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dementia spect

Robert S Miletich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are now available for routine clinical applications in neurology. This article discusses their diagnostic use in dementia, brain tumors, epilepsy, parkinsonism, cerebrovascular disease, and traumatic brain injury. RECENT FINDINGS: Neuromolecular imaging, also known as nuclear neurology, involves clinical imaging of both basal regional physiology (perfusion, metabolism, and transport mechanisms) and specific neurochemical physiology (currently, only the dopamine transporter)...
October 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Satoshi Hayashi, Seishi Terada, Shuhei Sato, Etsuko Oshima, Tomoko Miki, Osamu Yokota, Takeshi Ishihara, Norihito Yamada
Quality of life (QOL) has been recently recognized as the central purpose of healthcare, and positive affect is one of the core dimension of QOL. However, positive affect among patients with dementia or Alzheimer's disease (AD) has not received much attention in the medical research field. One hundred sixteen consecutive patients with AD were recruited from the outpatient units of the Memory Clinic of Okayama University Hospital. The positive affect score was evaluated using the positive affect domain of the Quality of Life questionnaire for Dementia (QOL-D)...
October 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Tian-Sin Fan, Ruey-Meei Wu, Pei-Lung Chen, Ta-Fu Chen, Huei-Ying Li, Yin-Hung Lin, Chien-Yu Chen, Meng-Ling Chen, Chun-Hwei Tai, Hang-I Lin, Chin-Hsien Lin
INTRODUCTION: Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, only few cases carrying LRRK2 mutations have been reported in Taiwanese PD patients. METHODS: We used targeted next generation sequencing (NGS), covering 24 candidate genes involved in neurodegenerative disorders, to analyze 40 probands with familial PD, and 10 patients with mixed neurodegenerative disorders. Sanger sequencing of the identified mutation in the first set of the study was performed in additional 270 PD patients, including 139 familial PD and 131 early-onset PD (onset age less than 50 years old), and 300 age/gender matched control subjects...
September 7, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
L Bonanni, A Cagnin, F Agosta, C Babiloni, B Borroni, M Bozzali, A C Bruni, M Filippi, D Galimberti, R Monastero, C Muscio, L Parnetti, D Perani, L Serra, V Silani, P Tiraboschi, A Padovani
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) causes elevated outlays for the National Health Systems due to high institutionalization rate and patients' reduced quality of life and high mortality. Furthermore, DLB is often misdiagnosed as Alzheimer's disease. These data motivate harmonized multicenter longitudinal cohort studies to improve clinical management and therapy monitoring. The Italian DLB study group of the Italian Neurological Society for dementia (SINdem) developed and emailed a semi-structured questionnaire to 572 national dementia centers (from primary to tertiary) to prepare an Italian large longitudinal cohort...
September 13, 2016: Neurological Sciences
Etsuko Imabayashi, Kota Yokoyama, Tadashi Tsukamoto, Daichi Sone, Kaoru Sumida, Yukio Kimura, Noriko Sato, Miho Murata, Hiroshi Matsuda
BACKGROUND: In addition to occipital hypoperfusion, preserved metabolism of the posterior cingulate gyri (PCG) relative to the precunei is known as the cingulate island sign (CIS) in the patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). CIS has been detected using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography but not using brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The purpose of this study was to optimize brain perfusion SPECT to enable differentiation of DLB from Alzheimer's disease (AD) using CIS and occipital hypoperfusion...
December 2016: EJNMMI Research
Axel Van Der Gucht, Laurent Cleret de Langavant, Ophélie Bélissant, Corentin Rabu, Anne-Ségolène Cottereau, Eva Evangelista, Julia Chalaye, Sophie Bonnot-Lours, Gilles Fénelon, Emmanuel Itti
A 67-year-old man was referred for fluctuating neuropsychiatric symptoms, featuring depression, delirious episodes, recurrent visual hallucinations and catatonic syndrome associated with cognitive decline. No parkinsonism was found clinically even under neuroleptic treatment. (18)F-FDG PET/CT showed hypometabolism in the posterior associative cortex including the occipital cortex, suggesting Lewy body dementia, but (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT was normal and cardiac (123)I-MIBG imaging showed no signs of sympathetic denervation...
September 2016: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
E Dall'Ara, M Boudiffa, C Taylor, D Schug, E Fiegle, A J Kennerley, C Damianou, G M Tozer, F Kiessling, R Müller
Several non-invasive imaging techniques are used to investigate the effect of pathologies and treatments over time in mouse models. Each preclinical in vivo technique provides longitudinal and quantitative measurements of changes in tissues and organs, which are fundamental for the evaluation of alterations in phenotype due to pathologies, interventions and treatments. However, it is still unclear how these imaging modalities can be used to study ageing with mice models. Almost all age related pathologies in mice such as osteoporosis, arthritis, diabetes, cancer, thrombi, dementia, to name a few, can be imaged in vivo by at least one longitudinal imaging modality...
August 13, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Zuzana Walker, Emilio Moreno, Alan Thomas, Fraser Inglis, Naji Tabet, Tim Stevens, Tim Whitfield, Dag Aarsland, Michael Rainer, Alessandro Padovani
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that core and suggestive features in possible dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) would vary in their ability to predict an abnormal dopamine transporter scan and therefore a follow-up diagnosis of probable DLB. A further objective was to assess the evolution of core and suggestive features in patients with possible DLB over time depending on the (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT scan result. METHODS: A total of 187 patients with possible DLB (dementia plus one core or one suggestive feature) were randomized to have dopamine transporter imaging or to follow-up without scan...
September 6, 2016: Neurology
Chia-Pei Lin, Chih-Pang Chu, Hsing-Cheng Liu
Apathy is a common neurobehavioral sign in cases of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia. However, there is still no established sustained effective treatment. We present the case of a 65-year-old man with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia who suffered from severe apathy, but his apathy improved after a 10-month period of bupropion treatment. His single photon emission computed tomography report also showed slight improvement. To the best of our knowledge, such a case with imaging evidence has never been reported...
August 2, 2016: Neurocase
Joachim Mazère, Frederic Lamare, Philippe Fernandez, Michèle Allard, Willy Mayo
: Cholinergic alterations in Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are widely documented in post mortem studies whereas in vivo studies are sparse, particularly at subcortical level. We used (123)I-iodobenzovesamicol, a single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) radiotracer of the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT), to evaluate in vivo in DLB the integrity of the three main cholinergic pathways: the Ch1 (septo-hippocampal), the Ch4 (innominato-cortical) and the Ch5 (ponto-thalamic) cholinergic pathways, as well as the striatal cholinergic interneurons...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Davide Vito Moretti
Decay of the temporoparietal cortex is associated with prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). Additionally, shrinkage of the temporoparietal cerebral area has been connected with an increase in α3/α2 electroencephalogram (EEG) power ratio in prodromal AD. Furthermore, a lower regional blood perfusion has been exhibited in patients with a higher α3/α2 proportion when contrasted with low α3/α2 proportion. Furthermore, a lower regional blood perfusion and reduced hippocampal volume has been exhibited in patients with higher α3/α2 when contrasted with lower α3/α2 EEG power ratio...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Karolien Goffin, Koen van Laere
Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a functional nuclear imaging technique that allows visualization and quantification of different in vivo physiologic and pathologic features of brain neurobiology. It has been used for many years in diagnosis of several neurologic and psychiatric disorders. In this chapter, we discuss the current state-of-the-art of SPECT imaging of brain perfusion and dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging. Brain perfusion SPECT imaging plays an important role in the localization of the seizure onset zone in patients with refractory epilepsy...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Alireza Atri
This chapter reviews clinical applications and imaging findings useful in medical practice relating to neurodegenerative cognitive/dementing disorders. The preponderance of evidence and consensus guidelines support an essential role of multitiered neuroimaging in the evaluation and management of neurodegenerative cognitive/dementia syndrome that range in severity from mild impairments to frank dementia. Additionally, imaging features are incorporated in updated clinical and research diagnostic criteria for most dementias, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Frontotemporal Lobar Degenerations/Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD), and Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCI)...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Pantelis Maiovis, Panagiotis Ioannidis, Georgios Gerasimou, Anna Gotzamani-Psarrakou, Dimitrios Karacostas
Severity assessment scales for frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) have been recently introduced. In the present study, the authors examined whether the FTLD-modified Clinical Dementia Rating (FTLD-CDR) scale and the Frontotemporal Dementia Rating Scale (FRS) correlated with regional brain perfusion in Greek FTLD patients. A total of 47 behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) patients and 33 primary progressive aphasia (PPA) patients were assessed for demographic data, cognitive reserve (CR), and severity of dementia and underwent brain single-photon emission computed tomography...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Pietro Tiraboschi, Angelo Corso, Ugo Paolo Guerra, Flavio Nobili, Arnoldo Piccardo, Maria Lucia Calcagni, Duccio Volterrani, Diego Cecchin, Mauro Tettamanti, Luigi Antelmi, Simone Vidale, Leonardo Sacco, Maria Merello, Stefano Stefanini, Anna Micheli, Paola Vai, Selene Capitanio, Sara Vincenzina Gabanelli, Riccardo Riva, Patrizia Pinto, Ave Maria Biffi, Cristina Muscio
OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic value of striatal (123) I-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl) nortropane ((123) I-FP-CIT) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and (123) I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ((123) I-MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy in differentiating dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from other dementia types. METHODS: This prospective longitudinal study included 30 patients with a clinical diagnosis of DLB and 29 patients with non-DLB dementia (Alzheimer disease, n = 16; behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, n = 13)...
September 2016: Annals of Neurology
Mosa Moradi, Nasrollah Naghdi, Hamidreza Hemmati, Majid Asadi-Samani, Mahmoud Bahmani
INTRODUCTION: Public and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields due to the growing trend of electronic devices may cause adverse effects on human health. This paper describes the risk of mutation and sexual trauma and infertility in masculine sexual cell by mobile phone radiations. METHODS: In this study, we measured the emitted dose from a radiofrequency device, such as switching high voltage at different frequencies using a scintillation detector. The switching high voltage power supply (HVPS) was built for the Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) system...
May 2016: Electronic Physician
Carlos A Sánchez-Catasús, Gilles N Stormezand, Peter Jan van Laar, Peter P De Deyn, Mario Alvarez Sánchez, Rudi A J O Dierckx
This review article aims at providing a state-of-the-art review of the role of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging (FDG-PET) in the prediction of Alzheimer's dementia in subjects suffering mild cognitive impairment (MCI), with a particular focus on the predictive power of FDG-PET compared to structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI). We also address perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) as a less costly and more accessible alternative to FDG- PET. A search in PubMed was performed, taking into consideration relevant scientific articles published in English within the last five years and limited to human studies...
June 28, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
Sean J Colloby, Ian G McKeith, David J Burn, David J Wyper, John T O'Brien, John-Paul Taylor
OBJECTIVE: To investigate muscarinic M1/M4 cholinergic networks in Parkinson disease dementia (PDD) and their association with changes in Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) after 12 weeks of treatment with donepezil. METHODS: Forty-nine participants (25 PDD and 24 elderly controls) underwent (123)I-QNB and (99m)Tc-exametazime SPECT scanning. We implemented voxel principal components (PC) analysis, producing a series of PC images of patterns of interrelated voxels across individuals...
July 12, 2016: Neurology
M Reimold, C la Fougère
In neurodegeneration and in neuro-oncology, the standard imaging procedure, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), shows limited sensitivity and specificity. Molecular imaging with specific positron-emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracers allows various molecular targets and metabolic processes to be assessed and is thus a valuable adjunct to MRI. Two important examples are referred to here: amino acid transport for neuro-oncological issues, and the recently approved PET tracers for detecting amyloid depositions during the preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease...
July 2016: Der Radiologe
Akira Osone, Reiko Arai, Rina Hakamada, Kazutaka Shimoda
INTRODUCTION: Two reserve hypotheses have been proposed to account for the observed disjunction between the degree of brain pathology and its clinical manifestations. This study investigated whether cognitive reserve (CR), taken here as educational attainment and premorbid IQ, or brain reserve (BR; i.e., brain volume) is associated with progression and regression in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) over a 12-month follow-up. METHOD: Patients with MCI (n = 123) were prospectively enrolled...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
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