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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217477/activation-of-hepatic-nogo-b-receptor-expression-a-new-anti-liver-steatosis-mechanism-of-statins
#1
Wenwen Zhang, Xiaoxiao Yang, Yuanli Chen, Wenquan Hu, Lipei Liu, Xiaomeng Zhang, Mengyang Liu, Lei Sun, Ying Liu, Miao Yu, Xiaoju Li, Luyuan Li, Yan Zhu, Qing Robert Miao, Jihong Han, Yajun Duan
Deficiency of hepatic Nogo-B receptor (NgBR) expression activates liver X receptor α (LXRα) in an adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα)-dependent manner, thereby inducing severe hepatic lipid accumulation and hypertriglyceridemia. Statins have been demonstrated non-cholesterol lowering effects including anti-nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Herein, we investigated if the anti-NAFLD function of statins depends on activation of NgBR expression. In vivo, atorvastatin protected apoE deficient or NgBR floxed, but not hepatic NgBR deficient mice, against Western diet (WD)-increased triglyceride levels in liver and serum...
December 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217137/atorvastatin-affects-negatively-respiratory-function-of-isolated-endothelial-mitochondria
#2
Izabela Broniarek, Wieslawa Jarmuszkiewicz
The purpose of this research was to elucidate the direct effects of two popular blood cholesterol-lowering drugs used to treat cardiovascular diseases, atorvastatin and pravastatin, on respiratory function, membrane potential, and reactive oxygen species formation in mitochondria isolated from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EA.hy926 cell line). Hydrophilic pravastatin did not significantly affect endothelial mitochondria function. In contrast, hydrophobic calcium-containing atorvastatin-induced a loss of outer mitochondrial membrane integrity, an increase in hydrogen peroxide formation, and reductions in maximal (phosphorylating or uncoupled) respiratory rate, membrane potential and oxidative phosphorylation efficiency...
December 4, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213055/inhibiting-mevalonate-pathway-enzymes-increases-stromal-cell-resilience-to-a-cholesterol-dependent-cytolysin
#3
Sholeem Griffin, Giulio Preta, Iain Martin Sheldon
Animal health depends on the ability of immune cells to kill invading pathogens, and on the resilience of tissues to tolerate the presence of pathogens. Trueperella pyogenes causes tissue pathology in many mammals by secreting a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, pyolysin (PLO), which targets stromal cells. Cellular cholesterol is derived from squalene, which is synthesized via the mevalonate pathway enzymes, including HMGCR, FDPS and FDFT1. The present study tested the hypothesis that inhibiting enzymes in the mevalonate pathway to reduce cellular cholesterol increases the resilience of stromal cells to PLO...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211309/statins-in-nonsurgical-and-surgical-periodontal-therapy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-preclinical-in-vivo-trials
#4
REVIEW
K Bertl, I Steiner, N Pandis, K Buhlin, B Klinge, A Stavropoulos
The cholesterol-lowering drugs, statins, possess anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and pro-osteogenic properties, and thus have been tested as an adjunct to periodontal treatment. The present systematic review aimed to answer the following focused research question: What is the effect of local and/or systemic statin use on periodontal tissues in preclinical in vivo studies of experimentally induced periodontitis (EIP) and/or acute/chronified periodontal defect (ACP) models? A literature search (of Medline/PubMed, Embase/Ovid, CENTRAL/Ovid) using the following main eligibility criteria was performed: (i) English or German language; (ii) controlled preclinical in vivo trials; (iii) local and/or systemic statin use in EIP and/or ACP models; and (iv) quantitative evaluation of periodontal tissues (i...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210030/pharmacologic-prevention-of-variceal-bleeding-and-rebleeding
#5
REVIEW
Anna Baiges, Virginia Hernández-Gea, Jaime Bosch
BACKGROUND: Variceal bleeding is a major complication of portal hypertension, which is associated with significant mortality. Moreover, patients surviving a variceal bleeding episode have very high risk of rebleeding, which is associated with mortality as high as that of the first bleed. Because of this, prevention of bleeding from gastroesophageal varices has been one of the main therapeutic goals since the advent of the first effective therapies for portal hypertension. AIM: This review deals with the present day state-of-the-art pharmacological prevention of variceal bleeding in primary and secondary prophylaxis...
December 5, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208769/association-between-the%C3%A2-timd4-havcr1-variants-and-serum-lipid-levels-coronary-heart-disease-and-ischemic-stroke-risk-and-atorvastatin-lipid-lowering-efficacy
#6
Qing-Hui Zhang, Rui-Xing Yin, Wu-Xian Chen, Xiao-Li Cao, Yu-Ming Chen
Little is known about the association of the TIMD4-HAVCR1 variants and lipid metablism, the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischemic stroke (IS). This study aimed to determine the TIMD4-HAVCR1 variants, their haplotypes and gene-environment interactions on serum lipid levels, the risk of CHD and IS, and the lipid-lowering efficacy of atorvastatin in a southern Chinese Han population. Genotypes of 3 variants in 622 controls, 579 CHD and 546 IS patients were determined by the Snapshot technology. Atorvastatin calcium tablet (20 mg/d) was given in 724 hyperlipidemic patients for 8 weeks after genotyping...
December 5, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207698/protective-effects-of-ethanolic-extract-of-emblica-officinalis-amla-on-cardiovascular-pathophysiology-of-rats-fed-with-high-fat-diet
#7
Pallavi Shantkumar Kanthe, Bheemshetty S Patil, Shrilaxmi C Bagali, R Chandramouli Reddy, Manjunatha R Aithala, Kusal K Das
Introduction: Dietary high fat alters lipid profile and possibly induce sympatho-vagal imbalance. Emblica officinalis is found to be potential antioxidant and possibly counteract hyperlipidemia induced lipid peroxidation. Aim: To assess Ethanolic extract of Emblica Officinalis (EEO) as lipid lowering and cardiovascular protective agent against high dietary fat supplemented to experimental rats. Further to study a comparative analysis between EEO and atorvastatin on hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular integrity...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204982/assessment-of-the-mri-and-behavioral-test-results-in-focal-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-model-in-rat-after-separate-and-combined-use-of-mouse-derived-neural-progenitor-cells-human-derived-neural-progenitor-cells-and-atorvastatin
#8
Alican Tahta, Nail Izgi, Tugba Bagci Onder, Ece Erdag, Yavuz Aras, Cetin Genc
AIM: We aimed to assess the efficacy of Neural progenitor cell (NPC) transplantation in ischemic stroke, and to investigate whether atorvastatin enhances therapeutic potency of NPC after stroke. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model was performed by transient occlusion of middle cerebral artery. Rats were assigned randomly to receive intracerebral transplantation of mouse NPC alone (mNPC), human NPC alone (hNPC), mouse NPC plus oral atorvastatin (mNPC+A), human NPC plus oral atorvastatin (hNPC+A), oral atorvastatin alone, or intracerebral Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's medium injection (control group)...
November 1, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204172/protective-effects-of-coenzyme-q10-and-l-carnitine-against-statin-induced-pancreatic-mitochondrial-toxicity-in-rats
#9
Melina Sadighara, Jalal Pourahamad Joktaji, Valiollah Hajhashemi, Mohsen Minaiyan
Statins are widely used in patients with hyperlipidemia and whom with high risk of cardiovascular diseases. Unfortunately, statins also exert some adverse effects on the liver and pancreas and enhance the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The objective of the present research was to investigate the protective effects of coenzyme Q10 (Co-Q10) and L-carnitine (LC) on statins induced toxicity on pancreatic mitochondria in vivo. Seven groups of male Wistar rats received atorvastatin (20 mg/kg, p.o.), atorvastatin + Co-Q10 (10 mg/kg, i...
December 2017: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203418/electronic-medical-records-can-be-used-to-emulate-target-trials-of-sustained-treatment-strategies
#10
Goodarz Danaei, Luis Alberto García Rodríguez, Oscar Fernández Cantero, Roger W Logan, Miguel A Hernán
OBJECTIVE: To emulate three target trials: single treatment versus no treatment, joint treatment versus no treatment, and head-to-head comparison of two treatments. We explain how to estimate the observational analogs of intention-to-treat and per-protocol effects, using hazard ratios and survival curves. For per-protocol effects, we describe two methods for adherence adjustment via inverse-probability weighting. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective observational study using electronic medical records of individuals aged 55-84 with coronary heart disease from >500 practices in the United Kingdom between 2000-2010...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201366/survey-on-the-availability-price-and-affordability-of-selected-essential-medicines-for-non-communicable-diseases-in-community-pharmacies-of-kathmandu-valley
#11
Rajeev Shrestha, Anish Ghale, Bijay Raj Chapagain, Mahasagar Gyawali, Trishna Acharya
Background: The access to essential medicines for non-communicable disease treatment is unacceptably low worldwide. The fundamental right to health cannot be fulfilled without equitable access to essential medicines. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 94 community pharmacies of Kathmandu valley. Non-probability quota sampling method was adopted for the purpose. Village Development Committees with more than 5000 populations were included in the study...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200287/drug-drug-interactions-between-atorvastatin-and-dronedarone-mediated-by-monomeric-cyp3a4
#12
Ilia G Denisov, Javier L Baylon, Yelena V Grinkova, Emad Tajkhorshid, Stephen G Sligar
Heterotropic interactions between atorvastatin (ARVS) and dronedarone (DND) have been deciphered using global analysis of the results of binding and turnover experiments for pure drugs and their mixtures. The in vivo presence of atorvastatin lactone (ARVL) was explicitly taken into account by using pure ARVL in analogous experiments. Both ARVL and ARVS inhibit DND binding and metabolism, while significantly higher affinity of CYP3A4 towards ARVL makes the latter the main effector in this system. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal significantly different modes of interactions of DND and ARVL with the substrate binding pocket and with the peripheral allosteric site...
December 4, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197934/effects-of-statin-treatment-with-atorvastatin-on-urolithiasis-associated-urinary-metabolic-risk-factors-an-experimental-study
#13
Mustafa Zafer Temiz, Emrah Yuruk, Kasim Ertas, Oguzhan Zengi, Atilla Semercioz
PURPOSE: To investigate whether atorvastatin has favorable effects on urinary metabolic risk factors associated with urolithiasis. METHODS: Sixteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, and baseline spot and 24-h urine samples were collected. Distilled water and atorvastatin were administered to rats during 4 weeks in the control and atorvastatin groups, respectively. At the end of the experimental procedure, spot and 24-h urine samples were collected again...
December 2, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197834/study-protocol-for-statin-web-based-investigation-of-side-effects-statinwise-a-series-of-randomised-controlled-n-of-1-trials-comparing-atorvastatin-and-placebo-in-uk-primary-care
#14
Emily Herrett, Elizabeth Williamson, Danielle Beaumont, Danielle Prowse, Nabila Youssouf, Kieran Brack, Jane Armitage, Ben Goldacre, Thomas MacDonald, Tjeerd van Staa, Ian Roberts, Haleema Shakur-Still, Liam Smeeth
INTRODUCTION: Statins are effective at preventing cardiovascular disease, widely prescribed and their use is growing. Uncertainty persists about whether they cause symptomatic muscle adverse effects, such as pain and weakness, in the absence of statin myopathy. Discrepancies between data from observational studies, which suggest statins are associated with excess muscle symptoms, and from randomised trials, which suggest no such excess, have caused confusion. N-of-1 trials offer the opportunity to establish whether muscle symptoms during statin use are caused by statins in particular individuals...
December 1, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189310/muscle-damage-due-to-fusidic-acid-statin-interaction-review-of-75-cases-from-the-french-pharmacovigilance-database-and-literature-reports
#15
Maxime Bataillard, Marie-Noëlle Beyens, Geneviève Mounier, Delphine Vergnon-Miszczycha, Haleh Bagheri, Pascal Cathebras
BACKGROUND/AREA OF UNCERTAINTY: Statins, which reduce cardiovascular risk in both primary and secondary prevention, are one of the most widely prescribed therapeutic classes in the world. Usually well-tolerated, statin-associated muscle symptoms are a well-known adverse effect. Fusidic acid (FA) is a bacteriostatic antibiotic of interest in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. Cases of rhabdomyolysis, sometimes fatal, have been reported after coprescription of FA and a statin...
November 9, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186698/effect-of-atorvastatin-on-behavioral-alterations-and-neuroinflammation-during-epileptogenesis
#16
Clarissa Vasconcelos de Oliveira, Jéssica Grigoletto, Julia Marion Canzian, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura Duarte, Thiago Duarte, Ana Flávia Furian, Mauro Schneider Oliveira
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most frequent and medically refractory type of epilepsy in humans. In addition to seizures, patients with TLE suffer from behavioral alterations and cognitive deficits. Poststatus epilepticus model of TLE induced by pilocarpine in rodents has enhanced the understanding of the processes leading to epilepsy and thus, of potential targets for antiepileptogenic therapies. Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that inflammatory processes in the brain may critically contribute to epileptogenesis...
November 26, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178960/the-impact-of-a-physician-detailing-and-sampling-program-for-generic-atorvastatin-an-interrupted-time-series-analysis
#17
Heather C Worthington, Lucy Cheng, Sumit R Majumdar, Steven G Morgan, Colette B Raymond, Stephen B Soumerai, Michael R Law
BACKGROUND: In 2011, Manitoba implemented a province-wide program of physician detailing and free sampling for generic atorvastatin to increase use of this generic statin. We examined the impact of this unique combined program of detailing and sampling for generic atorvastatin on the use and cost of statin medicines, market share of generic atorvastatin, the choice of starting statin for new users, and switching from a branded statin to generic atorvastatin. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of Manitoba insurance claims data for all continuously enrolled patients who filled one or more prescriptions for a statin between 2008 and 2013...
November 25, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178617/serum-lipid-and-protein-changes-in-healthy-dyslipidemic-subjects-given-a-selective-inhibitor-of-p70-s6-kinase-1
#18
Jennifer K Leohr, Debra Luffer-Atlas, M Jane Luo, David J DeBrota, Colin Green, Thomas E Mabry, Jeffrey G Suico
The safety, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic effects of LY2584702, a selective inhibitor for p70 S6 serine/threonine protein kinase-1, were evaluated in healthy dyslipidemic volunteers. LY2584702 was tolerated well as a monotherapy and dose-dependently reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides by up to 60% and 50%, respectively, without significantly changing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in plasma. LY2584702 also dose-dependently decreased factor V activity. Alanine aminotransferase elevations were noted in 2 subjects when LY2584702 was given with atorvastatin...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178257/gender-specific-association-between-abcc2-24c-t-snp-and-reduction-in-triglycerides-in-chilean-patients-treated-with-atorvastatin
#19
Y Prado, A Arancibia, T Zambrano, L A Salazar
Statins are the first-line therapy prescribed to lower plasma cholesterol levels. Although being safe and showing several beneficial cholesterol-independent pleiotropic effects, a significant variability regarding statin's therapeutic goals has been abundantly documented, but less understood. We aimed to investigate the influence of the ABCC2 -24C>T single nucleotide polymorphism on Chilean hypercholesterolaemic subjects treated for 4 weeks with 10 mg/day atorvastatin. A total of 127 individuals medicated with atorvastatin 10 mg/day/4 weeks were included...
November 27, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169939/the-association-between-hypercholesterolemia-and-sitosterolemia-and-report-of-a-sitosterolemia-kindred
#20
Eliot A Brinton, Paul N Hopkins, Robert A Hegele, Andrew S Geller, Eliana Y Polisecki, Margaret R Diffenderfer, Ernst J Schaefer
BACKGROUND: Sitosterolemia is associated with increases in intestinal sterol absorption, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and cardiovascular disease risk. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between hypercholesterolemia and sitosterolemia in a large population and report a new sitosterolemia case. METHODS: Plasma sterol concentrations were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and LDL-C by direct assay. RESULTS: Of 207,926 subjects tested, 4...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
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