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BaoWei Xu, YongLi Li, JinFu Feng, JunHua Hu, Duo Qi, Jian Yang
BACKGROUND: The water entry of a submersible aircraft, which is transient, highly coupled, and nonlinear, is complicated. After analyzing the mechanics of this process, the change rate of every variable is considered. A dynamic model is build and employed to study vehicle attitude and overturn phenomenon during water entry. Experiments are carried out and a method to organize experiment data is proposed. The accuracy of the method is confirmed by comparing the results of simulation of dynamic model and experiment under the same condition...
2016: SpringerPlus
Karl Kwok, Joseph Chang, Simon Lo, Andrew Giap, Brian Lim, Bechien Wu
Background and study aims: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-related infections are of increasing global concern due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria such as carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE), with bacterial biofilm production postulated as one cause of persistent infection from such virulent organisms. Because N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been shown to possess antibacterial and biofilm-disruption properties, we aimed to evaluate if NAC would demonstrate clinical utility in reducing the colony forming units (CFU) at the elevator end of a duodenoscope, one of the hardest areas to clean...
November 2016: Endoscopy International Open
Jesse Wyatt, Marti Baum, Alexandra Iacob, Gordon Tan, James Martinez, Shamel Abd-Allah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Beenish Saba, Ann D Christy, Zhongtang Yu, Anne C Co, Rafiq Islam, Olli H Tuovinen
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were designed for laboratory scale experiments to study electroactive biofilms in anodic chambers. Anodic biofilms and current generation during biofilm growth were examined using single chambered MFCs submersed in algal catholyte. A culture of the marine green alga Nanochloropsis salina was used as a biocatholyte, and a rumen fluid microbiota was the anodic chamber inoculum. Electrical impedance spectroscopy was performed under varying external resistance once a week to identify mass transport limitations at the biofilm-electrolyte interface during the four-week experiment...
October 13, 2016: Bioelectrochemistry
Rebeca Gasca, Steven H D Haddock
A female ovigerous specimen of the rare deep-living hyperiid Megalanceoloides remipes (Barnard, 1932) was collected with a remotely operated submersible (ROV) at a depth of 2,094 m in the Farallon Basin, Gulf of California. The specimen was found to be symbiotically associated with the siphonophore Apolemia sp. Eschscholtz, 1829. Hitherto, this species was known only from two other specimens, one from the South Atlantic and another from the Indian Ocean; the present record is the first from the Pacific Ocean...
October 20, 2016: Zootaxa
Sarah Anderson, Maggie R Chamberlain, Samantha Musgrove, Antonia Partusch, Keagan R J Tice, David B Thorp
The mammalian dive response (DR) is described as oxygen-conserving based on measures of bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, and decreased ventilation (V̇E). Using a model of simulated diving, this study examined the effect of nonapnoeic facial submersions (NAFS) on oxygen consumption (V̇O2). 19 participants performed four 2-min NAFS with 8 min of rest between each. Two submersions were performed in 5 °C water, 2 in 25 °C water. Heart rate (HR) was collected using chest strap monitors. A tube connected to the inspired port of a non-rebreathing valve allowed participants to breathe during facial submersion...
August 4, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Frances E Hopkins, Thomas G Bell, Mingxi Yang, David J Suggett, Michael Steinke
Corals are prolific producers of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). High atmospheric concentrations of the DMSP breakdown product dimethylsulfide (DMS) have been linked to coral reefs during low tides. DMS is a potentially key sulfur source to the tropical atmosphere, but DMS emission from corals during tidal exposure is not well quantified. Here we show that gas phase DMS concentrations (DMSgas) increased by an order of magnitude when three Indo-Pacific corals were exposed to air in laboratory experiments...
October 31, 2016: Scientific Reports
Joshua C Reynolds, Erica A Michiels, Mojdeh Nasiri, Mathew J Reeves, Linda Quan
AIM: Long-term outcomes beyond one year after non-fatal drowning are uncharacterized. We estimated long-term mortality and identified prognostic factors in a large, population-based cohort. METHODS: Population-based prospective cohort study (1974-1996) of Western Washington Drowning Registry (WWDR) subjects surviving the index drowning through hospital discharge. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality through 2012. We tabulated Utstein-style exposure variables, estimated Kaplan-Meier curves, and identified prognostic factors with Cox proportional hazard modeling...
October 24, 2016: Resuscitation
Richard L Pyle, Raymond Boland, Holly Bolick, Brian W Bowen, Christina J Bradley, Corinne Kane, Randall K Kosaki, Ross Langston, Ken Longenecker, Anthony Montgomery, Frank A Parrish, Brian N Popp, John Rooney, Celia M Smith, Daniel Wagner, Heather L Spalding
Although the existence of coral-reef habitats at depths to 165 m in tropical regions has been known for decades, the richness, diversity, and ecological importance of mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) has only recently become widely acknowledged. During an interdisciplinary effort spanning more than two decades, we characterized the most expansive MCEs ever recorded, with vast macroalgal communities and areas of 100% coral cover between depths of 50-90 m extending for tens of km(2) in the Hawaiian Archipelago...
2016: PeerJ
Narcís Palomeras, Antonio Peñalver, Miquel Massot-Campos, Pep Lluís Negre, José Javier Fernández, Pere Ridao, Pedro J Sanz, Gabriel Oliver-Codina
The use of commercially available autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) has increased during the last fifteen years. While they are mainly used for routine survey missions, there is a set of applications that nowadays can be only addressed by manned submersibles or work-class remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) equipped with teleoperated arms: the intervention applications. To allow these heavy vehicles controlled by human operators to perform intervention tasks, underwater structures like observatory facilities, subsea panels or oil-well Christmas trees have been adapted, making them more robust and easier to operate...
October 12, 2016: Sensors
Nathaniel Bell, Bo Cai
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to evaluate the reliability and predictability of ten socioeconomic indicators obtained from the 2006-2013 annual and multi-year ACS data cycles for unintentional drowning and submersion injury surveillance. METHODS: Each indicator was evaluated using its margin of error and coefficient of variation. For the multi-year data cycles we calculated the frequency that estimates for the same geographic areas from consecutive surveys were statistically significantly different...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Haci Polat, Umut Gulacti
PURPOSE: To find answers to some catheter-related questions in hypospadias repair such as which type of catheter should be used, with which catheter balloon inflation volume, and when should the catheter be removed from the urethra? As catheter use and post-op retention time varies among surgeons in hypospadias repair. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-four 10 French all-silicone- and 54 latex Foley catheters were prepared and assigned to groups as senary. The catheter's balloons were inflated with 2, 3 and 5 mL of sterile water...
October 10, 2016: Urology Journal
Rahim Rahimi, Su Su Htwe, Manuel Ochoa, Amy Donaldson, Michael Zieger, Rajiv Sood, Ali Tamayol, Ali Khademhosseini, Amir M Ghaemmaghami, Babak Ziaie
Culturing cells at the air-liquid interface (ALI) is essential for creating functional in vitro models of lung tissues. We present the use of direct-patterned laser-treated hydrophobic paper as an effective semi-permeable membrane, ideal for ALI cell culture. The surface properties of the paper are modified through a selective CO2 laser-assisted treatment to create a unique porous substrate with hydrophilic regions that regulate fluid diffusion and cell attachment. To select the appropriate model, four promising hydrophobic films were compared with each other in terms of gas permeability and long-term strength in an aqueous environment (wet-strength)...
October 12, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Hyeonyong Chung, Won Jung Ju, Eun Hea Jho, Kyoungphile Nam
Two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were used to study the applicability of MFCs for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) detection in water. The microbial acetate oxidation in the anode and the Cr(VI) reduction in the cathode together generated voltages, which were used to indicate the change in Cr(VI) concentrations of the cathode under varying conditions of pH, ionic strength, co-existing Fe(II) concentration, and organic matter concentration. The MFC-based Cr(VI) detector showed a significant change in voltage with increasing Cr(VI) concentration at pH 1 and 2, but not at higher pH conditions...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Vanessa S S Gonçalves, Ana A Matias, Joana Poejo, Ana T Serra, Catarina M M Duarte
During the development of intranasal drug delivery systems for local/systemic effect or brain targeting, it is necessary to assess its cytotoxicity and drug transport through nasal epithelium. In order to avoid animal experiments or the use of excised tissues, in vitro cell models, such as RPMI 2650 cells, are being preferred during recent years. Nevertheless, the deposition of solid formulations into nasal cell layers with further transepithelial transport rate of drugs has been poorly studied or reported...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Dexiang Wang, Chunsheng Wang, Yuan Zhang, Chenggang Liu
Three new glass sponge species of the family Pheronematidae are described in this study. Specimens were sampled in the northwestern Pacific Ocean during cruise DY125-35I expedition (July-August, 2014) conducted by the China Ocean Mineral Resources R&D Association. All samples were collected by the Chinese manned submersible Jiaolong HOV at a depth of 1627-2897 m. The three species belonging to three genera of the same family were observed, i.e., Platylistrum subviridum sp. nov. Poliopogon canaliculatus sp. nov...
September 29, 2016: Zootaxa
Jianfeng Chen, Te Cao, Xiaolin Zhang, Yilong Xi, Leyi Ni, Erik Jeppesen
To evaluate the relative importance of photosynthetic versus morphological adaptations of submersed macrophytes to low light intensity in lakes, rapid light curves (RLCs), morphological parameters, relative growth rate (RGR), clonal reproduction and abundance of two submersed macrophytes (Potamogeton maackianus and Vallisneria natans) were examined under 2.8%, 7.1%, 17.1% and 39.5% ambient light in a field and outdoor experimental study. The plants increased their initial slope of RLCs (α) and decreased their minimum saturating irradiance (Ek) and maximum relative electron transport rate (ETRm) of RLCs under low light stress, but V...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Pauline Wanjugi, Mano Sivaganesan, Asja Korajkic, Catherine A Kelty, Brian McMinn, Robert Ulrich, Valerie J Harwood, Orin C Shanks
Understanding the decomposition of microorganisms associated with different human fecal pollution types is necessary for proper implementation of many water quality management practices, as well as predicting associated public health risks. Here, the decomposition of select cultivated and molecular indicators of fecal pollution originating from fresh human feces, septage, and primary effluent sewage in a subtropical marine environment was assessed over a six day period with an emphasis on the influence of ambient sunlight and indigenous microbiota...
November 15, 2016: Water Research
Talia G Newland, Sebastien Moret, Andy Bécue, Simon W Lewis
Single metal deposition (SMD II), a recently proposed method for the development of latent fingermarks, was investigated by systematically altering aspects of the procedure to assess their effect on the level of development and contrast achieved. Gold nanoparticle size, temperature of the deposition solution bath, and orbital shaking during detection were shown to affect the levels of development and contrast obtained. Gold nanoparticles of diameter 15-21nm were found to be most effective for satisfactory visualisation of latent fingermarks, while solutions that were applied at room temperature were found to adequately balance the ratio between the contrast of the fingermark ridge detail and the level of background staining achieved...
September 12, 2016: Forensic Science International
Øyvind Sverre Svendsen, Ketil Grong, Knut Sverre Andersen, Paul Husby
BACKGROUND: Accidental hypothermia with arrested circulation remains a condition associated with high mortality. In our institution, extracorporeal circulation (ECC) rewarming has been the cornerstone in treating such patients since 1987. We here explore characteristics and outcomes of this treatment, to identify significant merits and challenges from 3 decades of experience in ECC rewarming. METHODS: Sixty-nine patients rewarmed by ECC during the period from December 1987 to December 2015 were analyzed...
September 27, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
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