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Bingqing Xie, Bharathi Laxman, Somaye Hashemifar, Randi Stern, T Conrad Gilliam, Natalia Maltsev, Steven R White
Basal airway epithelial cells (AEC) constitute stem/progenitor cells within the central airways and respond to mucosal injury in an ordered sequence of spreading, migration, proliferation, and differentiation to needed cell types. However, dynamic gene transcription in the early events after mucosal injury has not been studied in AEC. We examined gene expression using microarrays following mechanical injury (MI) in primary human AEC grown in submersion culture to generate basal cells and in the air-liquid interface to generate differentiated AEC (dAEC) that include goblet and ciliated cells...
2018: PloS One
Maria Cuartero, Gaston A Crespo, Thomas Cherubini, Nadezda Pankratova, Fabio Confalonieri, Francesco Massa, Mary-Lou Tercier-Waeber, Melina Abdou, Joerg Schaefer, Eric Bakker
A new submersible probe for the in situ detection of nitrate, nitrite and chloride in seawater is presented. Inline coupling of a desalination unit, an acidification unit and a sensing flow cell containing all-solid-state membrane electrodes allows for the potentiometric detection of nitrate and nitrite after removal of the key interfering ions in seawater, chloride and hydroxide. Thus, the electrodes exhibited attractive analytical performances for the potentiometric detection of nitrate and nitrite in desalinated and acidified seawater: fast response time (t95<12 s), excellent stability (long-term drifts of < 0...
March 8, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Bibi Ye, Zhaosheng Chu, Aiping Wu, Zeying Hou, Shengrui Wang
Macrophytes show a zonal distribution along the lake littoral zone because of their specific preferred water depths while the optimum growth water depths of dominant submersed macrophytes in natural lakes are not well known. We studied the seasonal biomass and frequency patterns of dominant and companion submersed macrophytes along the water depth gradient in Lake Erhai in 2013. The results showed that the species richness and community biomass showed hump-back shaped patterns along the water depth gradient both in polydominant and monodominant communities...
2018: PloS One
Guigui Wan, Taylor Frazier, Julianne Jorgensen, Bingyu Zhao, Charles E Frazier
Background: Mechanical properties of transgenic switchgrass have practical implications for biorefinery technologies. Presented are fundamentals for simple (thermo)mechanical measurements of genetically transformed switchgrass. Experimental basics are provided for the novice, where the intention is to promote collaboration between plant biologists and materials scientists. Results: Stem sections were subjected to two stress modes: (1) torsional oscillation in the linear response region, and (2) unidirectional torsion to failure...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Jonathan S Lefcheck, Robert J Orth, William C Dennison, David J Wilcox, Rebecca R Murphy, Jennifer Keisman, Cassie Gurbisz, Michael Hannam, J Brooke Landry, Kenneth A Moore, Christopher J Patrick, Jeremy Testa, Donald E Weller, Richard A Batiuk
Humans strongly impact the dynamics of coastal systems, yet surprisingly few studies mechanistically link management of anthropogenic stressors and successful restoration of nearshore habitats over large spatial and temporal scales. Such examples are sorely needed to ensure the success of ecosystem restoration efforts worldwide. Here, we unite 30 consecutive years of watershed modeling, biogeochemical data, and comprehensive aerial surveys of Chesapeake Bay, United States to quantify the cascading effects of anthropogenic impacts on submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV), an ecologically and economically valuable habitat...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Angel P Diz, Margarita Álvarez-Rodríguez, Mónica R Romero, Emilio Rolán-Alvarez, Juan Galindo
Rocky intertidal organisms are commonly exposed to environmental gradients, promoting adaptations to these conditions. Emersion time varies along the intertidal range and in the supralittoral zone is frequently larger than a single tidal cycle, even lasting for weeks. The planktonic-dispersing gastropod Melarhaphe neritoides is a common species of the high shore, adapted to reduce water loss in order to survive during long-term emersion. In this study, we investigated the molecular response, at the proteome level, of M...
October 2017: Current Zoology
Carole C Baldwin, Luke Tornabene, D Ross Robertson, Ai Nonaka, R Grant Gilmore
Two new Lipogramma basslets are described, L. barrettorum and L. schrieri , captured during submersible diving to 300 m depth off Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Superficially resembling L. robinsi in having 11-12 bars of pigment on the trunk, L. barrettorum is distinct from L. robinsi in having a stripe of blue-white pigment along the dorsal midline of the head (vs. a cap of yellow pigment), in patterns of pigment on the median fins, and in having 8-10 gill rakers on the lower limb of the first arch (vs. 11-12)...
2018: ZooKeys
Kassahun Alemu Gelaye, Fasil Tessema, Befikadu Tariku, Semaw Ferede Abera, Alemseged Aregay Gebru, Nega Assefa, Desalew Zelalem, Melkamu Dedefo, Mekdes Kondal, Mesfin Kote, Mitike Molla Sisay, Wubegzier Mekonnen, Mamo Wubshet Terefe, Gashaw Andargie Biks, Firehywot Eshetu, Mulumebet Abera, Yoseph Fekadu, Gessessew Bugssa Hailu, Etsehiwot Tilahun, Yihunie Lakew
BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, though all kinds of mortality due to external causes are an important component of overall mortality often not counted or documented on an individual basis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of mortality from external causes using verbal autopsy (VA) method at the Ethiopian HDSS Network sites. METHODS: All deaths at Ethiopian HDSS sites were routinely registered and followed up with VA interviews...
2018: Global Health Action
Aditya R Nayak, Malcolm N McFarland, James M Sullivan, Michael S Twardowski
In situ measurements were undertaken to characterize particle fields in undisturbed oceanic environments. Simultaneous, co-located depth profiles of particle fields and flow characteristics were recorded using a submersible holographic imaging system and an acoustic Doppler velocimeter, under different flow conditions and varying particle concentration loads, typical of those found in coastal oceans and lakes. Nearly one million particles with major axis lengths ranging from ∼14 μm to 11.6 mm, representing diverse shapes, sizes, and aspect ratios were characterized as part of this study...
January 2018: Limnology and Oceanography
Rayan El Sibai, Rana Bachir, Mazen El Sayed
INTRODUCTION: Drowning leads to 372,000 deaths annually worldwide and to severe morbidity secondary to asphyxiation or aspiration. Previous studies described submersion injuries mainly in the pediatric population. This study describes characteristics of patients presenting with submersion injuries to United States emergency departments (EDs) and identifies predictors of poor outcomes (death or long term neurologic deficits) after drowning. METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study included ED visits for submersion injuries from the United States 2013 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) dataset using discharge data (CCS diagnosis codes)...
February 13, 2018: Injury
Shafiq Rahman, Michelle Griffin, Anish Naik, Matthew Szarko, Peter E M Butler
Decellularized scaffolds can induce chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells. This study compares different methods to optimise the decellularization of auricular cartilage. The process consisted of an initial 12 hour dry freeze thaw which froze the cartilage specimens in an empty tube at -20 °C. Samples were allowed to thaw at room temperature followed by submersion in phosphate buffer solution in which they were frozen at -20 °C for a 12 hour period. They were then allowed to thaw at room temperature as before...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Christine Andrews, Colleen Whatley, Meaghan Smith, Emily Caron Brayton, Suzanne Simone, Alison Volpe Holmes
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Neonatal hypothermia is common in low birth weight (LBW) (<2500 g) and late-preterm infants (LPIs) (34 0/7-36 6/7 weeks' gestation). It can be a contributory factor for newborn admission to a NICU, resulting in maternal-infant separation and increased resource use. Our objective was to study the efficacy of a quality-improvement bundle of hypothermia preventive measures for LPIs and/or LBW infants in a mother-infant unit. METHODS: We conducted plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles aimed at decreasing environmental hypothermia for LPIs and/or LBW infants in a mother-infant unit with no other indications for NICU-level care...
February 14, 2018: Pediatrics
N Mladenov, A Bigelow, B Pietruschka, M Palomo, C Buckley
Decentralized wastewater treatment systems (DEWATS) using anaerobic treatment are increasingly being considered for wastewater treatment with options for non-potable water reuse at the community scale. One challenge for ensuring performance and reliability of DEWATS is the lack of suitable on-site sensors to monitor failure or contamination events. In this study, the aim was to use in situ fluorescence sensors to track the performance of a DEWATS, consisting of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) coupled to anaerobic filter (AF) and constructed wetland (CW) treatment processes...
February 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Christopher T Lam, Jenna Mueller, Betsy Asma, Mercy Asiedu, Marlee S Krieger, Rhea Chitalia, Denali Dahl, Peyton Taylor, John W Schmitt, Nimmi Ramanujam
INTRODUCTION: We have previously developed a portable Pocket Colposcope for cervical cancer screening in resource-limited settings. In this manuscript we report two different strategies (cross-polarization and an integrated reflector) to improve image contrast levels achieved with the Pocket Colposcope and evaluate the merits of each strategy compared to a standard-of-care digital colposcope. The desired outcomes included reduced specular reflection (glare), increased illumination beam pattern uniformity, and reduced electrical power budget...
2018: PloS One
Hanan H Beherei, Abdallah A Shaltout, Mostafa Mobrouk, Nayera A M Abdelwahed, Diganta B Das
Novel non-porous membranes were prepared by impregnating of brushite and niobium pentoxide (Nb2O5) into a gelatin/alginate matrix. The physicochemical properties, morphology and mechanical properties of the prepared membranes were characterized using XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM and universal testing machine, respectively. Swelling ability of the prepared membranes was determined in distilled water. The surfaces of the membranes were characterized by means of FTIR and SEM coupled with EDX after submersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) up to 15 days...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Jitse M van der Meer
The genetic regulation of anterior-posterior segment pattern development has been elucidated in detail for Drosophila, but it is not canonical for insects. A surprising diversity of regulatory mechanisms is being uncovered not only between insect orders, but also within the order of the Diptera. The question is whether the same diversity of regulatory mechanisms exists within other insect orders. I show that anterior puncture of the egg of the pea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus submerged in RNase can induce double abdomen development suggesting a role for maternal mRNA...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
Cristiane Meira Assunção, Marcelo Goulart, Tattiana Enrich Essvein, Nicole Marchioro Dos Santos, Maria Carolina Guilherme Erhardt, Adrian Lussi, Jonas de Almeida Rodrigues
To evaluate the effect of erosive challenges on the tooth- restoration interface of deciduous teeth treated with different adhesive protocols. Deciduous molars were cut mesiodistally, then embedded, abraded and polished (n=80). Samples were randomly divided according to the adhesive system used into: G1 (Adper Single Bond2®, etch-and-rinse), G2 (Universal Single Bond®, self-etching), G3 (OptibondFL®, etch-and-rinse with Fluoride) and G4 (BondForce®, self-etching with Fluoride). After standardized cavity preparation (2 mm diameter x 2 mm depth), adhesive systems were applied and samples were restored (composite resin Z350®)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
Weiguang Weng, Dongxue Li, Cheng Peng, Thomas Behnisch
Even though experiments on brain slices have been in use since 1951, problems remain that reduce the probability of achieving a stable and successful analysis of synaptic transmission modulation when performing field potential or intracellular recordings. This manuscript describes methodological aspects that might be helpful in improving experimental conditions for the maintenance of acute brain slices and for recording field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in a commercially available submersion chamber with an outflow-carbogenation unit...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Gretchen Day, Peter Holck, Hillary Strayer, Kathryn Koller, Timothy Thomas
We compared rates of unintentional injury (UI) deaths (total and by injury category) among Alaska Native (AN) people to rates of U.S. White (USW) and Alaska White (AKW) populations during 2006-2015. The mortality data for AN and AKW populations were obtained from Alaska Bureau of Vital Statistics and USW mortality data were obtained from WISQARS, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention online injury data program. AN and AKW rates were age-adjusted to the U.S. 2000 Standard Population and rate ratios (RR) were calculated...
December 2018: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Darren Norris, Fernanda Michalski, James P Gibbs
The global expansion of energy demands combined with abundant rainfall, large water volumes and high flow in tropical rivers have led to an unprecedented expansion of dam constructions in the Amazon. This expansion generates an urgent need for refined approaches to river management; specifically a move away from decision-making governed by overly generalized guidelines. For the first time we quantify direct impacts of hydropower reservoir establishment on an Amazon fresh water turtle. We conducted surveys along 150 km of rivers upstream of a new dam construction during the low water months that correspond to the nesting season of Podocnemis unifilis in the study area...
2018: PeerJ
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