catheters were prepared and assigned to groups as senary. The catheter's balloons were inflated with 2, 3 and 5 mL of sterile water...
October 10, 2016: Urology Journal
Rahim Rahimi, Su Su Htwe, Manuel Ochoa, Amy Donaldson, Michael Zieger, Rajiv Sood, Ali Tamayol, Ali Khademhosseini, Amir M Ghaemmaghami, Babak Ziaie
Culturing cells at the air-liquid interface (ALI) is essential for creating functional in vitro models of lung tissues. We present the use of direct-patterned laser-treated hydrophobic paper as an effective semi-permeable membrane, ideal for ALI cell culture. The surface properties of the paper are modified through a selective CO2 laser-assisted treatment to create a unique porous substrate with hydrophilic regions that regulate fluid diffusion and cell attachment. To select the appropriate model, four promising hydrophobic films were compared with each other in terms of gas permeability and long-term strength in an aqueous environment (wet-strength)...
October 12, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Hyeonyong Chung, Won Jung Ju, Eun Hea Jho, Kyoungphile Nam
Two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were used to study the applicability of MFCs for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) detection in water. The microbial acetate oxidation in the anode and the Cr(VI) reduction in the cathode together generated voltages, which were used to indicate the change in Cr(VI) concentrations of the cathode under varying conditions of pH, ionic strength, co-existing Fe(II) concentration, and organic matter concentration. The MFC-based Cr(VI) detector showed a significant change in voltage with increasing Cr(VI) concentration at pH 1 and 2, but not at higher pH conditions...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Vanessa S S Gonçalves, Ana A Matias, Joana Poejo, Ana T Serra, Catarina M M Duarte
During the development of intranasal drug delivery systems for local/systemic effect or brain targeting, it is necessary to assess its cytotoxicity and drug transport through nasal epithelium. In order to avoid animal experiments or the use of excised tissues, in vitro cell models, such as RPMI 2650 cells, are being preferred during recent years. Nevertheless, the deposition of solid formulations into nasal cell layers with further transepithelial transport rate of drugs has been poorly studied or reported...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Dexiang Wang, Chunsheng Wang, Yuan Zhang, Chenggang Liu
Three new glass sponge species of the family Pheronematidae are described in this study. Specimens were sampled in the northwestern Pacific Ocean during cruise DY125-35I expedition (July-August, 2014) conducted by the China Ocean Mineral Resources R&D Association. All samples were collected by the Chinese manned submersible Jiaolong HOV at a depth of 1627-2897 m. The three species belonging to three genera of the same family were observed, i.e., Platylistrum subviridum sp. nov. Poliopogon canaliculatus sp. nov...
September 29, 2016: Zootaxa
Jianfeng Chen, Te Cao, Xiaolin Zhang, Yilong Xi, Leyi Ni, Erik Jeppesen
To evaluate the relative importance of photosynthetic versus morphological adaptations of submersed macrophytes to low light intensity in lakes, rapid light curves (RLCs), morphological parameters, relative growth rate (RGR), clonal reproduction and abundance of two submersed macrophytes (Potamogeton maackianus and Vallisneria natans) were examined under 2.8%, 7.1%, 17.1% and 39.5% ambient light in a field and outdoor experimental study. The plants increased their initial slope of RLCs (α) and decreased their minimum saturating irradiance (Ek) and maximum relative electron transport rate (ETRm) of RLCs under low light stress, but V...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Pauline Wanjugi, Mano Sivaganesan, Asja Korajkic, Catherine A Kelty, Brian McMinn, Robert Ulrich, Valerie J Harwood, Orin C Shanks
Understanding the decomposition of microorganisms associated with different human fecal pollution types is necessary for proper implementation of many water quality management practices, as well as predicting associated public health risks. Here, the decomposition of select cultivated and molecular indicators of fecal pollution originating from fresh human feces, septage, and primary effluent sewage in a subtropical marine environment was assessed over a six day period with an emphasis on the influence of ambient sunlight and indigenous microbiota...
November 15, 2016: Water Research
Talia G Newland, Sebastien Moret, Andy Bécue, Simon W Lewis
Single metal deposition (SMD II), a recently proposed method for the development of latent fingermarks, was investigated by systematically altering aspects of the procedure to assess their effect on the level of development and contrast achieved. Gold nanoparticle size, temperature of the deposition solution bath, and orbital shaking during detection were shown to affect the levels of development and contrast obtained. Gold nanoparticles of diameter 15-21nm were found to be most effective for satisfactory visualisation of latent fingermarks, while solutions that were applied at room temperature were found to adequately balance the ratio between the contrast of the fingermark ridge detail and the level of background staining achieved...
September 12, 2016: Forensic Science International
Øyvind Sverre Svendsen, Ketil Grong, Knut Sverre Andersen, Paul Husby
BACKGROUND: Accidental hypothermia with arrested circulation remains a condition associated with high mortality. In our institution, extracorporeal circulation (ECC) rewarming has been the cornerstone in treating such patients since 1987. We here explore characteristics and outcomes of this treatment, to identify significant merits and challenges from 3 decades of experience in ECC rewarming. METHODS: Sixty-nine patients rewarmed by ECC during the period from December 1987 to December 2015 were analyzed...
September 27, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Steffi Sunny, George Cheng, Daniel Daniel, Peter Lo, Sebastian Ochoa, Caitlin Howell, Nicolas Vogel, Adnan Majid, Joanna Aizenberg
Camera-guided instruments, such as endoscopes, have become an essential component of contemporary medicine. The 15-20 million endoscopies performed every year in the United States alone demonstrate the tremendous impact of this technology. However, doctors heavily rely on the visual feedback provided by the endoscope camera, which is routinely compromised when body fluids and fogging occlude the lens, requiring lengthy cleaning procedures that include irrigation, tissue rubbing, suction, and even temporary removal of the endoscope for external cleaning...
September 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jennifer M Lang, Racheal Erb, Jennifer L Pechal, John R Wallace, Ryan W McEwan, Mark Eric Benbow
Biofilms are a ubiquitous formation of microbial communities found on surfaces in aqueous environments. These structures have been investigated as biomonitoring indicators for stream heath, and here were used for the potential use in forensic sciences. Biofilm successional development has been proposed as a method to determine the postmortem submersion interval (PMSI) of remains because there are no standard methods for estimating the PMSI and biofilms are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats. We sought to compare the development of epinecrotic (biofilms on Sus scrofa domesticus carcasses) and epilithic (biofilms on unglazed ceramic tiles) communities in two small streams using bacterial automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis...
January 4, 2016: Microorganisms
Jeremy A Jacobs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Richard L Pyle, Randall K Kosaki
A new species of the butterflyfish genus Prognathodes is described from specimens collected at a depth of 55-61 m off Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. This species has been observed by mixed-gas divers and from submersibles at depths ranging from 45-187 m throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago, with shallower sightings in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and deeper in the Main Hawaiian Islands. It is similar to Prognathodes guezei (Maugé and Bauchot 1976) from the western Indian Ocean, and at least one other undescribed species of Prognathodes from Palau, differing from these species in the number of soft dorsal-fin rays, size of head, and body depth...
2016: ZooKeys
P Bhaskar, L A Bosworth, R Wong, M A O'Brien, H Kriel, E Smit, D A McGrouther, J K Wong, S H Cartmell
The functional replacement of tendon represents an unmet clinical need in situations of tendon rupture, tendon grafting and complex tendon reconstruction, as usually there is a finite source of healthy tendon to use as donors. The micro fibrous architecture of tendon is critical to the function of tendon. This study investigates the use of electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds as potential biomaterial substitutes for tendon grafts. We assessed the performance of two electrospinning manufacturers (small and large-scale) and the effect of two sterilisation techniques - gamma irradiation and ethanol submersion - on cell response to these electrospun scaffolds following their implantation into a murine tendon model...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Kyle Bachus, Elton Soares de Lima Filho, Kamila Wlodarczyk, Richard Oleschuk, Younes Messaddeq, Hans-Peter Loock
A facile method is presented for the fabrication of microlenses at the facet of fused silica capillaries and microstructured fibers. After submersion in hydrogen fluoride solution water is pumped slowly through the center hole of the capillary microchannel to create an etchant gradient extending from the capillary axis. The desired axicon angle is generated by adjusting the etching time and/or concentration of the etchant. Similarly, flow- assisted HF etching of a custom microstructured fiber containing nine microchannels produces nine individual microlenses simultaneously at the fiber facet, where each microaxicon lens shows a similar focusing pattern...
September 5, 2016: Optics Express
Jeroen J Briaire, Andreas Büchner, Gennaro Auletta, Helena Arroyo, Carmen Zoilo, Patrizia Mancini, Roberta Buhagiar, Neelam Vaid, Nathalie Mathias
A multi-center self-assessment survey was conducted to evaluate patient satisfaction with the Advanced Bionics Neptune™ waterproof sound processor used with the AquaMic™ totally submersible microphone. Subjective satisfaction with the different Neptune™ wearing options, comfort, ease of use, sound quality and use of the processor in a range of active and water related situations were assessed for 23 adults and 73 children, using an online and paper based questionnaire. Upgraded subjects compared their previous processor to the Neptune™...
April 20, 2016: Audiology Research
Matteo Villa, Stefania Crotta, Kevin S Dingwell, Elizabeth M A Hirst, Manolis Gialitakis, Helena Ahlfors, James C Smith, Brigitta Stockinger, Andreas Wack
Epithelia function as barriers against environmental insults and express the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). However, AhR function in these tissues is unknown. Here we show that AhR regulates multiciliogenesis in both murine airway epithelia and in Xenopus laevis epidermis. In air-exposed airway epithelia, induction of factors required for multiciliogenesis, including cyclin O (Ccno) and Multicilin (Mcidas), is AhR dependent, and air exposure induces AhR binding to the Ccno promoter. Submersion and hypoxic conditions impede AhR-dependent Ccno induction...
2016: Nature Communications
Carole C Baldwin, Diane E Pitassy, D Ross Robertson
A new species of scorpionfish, Scorpaenodes barrybrowni Pitassy & Baldwin, sp. n. which is described, was collected during submersible diving in the southern Caribbean as part of the Smithsonian's Deep Reef Observation Project (DROP). It differs from the other two western Atlantic species of the genus, Scorpaenodes caribbaeus and Scorpaenodes tredecimspinosus, in various features, including its color pattern, having an incomplete lateral line comprising 8-10 pored scales, tending to be more elongate, usually having the 11(th)-12(th) pectoral-fin rays elongate, and by 20-23% divergence in the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) DNA barcode sequences...
2016: ZooKeys
Thomas H Selby, Kristen M Hart, Ikuko Fujisaki, Brian J Smith, Clayton J Pollock, Zandy Hillis-Starr, Ian Lundgren, Madan K Oli
Submerged passive acoustic technology allows researchers to investigate spatial and temporal movement patterns of many marine and freshwater species. The technology uses receivers to detect and record acoustic transmissions emitted from tags attached to an individual. Acoustic signal strength naturally attenuates over distance, but numerous environmental variables also affect the probability a tag is detected. Knowledge of receiver range is crucial for designing acoustic arrays and analyzing telemetry data...
July 2016: Ecology and Evolution
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