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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29805384/imaging-care-requirements-use-of-functional-neuroimaging-to-predict-dementia-caregiver-burden
#1
Angus M J Prosser, John H Spreadbury, Livia Tossici-Bolt, Christopher M Kipps
Background: Dementia caregivers frequently report high stress, with increased burden associated with worse outcomes for both patients and caregivers. Although many studies relate clinical phenotypes to burden, the relationship between imaging pathology and burden, irrespective of diagnosis, is unknown. This study investigated the relationship between caregiver burden and patient regional cerebral blood flow in dementia. Methods: Seventy-sev en patients with cognitive impairment undergoing brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography imaging in normal clinical care and their caregivers were recruited...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780124/hiv-dementia-with-a-decreased-cardiac-123-i-metaiodobenzylguanidine-uptake-masquerading-as-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#2
Masanori Kurihara, Takuya Sasaki, Hiroyuki Ishiura, Shoji Tsuji
Cardiac 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy is a promising biomarker for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). However, we experienced a patient with cognitive decline, parkinsonism, and a decreased MIBG uptake who turned out to have HIV dementia. Normal dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography reduced the possibility of comorbid Lewy body pathology causing the patient' s parkinsonism. The decreased MIBG uptake was most likely due to postganglionic sympathetic nerve denervation, which can also be caused by HIV...
May 18, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761296/neuroimaging-in-lewy-body-dementia
#3
REVIEW
Tayyabah Yousaf, George Dervenoulas, Polytimi-Eleni Valkimadi, Marios Politis
Lewy body dementia (DLB) is a common form of cognitive impairment, accounting for 30% of dementia cases in ages over 65 years. Early diagnosis of DLB has been challenging; particularly in the context of differentiation with Parkinson's disease dementia and other forms of dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease and rapidly progressive dementias. Current practice involves the use of [123 I]FP-CIT-SPECT, [18 F]FDG PET and [123 I]MIBG molecular imaging to support diagnostic procedures. Structural imaging techniques have an essential role for excluding structural causes, which could lead to a DLB-like phenotype, as well as aiding differential diagnosis through illustrating disease-specific patterns of atrophy...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720959/role-of-neuroimaging-as-a-biomarker-for-neurodegenerative-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Soichiro Shimizu, Daisuke Hirose, Hirokuni Hatanaka, Naoto Takenoshita, Yoshitsugu Kaneko, Yusuke Ogawa, Hirofumi Sakurai, Haruo Hanyu
It has recently been recognized that neurodegenerative diseases are caused by common cellular and molecular mechanisms including protein aggregation and inclusion body formation. Each type of neurodegenerative disease is characterized by the specific protein that aggregates. In these days, the pathway involved in protein aggregation has been elucidated. These are leading to approaches toward disease-modifying therapies. Neurodegenerative diseases are fundamentally diagnosed pathologically. Therefore, autopsy is essential for a definitive diagnosis of a neurodegenerative disease...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709939/a-case-of-fatal-familial-insomnia-initially-developing-parkinsonism-mimicking-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#5
Takuya Fukuoka, Yoshihiko Nakazato, Masaomi Yamamoto, Akifumi Miyake, Takashi Mitsufuji, Toshimasa Yamamoto
We report a rare case of fatal familial insomnia in a 58-year-old man who initially developed parkinsonism, secondary dementia, and visual hallucinations that were suspected to be due to dementia with Lewy bodies. We evaluated the function of the striatum via dopamine transporter SPECT using 123 I-ioflupane and found marked presynaptic dopamine dysfunction in the bilateral striatum. This is the first reported case in which the initial symptom of fatal familial insomnia was parkinsonism and in which the dopamine transporter function was evaluated by DAT SPECT...
April 27, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682237/recognizing-late-onset-frontotemporal-dementia-with-the-daphne-scale-a-case-report
#6
Leonardo Tafarello Martins, Ivan Abdalla Teixeira, Jerson Laks, Valeska Marinho
Frontotemporal dementias are classically described as early onset dementias with personality and behavioral changes, however, late onset forms can also be found. Considering the paucity of information about late onset behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia and its challenging diagnosis, we present a case report of an 85-year-old woman with behavioral changes and slow progression to dementia who was first diagnosed as having bipolar disorder and then Alzheimer's disease. The Daphne scale provided a structured means to improve clinical diagnosis, also supported by characteristic features on MRI and SPECT, while CSF biomarkers ruled out atypical Alzheimer's disease...
January 2018: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624752/biomarkers-for-cognitive-impairment-in-lewy-body-disorders-status-and-relevance-for-clinical-trials
#7
REVIEW
Andrew Siderowf, Dag Aarsland, Brit Mollenhauer, Jennifer G Goldman, Bernard Ravina
Biomarkers have the potential to improve diagnosis and prognosis, and guide clinical treatment decisions. In research, biomarkers can be used for patient selection and as outcome measures in clinical trials. A range of biochemical and imaging biomarkers are relevant to patients with Lewy body disorders, including PD, PD dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies. Dopaminergic imaging is used for differential diagnosis of parkinsonian disorders versus tremor disorders without dopamingeric deficits, and also to differentiate dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer's disease...
April 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604980/imaging-studies-of-the-hiv-infected-brain
#8
Linda Chang, Dinesh K Shukla
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enters the brain early after infecting humans and may remain in the central nervous system despite successful antiretroviral treatment. Many neuroimaging techniques were used to study HIV+ patients with or without opportunistic infections. These techniques assessed abnormalities in brain structures (using computed tomography, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion MRI) and function (using functional MRI at rest or during a task, and perfusion MRI with or without a contrast agent)...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578481/deficits-in-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-on-brain-spect-predict-treatment-resistant-depression
#9
Daniel G Amen, Derek V Taylor, Somayeh Meysami, Cyrus A Raji
BACKGROUND: Depression remains an important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, yet few neuroimaging biomarkers are available to identify treatment response in depression. OBJECTIVE: To analyze and compare functional perfusion neuroimaging in persons with treatment resistant depression (TRD) compared to those experiencing full remission. METHODS: A total of 951 subjects from a community psychiatry cohort were scanned with perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain in both resting and task related settings...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560382/clinicopathological-and-123-i-fp-cit-spect-correlations-in-patients-with-dementia
#10
Youngsin Jung, Lennon G Jordan, Val J Lowe, Kejal Kantarci, Joseph E Parisi, Dennis W Dickson, Melissa E Murray, Ross R Reichard, Tanis J Ferman, David T Jones, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Rodolfo Savica, Mary M Machulda, Julie A Fields, Laura A Allen, Daniel A Drubach, Erik K St Louis, Michael H Silber, Clifford R Jack, David S Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Bradley F Boeve
The relationship between clinicopathologic diagnosis and 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT in 18 patients with dementia (12 with Lewy body disease) from one center in the United States was assessed. The sensitivity and specificity of abnormal 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT with reduced striatal uptake on visual inspection for predicting Lewy body disease were 91.7% and 83.3%, respectively. The mean calculated putamen to occipital ratio (mPOR) based on regions of interest was significantly reduced in Lewy body disease compared to non-Lewy body disease cases ( P = 0...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514157/cognitive-reserve-hypothesis-in-frontotemporal-dementia-evidence-from-a-brain-spect-study-in-a-series-of-greek-frontotemporal-dementia-patients
#11
Pantelis Maiovis, Panagiotis Ioannidis, Georgios Gerasimou, Anna Gotzamani-Psarrakou, Dimitrios Karacostas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cognitive reserve (CR) mediates the clinical expression of brain pathology in Alzheimer's disease, while there are much less relevant data in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). In the present study we examined whether CR, measured using the Cognitive Reserve Index (CRI), correlated with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in Greek FTD patients. METHODS: Eighty FTD patients, i.e., 47 with behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) and 33 with primary progressive aphasia (PPA), were enrolled into this study...
March 7, 2018: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503329/neuroimaging-in-parkinsonian-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Madhavi Tripathi, Atin Kumar, Chandrasekhar Bal
Neuroimaging (NI) in Parkinson's disease (PD) includes functional techniques like positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and morphological imaging using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transcranial sonography to probe different aspects of the neurobiology of PD. Changes in neurotransmitters in various regions of the brain and their influence on brain networks is the basis for the motor symptoms of PD which are interrogated by NI. The recent Movement Disorders Society Clinical Diagnostic Criteria for PD (MDS-PD) have included the results of a few of these neuroimaging techniques to serve as single supportive criteria or absolute exclusion criteria for the diagnosis of PD...
March 2018: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429985/posterior-associative-and-cingulate-cortex-involvement-of-brain-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-spect-imaging-in-semantic-dementia-with-probable-alzheimer-disease-pathology-a-case-report
#13
Yumi Takano, Keiko Kunitoki, Yasuko Tatewaki, Tatsushi Mutoh, Tomoko Totsune, Hideo Shimomura, Manabu Nakagawa, Hiroyuki Arai, Yasuyuki Taki
BACKGROUND Semantic dementia (SD) is a type of primary progressive aphasia with prominent language dysfunction, mostly within the spectrum of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Although there is an overlap in clinical manifestations of SD attributable to FTLD and neuropathologically proven Alzheimer disease (AD), clinical diagnostic clues are not readily available. We present a characteristic finding based on a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based regional cerebral blood flow study and its statistical imaging analysis for a rare case of SD with AD-like pathology...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409154/anosognosia-in-mild-alzheimer-s-disease-is-correlated-with-not-only-neural-dysfunction-but-also-compensation
#14
Kenji Tagai, Shunichiro Shinagawa, Hidehiro Kada, Keisuke Inamura, Tomoyuki Nagata, Kazuhiko Nakayama
BACKGROUND: Anosognosia in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complicated, non-unitary phenomenon. In a clinical setting, patients with mild AD often preserve their awareness partially. We hypothesized that compensation, as well as neural dysfunction, could be correlated with anosognosia in mild AD. METHODS: The severity of anosognosia was evaluated using the Anosognosia Questionnaire for Dementia in 37 subjects with mild AD or mild cognitive impairment due to AD. The subjects also underwent single-photon emission computed tomography with N-isopropyl-p-[123 I]iodoamphetamine...
March 2018: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406901/scan-without-evidence-of-dopaminergic-deficit-swedd-in-degenerative-parkinsonism-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-a-prospective-study
#15
Nicolas Nicastro, Pierre R Burkhard, Valentina Garibotto
BACKGROUND: 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging is a reliable method to assess presynaptic dopaminergic pathways in degenerative parkinsonisms and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). METHODS: We aimed at examining sensitivity of combined visual and semi-quantitative 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT analyses in a prospective cohort of subjects with DLB and degenerative parkinsonisms - Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple system atrophy (MSA), corticobasal syndrome (CBS) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) to determine prevalence and clinical significance of scans without evidence of dopaminergic deficit (SWEDD)...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362011/neuropsychiatric-symptoms-and-cognitive-profile-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-with-lewy-bodies
#16
Paul C Donaghy, John-Paul Taylor, John T O'Brien, Nicola Barnett, Kirsty Olsen, Sean J Colloby, Jim Lloyd, George Petrides, Ian G McKeith, Alan J Thomas
BACKGROUND: The accurate clinical characterisation of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is becoming increasingly important. The aim of this study was to compare the neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive profile of MCI with Lewy bodies (MCI-LB) with Alzheimer's disease MCI (MCI-AD). METHODS: Participants were ⩾60 years old with MCI. Each had a thorough clinical and neuropsychological assessment and 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-nortropane single photon emission computed tomography FP-CIT SPECT)...
January 24, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232183/loss-of-substantia-nigra-hyperintensity-at-3-0-t-mr-imaging-in-idiopathic-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-comparison-with-123-i-fp-cit-spect
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Yun Jung Bae, Jong-Min Kim, Kyeong Joon Kim, Eunhee Kim, Hyun Soo Park, Seo Young Kang, In-Young Yoon, Jee-Young Lee, Beomseok Jeon, Sang Eun Kim
Purpose To examine whether the loss of nigral hyperintensity (NH) on 3.0-T susceptibility-weighted (SW) magnetic resonance (MR) images can help identify high synucleinopathy risk in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD). Materials and Methods Between March 2014 and April 2015, 18 consecutively recruited patients with iRBD were evaluated with 3.0-T SW imaging and iodine 123-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-nortropane (123 I-FP-CIT) single photon emission computed tomography and compared with 18 healthy subjects and 18 patients with Parkinson disease (PD)...
April 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212461/widespread-enlarged-perivascular-spaces-associated-with-dementia-and-focal-brain-dysfunction-case-report
#18
Daisuke Taniguchi, Hideki Shimura, Masao Watanabe, Nobutaka Hattori, Takao Urabe
BACKGROUND: Enlarged perivascular spaces (PVS) are common magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, whereas widespread enlarged PVS are extremely rare. Although most patients with widespread enlarged PVS remain asymptomatic, some develop neurological dysfunctions; however, it remains unclear whether these are the consequence of widespread enlarged PVS. CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old female patient developed consciousness disturbance, cognitive dysfunctions, fluent aphasia, agraphia, acalculia, and left-right disorientation after suffering from bronchopneumonia...
December 7, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199527/diversity-in-clinical-manifestations-and-imaging-features-of-neurosyphilis-obstacles-to-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-report-of-three-cases
#19
Hui Liu, Zong-Bo Zhao, Nian-Xing You
OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical manifestations and imaging features of neurosyphilis and to discuss the obstacles in the diagnosis and treatment of neurosyphilis. METHODS: We present this case study involving three cases of definite neurosyphilis, focusing on their clinical data. RESULTS: Case 1 is a patient with numb and weak left lower limb. Case 2 showed slow reaction and dementia behaviors including worse memory and the decrease of calculation and orientation ability in this patient...
December 17, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133699/referral-practice-reporting-standards-and-the-impact-of-dopamine-transporter-scans-done-in-a-tertiary-hospital
#20
Shakya Bhattacharjee, Albi J Chalissery, Tim Barry, Donagh O'Sullivan, Martin O'Connell, Timothy Lynch
AIMS: We studied the referral practice, reporting standards, and the impact of 123 ioflupane single photon emission computed tomogram dopamine transporters (DAT-SPECT) scans conducted for the diagnosis and clinical management of patients. SETTINGS AND DESIGNS: The present study was a retrospective, non-interventional study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed the DAT scan referral and the official reports available from the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Mater Misericordiae University Hospital over 1 year (2013)...
November 2017: Neurology India
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