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Gloria C Chiang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: Radiology
Tayyabah Yousaf, George Dervenoulas, Polytimi-Eleni Valkimadi, Marios Politis
Lewy body dementia (DLB) is a common form of cognitive impairment, accounting for 30% of dementia cases in ages over 65 years. Early diagnosis of DLB has been challenging; particularly in the context of differentiation with Parkinson's disease dementia and other forms of dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease and rapidly progressive dementias. Current practice involves the use of [123 I]FP-CIT-SPECT, [18 F]FDG PET and [123 I]MIBG molecular imaging to support diagnostic procedures. Structural imaging techniques have an essential role for excluding structural causes, which could lead to a DLB-like phenotype, as well as aiding differential diagnosis through illustrating disease-specific patterns of atrophy...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Tapan K Khan
Almost all Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutic trials have failed in recent years. One of the main reasons for failure is due to designing the disease-modifying clinical trials at the advanced stage of the disease when irreversible brain damage has already occurred. Diagnosis of the preclinical stage of AD and therapeutic intervention at this phase, with a perfect target, are key points to slowing the progression of the disease. Various AD biomarkers hold enormous promise for identifying individuals with preclinical AD and predicting the development of AD dementia in the future, but no single AD biomarker has the capability to distinguish the AD preclinical stage...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Jordi A Matías-Guiu, María Nieves Cabrera-Martín, María Valles-Salgado, Teresa Rognoni, Lucía Galán, Teresa Moreno-Ramos, José Luis Carreras, Jorge Matías-Guiu
The ability to reject an automatic tendency, i.e. inhibition, has been linked to the prefrontal cortex, but its neural underpinnings are still controversial. Neurodegenerative diseases represent an interesting model to explore this issue, given its frequent impairment in these disorders. We investigated the inhibitory impairment and its neural basis using four different tests, which evaluate the presence of inhibitory dysfunction (Stroop test, Hayling test, and two graphical perseveration tests), and assessed their correlation with brain metabolism using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in a group of 76 participants with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and healthy controls (HC)...
May 10, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Man-Zhong Li, Yi Zhang, Hai-Yan Zou, Ya-Li Wang, Brian-Chi Yan Cheng, Lei Wang, Qiu-Xia Zhang, Jian-Feng Lei, Hui Zhao
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is identified as a critical risk factor of dementia in patients with cerebrovascular disease. Xiaoshuan enteric-coated capsule (XSECC) is a compound Chinese medicine approved by Chinese State Food and Drug Administration for promoting brain remodeling and plasticity after stroke. The present study aimed to explore the potential of XSECC to improve cognitive function after CCH and further investigate the underlying mechanisms. CCH was induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in rats...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Peter J Nestor, Daniele Altomare, Cristina Festari, Alexander Drzezga, Jasmine Rivolta, Zuzana Walker, Femke Bouwman, Stefania Orini, Ian Law, Federica Agosta, Javier Arbizu, Marina Boccardi, Flavio Nobili, Giovanni Battista Frisoni
AIM: To assess the clinical utility of FDG-PET as a diagnostic aid for differentiating Alzheimer's disease (AD; both typical and atypical forms), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), vascular dementia (VaD) and non-degenerative pseudodementia. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the PICO model to extract evidence from relevant studies. An expert panel then voted on six different diagnostic scenarios using the Delphi method...
May 7, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Seyed Hossein Nozadi, Samuel Kadoury, The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
Early identification of dementia in the early or late stages of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is crucial for a timely diagnosis and slowing down the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Positron emission tomography (PET) is considered a highly powerful diagnostic biomarker, but few approaches investigated the efficacy of focusing on localized PET-active areas for classification purposes. In this work, we propose a pipeline using learned features from semantically labelled PET images to perform group classification...
2018: International Journal of Biomedical Imaging
Julia Sauerbeck, Kazunari Ishii, Chisa Hosokawa, Hayato Kaida, Franziska T Scheiwein, Kohei Hanaoka, Axel Rominger, Matthias Brendel, Peter Bartenstein, Takamichi Murakami
PURPOSE: In subjects with amyloid deposition, striatal accumulation of 11 C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) demonstrated by positron emission tomography (PET) is related to the stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we investigated the correlation between striatal and cortical non-displaceable binding potential (BPND ). METHODS: Seventy-three subjects who complained of cognitive disturbance underwent dynamic PiB-PET studies and showed positive PiB accumulation were retrospectively selected...
May 5, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
Han Soo Yoo, Seok Jong Chung, Soo-Jong Kim, Jung Su Oh, Jae Seung Kim, Byoung Seok Ye, Young Ho Sohn, Phil Hyu Lee
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the pattern of striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability could differentiate between progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in the first few years of the disease. METHODS: We enrolled patients who had Parkinsonism and frontal dysfunction and/or language deficit, visited the clinic within 2 years of the onset of symptoms, and had been followed-up for longer than 5 years; thus resulting in 26 patients with PSP and 24 patients with FTD...
May 4, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Soichiro Shimizu, Daisuke Hirose, Hirokuni Hatanaka, Naoto Takenoshita, Yoshitsugu Kaneko, Yusuke Ogawa, Hirofumi Sakurai, Haruo Hanyu
It has recently been recognized that neurodegenerative diseases are caused by common cellular and molecular mechanisms including protein aggregation and inclusion body formation. Each type of neurodegenerative disease is characterized by the specific protein that aggregates. In these days, the pathway involved in protein aggregation has been elucidated. These are leading to approaches toward disease-modifying therapies. Neurodegenerative diseases are fundamentally diagnosed pathologically. Therefore, autopsy is essential for a definitive diagnosis of a neurodegenerative disease...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Fulvio Lauretani, Livia Ruffini, Andrea Ticinesi, Antonio Nouvenne, Marcello Maggio, Tiziana Meschi
Previous observational studies using old qualitative methods have not clarified the role of amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) in the assessment of dementia. Given the moderately positive predictive value, the presence of amyloid deposition does not necessarily imply the diagnosis of dementia. Conversely, the absence of amyloid PET deposition has been shown to be useful in excluding the neurodegenerative pathology, irrespective of the aging process. We describe the clinical application of new innovative software recently developed to increase the sensitivity of this technique and to discriminate pathological deposition of cerebral amyloid from the age-related changes, reporting preliminary findings from a case-series study...
April 2018: World Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Melissa C Wren, Tammaryn Lashley, Erik Årstad, Kerstin Sander
Imaging of pathological tau with positron emission tomography (PET) has the potential to allow early diagnosis of the dementias and monitoring of disease progression, including assessment of therapeutic interventions, in vivo. The first generation of tau PET tracers, including the carbazole flortaucipir and the 2-arylquinolines of the THK series, are now used in clinical research; however, concerns have been raised about off-target binding and low sensitivity.With the aim to determine the nature of tau pathology depicted by structurally distinct tau ligands we carried out a microscopic neuropathological evaluation in post-mortem human brain tissue of cases with primary and secondary tauopathies...
May 1, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Marina Boccardi, Cristina Festari, Daniele Altomare, Federica Gandolfo, Stefania Orini, Flavio Nobili, Giovanni B Frisoni
BACKGROUND: FDG-PET is frequently used as a marker of synaptic damage to diagnose dementing neurodegenerative disorders. We aimed to adapt the items of evidence quality to FDG-PET diagnostic studies, and assess the evidence available in current literature to assist Delphi decisions for European recommendations for clinical use. METHODS: Based on acknowledged methodological guidance, we defined the domains, specific to FDG-PET, required to assess the quality of evidence in 21 literature searches addressing as many Population Intervention Comparison Outcome (PICO) questions...
April 30, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Hai Rong Ma, Li Qin Sheng, Ping Lei Pan, Gen Di Wang, Rong Luo, Hai Cun Shi, Zhen Yu Dai, Jian Guo Zhong
Brain 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been utilized to monitor disease conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to Alzheimer's dementia (AD). However, the conversion patterns of FDG-PET metabolism across studies are not conclusive. We conducted a voxel-wise meta-analysis using Seed-based d Mapping that included 10 baseline voxel-wise FDG-PET comparisons between 93 aMCI converters and 129 aMCI non-converters from nine longitudinal studies. The most robust and reliable metabolic alterations that predicted conversion from aMCI to AD were localized in the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus...
2018: Translational Neurodegeneration
Wha Jin Lee, Cheol E Han, Iman Aganj, Sang Won Seo, Joon-Kyung Seong
Recent advances in neuroimaging technology have shown that rich club organization in human brain networks plays a crucial role in global communication and cognitive functionality. In this study, we investigated rich club organization within white matter structural brain networks in two common types of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD). We recruited 30 AD patients ([11C] Pittsburgh compound-B (PiB) PET positive), 39 SVaD patients (PiB negative), and 72 age-, gender-, and education-matched cognitively normal (CN) subjects...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Carmen Lage, Andrea Gonzalez Suarez, Ana Pozueta, Javier Riancho, Martha Kazimierczak, Maria Bravo, Julio Jimenez Bonilla, Marıa de Arcocha Torres, Remedios Quirce, Ignacio Banzo, Jose Luis Vazquez-Higuera, Gil D Rabinovici, Eloy Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Pascual Sánchez-Juan
The clinical utility of amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) has not been fully established. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of amyloid imaging on clinical decision making in a secondary care unit and compare our results with a previous study in a tertiary center following the same methods. We reviewed retrospectively 151 cognitively impaired patients who underwent amyloid (Pittsburgh compound B [PiB]) PET and were evaluated clinically before and after the scan in a secondary care unit. One hundred and fifty concurrently underwent fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Rosebud O Roberts, Jeremiah A Aakre, Walter K Kremers, Maria Vassilaki, David S Knopman, Michelle M Mielke, Rabe Alhurani, Yonas E Geda, Mary M Machulda, Preciosa Coloma, Barbara Schauble, Val J Lowe, Clifford R Jack, Ronald C Petersen
Importance: Brain amyloid deposition is a marker of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology. The population-based prevalence and outcomes of amyloid positivity in a population without dementia are important for understanding the trajectory of amyloid positivity to clinically significant outcomes and for designing AD prevention trials. Objective: To determine prevalence and outcomes of amyloid positivity in a population without dementia. Design, Setting, and Participants: In the prospective, population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging in Olmsted County, Minnesota, participants without dementia were randomly selected from the county population and were clinically and cognitively evaluated at baseline and every 15 months from August 1, 2008, to September 18, 2018...
April 30, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Claudie Hooper, Philipe De Souto Barreto, Christelle Cantet, Matteo Cesari, Pierre Payoux, Anne Sophie Salabert, Bruno Vellas
BACKGROUND: Inflammation promotes amyloidogenesis in animals and markers of inflammation are associated with β-amyloid (Aβ) in humans. Hence, we sought to examine the cross-sectional associations between chronically elevated plasma C reactive protein (CRP) and cortical Aβ in 259 non-demented elderly individuals reporting subjective memory complaints from the Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT). METHODS: Cortical-to-cerebellar standard uptake value ratios were obtained using [18 F] florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET)...
April 25, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Javier Arbizu, Cristina Festari, Daniele Altomare, Zuzana Walker, Femke Bouwman, Jasmine Rivolta, Stefania Orini, Henryk Barthel, Federica Agosta, Alexander Drzezga, Peter Nestor, Marina Boccardi, Giovanni Battista Frisoni, Flavio Nobili
PURPOSE: We aim to report the quality of accuracy studies investigating the utility of [18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET in supporting the diagnosis of prodromal Alzheimer's Disease (AD), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects, and the corresponding recommendations made by a panel of experts. METHODS: Seven panellist, four from the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, and three from the European Academy of Neurology, produced recommendations taking into consideration the incremental value of FDG-PET, as added on clinical-neuropsychological examination, to ascertain the aetiology of MCI (AD, FTLD or DLB)...
April 27, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Flavio Nobili, Annachiara Cagnin, Maria L Calcagni, Andrea Chincarini, Ugo P Guerra, Silvia Morbelli, Alessandro Padovani, Barbara Paghera, Sabina Pappatà, Lucilla Parnetti, Stelvio Sestini, Orazio Schillaci
In May, 2017 some representatives of the Italian nuclear medicine and neurological communities spontaneously met to discuss the issues emerged during the first two years of routine application of amyloid PET with fluorinated radiopharmaceuticals in the real world. The limitations of a binary classification of scans, the possibility to obtain early images as a surrogate marker of regional cerebral bloos flow, the need for (semi-)quantification and, thus, the opportunity of ranking brain amyloidosis, the correlation with Aβ42 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid, the occurrence and biological meaning of uncertain/boderline scans, the issue of incidental amyloidosis, the technical pittfalls leading to false negative/positive results, the position of the tool in the diagnostic flow- chart in the national reality, are the main topics that have been discussed...
April 24, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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