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Colette Gaulin, Danielle Ramsay, Réjean Dion, Marc Simard, Céline Gariépy, Éric Levac, Karon Hammond-Collins, Maude Michaud-Dumont, Mélanie Gignac, Marc Fiset
A matched case-control study in Quebec, Canada, evaluated consumption of veal liver as a risk factor for campylobacteriosis. Campylobacter was identified in 28 of 97 veal livers collected concurrently from slaughterhouses and retailers. Veal liver was associated with human Campylobacter infection, particularly when consumed undercooked.
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Michael Zuniga, Daphnée Simard
Self-repairs, that is revisions of speech that speakers themselves initiate and complete (Salonen and Laakso in J Child Lang 36:859, 2009. ), are frequently used to observe the cognitive and linguistic processes underlying second language (L2) speech production. Previous research has shown that factors such as L2 proficiency, attentional control and native language (L1) self-repair behavior interact with L2 self-repair behavior. To our knowledge, however, no research has examined how these three factors interact within a cohort of L2 speakers...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Jason Pither, Brian J Pickles, Suzanne W Simard, Alejandro Ordonez, John W Williams
Tree range shifts during geohistorical global change events provide a useful real-world model for how future changes in forest biomes may proceed. In North America, during the last deglaciation, the distributions of tree taxa varied significantly as regards the rate and direction of their responses for reasons that remain unclear. Local-scale processes such as establishment, growth, and resilience to environmental stress ultimately influence range dynamics. Despite the fact that interactions between trees and soil biota are known to influence local-scale processes profoundly, evidence linking below-ground interactions to distribution dynamics remains scarce...
May 17, 2018: New Phytologist
Robert F James, Nicolas K Khattar, Zaid S Aljuboori, Paul S Page, Elaine Y Shao, Lacey M Carter, Kimberly S Meyer, Michael W Daniels, John Craycroft, John R Gaughen, M Imran Chaudry, Shesh N Rai, D Erik Everhart, J Marc Simard
OBJECTIVE Cognitive dysfunction occurs in up to 70% of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) survivors. Low-dose intravenous heparin (LDIVH) infusion using the Maryland protocol was recently shown to reduce clinical vasospasm and vasospasm-related infarction. In this study, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was used to evaluate cognitive changes in aSAH patients treated with the Maryland LDIVH protocol compared with controls. METHODS A retrospective analysis of all patients treated for aSAH between July 2009 and April 2014 was conducted...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Leona Bessonova, Nataliya Volkova, Mark Higgins, Leif Bengtsson, Simon Tian, Christopher Simard, Michael W Konstan, Gregory S Sawicki, Ase Sewall, Stephen Nyangoma, Alexander Elbert, Bruce C Marshall, Diana Bilton
BACKGROUND: Ivacaftor is the first cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulator demonstrating clinical benefit in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). As ivacaftor is intended for chronic, lifelong use, understanding long-term effects is important for patients and healthcare providers. OBJECTIVE: This ongoing, observational, postapproval safety study evaluates clinical outcomes and disease progression in ivacaftor-treated patients using data from the US and the UK CF registries following commercial availability...
May 10, 2018: Thorax
Marc-André Roy, Maxime Doiron, Jessica Talon-Croteau, Nicolas Dupré, Martine Simard
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to systematically review the effects of currently prescribed antiparkinson medication on cognition in patients with mild-to-moderate Parkinson's disease (PD) who were either cognitively intact or mildly impaired. METHODS: English- and French-language studies published between 1969 and 2017 were accessed via MedLine, PsychNET, EMBASE and EBSCO databases. Methodological quality (MQ) was evaluated with the quality assessment instrument of the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review (scores from 0% to 44% indicate very low quality; scores from 45% to 64% indicate low quality; scores from 65% to 84% indicate medium quality; and scores from 85% to 100% indicate high quality)...
May 11, 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Lidia Castro, Montoya Noelia, Marian Vidal-Jorge, David Sanchez-Ortiz, Dario Gándara, Elena Martínez-Saez, Marta Cicuendez, Maria A Poca, J Marc Simard, Juan Sahuquillo
Brain contusions (BCs) are one of the most frequent lesions in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). BCs increase their volume due to perilesional edema formation and/or hemorrhagic transformation. This may have deleterious consequences and its mechanisms are still poorly understood. We previously identified de novo upregulation SUR1, the regulatory subunit of KATP and other channels, in human BCs. Our aim here was to study the expression of the pore-forming subunit of KATP, Kir6.2, in human BCs, and identify its localization in different cell types...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
France Simard, Geneviève Cadoret
Working memory is composed of different processes and encompasses not only the temporary storage of information but also its manipulation in order to perform complex cognitive activities. During childhood, one of these manipulation processes, namely active controlled retrieval, improves significantly between the age of 6 to 10, suggesting that the neuronal network supporting this function undergoes substantial maturational changes. The present study examined the neural activity of 14 healthy children and 14 adults while performing an active controlled retrieval task...
April 30, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Mark H Dornan, José-Mathieu Simard, Antoine Leblond, Daniel Juneau, Guila Delouya, Fred Saad, Cynthia Ménard, Jean N DaSilva
[18 F]DCFPyL is a clinical-stage PET radiotracer used to image prostate cancer. This report details the efficient production of [18 F]DCFPyL using single-step direct radiofluorination, without the use of carboxylic acid protecting groups. Radiolabelling reaction optimization studies revealed an inverse correlation between the amount of precursor used and the radiochemical yield (RCY). This simplified approach enabled automated preparation of [18 F]DCFPyL within 28 minutes using HPLC-purification (26% ± 6%, at EOS, n = 4), which was then scaled up for large-batch production to generate 1...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
Robert Avram, Guillaume Marquis-Gravel, François Simard, Christine Pacheco, Étienne Couture, Maxime Tremblay-Gravel, Olivier Desplantie, Isabelle Malhamé, Lior Bibas, Samer Mansour, Marie-Claude Parent, Paul Farand, Luc Harvey, Marie-Gabrielle Lessard, Hung Ly, Geoffrey Liu, Annette E Hay, E Marc Jolicoeur
BACKGROUND: Use of health administrative databases is proposed for screening and monitoring of participants in randomized registry trials. However, access to these databases raises privacy concerns. We assessed patient's preferences regarding use of personal information to link their research records with national health databases, as part of a hypothetical randomized registry trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cardiology patients were invited to complete an anonymous self-reported survey that ascertained preferences related to the concept of accessing government health databases for research, the type of personal identifiers to be shared and the type of follow-up preferred as participants in a hypothetical trial...
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
David L Schreibman, Caron M Hong, Kaspar Keledjian, Svetlana Ivanova, Solomiya Tsymbalyuk, Volodymyr Gerzanich, J Marc Simard
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) leaves most survivors dependent at follow-up. The importance of promoting M2-like microglial responses is increasingly recognized as a key element to ameliorate brain injury following ICH. The osmotherapeutic agents, mannitol and hypertonic saline (HTS), which are routinely used to reduce intracranial pressure, have been shown to reduce neuroinflammation in experimental ischemic and traumatic brain injury, but anti-inflammatory effects of osmotherapies have not been investigated in ICH...
April 26, 2018: Neurocritical Care
Juan J Russo, Pietro Di Santo, Trevor Simard, Tyler E James, Benjamin Hibbert, Etienne Couture, Jeffrey Marbach, Christina Osborne, F Daniel Ramirez, George A Wells, Marino Labinaz, Michel R Le May
AIM OF THE STUDY: To determine the optimal mean arterial pressure (MAP) during the early-to-intermediate phase care of comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). METHODS: We identified consecutive comatose survivors of OHCA with an initial shockable rhythm. Using blood pressure-over-time plots, we calculated the area below pre-specified MAP thresholds (ABT; mmHg*hours) during the first 96 hours of admission. We used incremental MAP thresholds ranging between 65 and 85 mmHg...
April 22, 2018: Resuscitation
Chloé J Simard, Guillaume Pelletier, Luc H Boudreau, Etienne Hebert-Chatelain, Nicolas Pichaud
The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, represents an emerging model for the study of metabolism. Indeed, drosophila have structures homologous to human organs, possess highly conserved metabolic pathways and have a relatively short lifespan that allows the study of different fundamental mechanisms in a short period of time. It is, however, surprising that one of the mechanisms essential for cellular metabolism, the mitochondrial respiration, has not been thoroughly investigated in this model. It is likely because the measure of the mitochondrial respiration in Drosophila usually requires a very large number of individuals and the results obtained are not highly reproducible...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Marie-Lune Simard, Arnaud Mourier, Laura C Greaves, Robert W Taylor, James B Stewart
Defects in the respiratory chain, interfering with energy production in the cell, are major underlying causes of mitochondrial diseases. In spite of this, the surprising variety of clinical symptoms, disparity between ages of onset as well as the involvement of mitochondrial impairment in ageing and age-related diseases, continues to challenge our understanding of the pathogenic processes. This complexity can be in part attributed to the unique metabolic needs of organs or of various cell types. In this view, it remains essential to investigate mitochondrial dysfunction at the cellular level...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Pathology
Malvika Koundinya, Judith Sudhalter, Albane Courjaud, Bruno Lionne, Gaetan Touyer, Luc Bonnet, Isabelle Menguy, Isabelle Schreiber, Christelle Perrault, Stephanie Vougier, Brigitte Benhamou, Bailin Zhang, Timothy He, Qiang Gao, Patricia Gee, Daniel Simard, M Paola Castaldi, Ronald Tomlinson, Stephan Reiling, Matthieu Barrague, Richard Newcombe, Hui Cao, Yanjun Wang, Fangxian Sun, Joshua Murtie, Mark Munson, Eric Yang, David Harper, Monsif Bouaboula, Jack Pollard, Claudine Grepin, Carlos Garcia-Echeverria, Hong Cheng, Francisco Adrian, Christopher Winter, Stuart Licht, Ivan Cornella-Taracido, Rosalia Arrebola, Aaron Morris
Activating KRAS mutations are major oncogenic drivers in multiple tumor types. Synthetic lethal screens have previously been used to identify targets critical for the survival of KRAS mutant cells, but their application to drug discovery has proven challenging, possibly due in part to a failure of monolayer cultures to model tumor biology. Here, we report the results of a high-throughput synthetic lethal screen for small molecules that selectively inhibit the growth of KRAS mutant cell lines in soft agar. Chemoproteomic profiling identifies the target of the most KRAS-selective chemical series as dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH)...
April 3, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
Evelyne Vinet, Eliza F Chakravarty, Julia F Simard, Megan Clowse
Administrative databases, registers, and other sources of big data can be interesting sources to address important research questions on reproduction in women with rheumatic diseases. There are many different types of administrative datasets worldwide, and it is important to understand the type of data present and unavailable in each dataset, validity and potential misclassification of data, and the ability to link maternal data with infant data. This article discusses the advantages and methodologic issues associated with administrative database use for the conduct of observational studies on reproductive issues in women with rheumatic diseases...
May 2018: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
Volodymyr Gerzanich, Min Seong Kwon, Seung Kyoon Woo, Alexander Ivanov, J Marc Simard
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic transformation is a major complication of ischemic stroke, is linked to matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and is exacerbated by tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion is characterized by SUR1-TRPM4 (sulfonylurea receptor 1-transient receptor potential melastatin 4) channel upregulation in microvascular endothelium. In humans and rodents with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), the SUR1 antagonist, glibenclamide, reduces hemorrhagic transformation and plasma MMP-9, but the mechanism is unknown...
2018: PloS One
Martin Klecka, Christina Thybo, Claudia Macaubas, Ilia Solov'yov, Julia Simard, Imelda Maria Balboni, Emily Fox, Anne Voss, Elizabeth D Mellins, Kira Astakhova
Autoantibodies to nuclear components of cells (antinuclear antibodies, ANA), including DNA (a-DNA), are widely used in the diagnosis and subtyping of certain autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Despite clinical use over decades, precise, reproducible measurement of a-DNA titers remains difficult, likely due to the substantial sequence and length heterogeneity of DNA purified from natural sources. We designed and tested a panel of synthetic nucleic acid molecules composed of native deoxyribonucleotide units to measure a-DNA...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pietro Di Santo, David T Harnett, Trevor Simard, F Daniel Ramirez, Ali Pourdjabbar, Altayyeb Yousef, Robert Moreland, Jordan Bernick, George Wells, Alexander Dick, Michel Le May, Marino Labinaz, Derek So, Pouya Motazedian, Richard G Jung, Jaya Chandrasekhar, Roxana Mehran, Aun-Yeong Chong, Benjamin Hibbert
BACKGROUND: Radial artery access is commonly performed for coronary angiography and invasive hemodynamic monitoring. Despite limitations in diagnostic accuracy, the modified Allen test (manual occlusion of radial and ulnar arteries followed by release of the latter and assessment of palmar blush) is used routinely to evaluate the collateral circulation to the hand and, therefore, to determine patient eligibility for radial artery access. We sought to evaluate whether a smartphone application may provide a superior alternative to the modified Allen test...
April 3, 2018: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Marc Simard, Caroline Sirois, Bernard Candas
OBJECTIVES: To validate and compare performance of an International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision (ICD-10) version of a combined comorbidity index merging conditions of Charlson and Elixhauser measures against individual measures in the prediction of 30-day mortality. To select a weight derivation method providing optimal performance across ICD-9 and ICD-10 coding systems. RESEARCH DESIGN: Using 2 adult population-based cohorts of patients with hospital admissions in ICD-9 (2005, n=337,367) and ICD-10 (2011, n=348,820), we validated a combined comorbidity index by predicting 30-day mortality with logistic regression...
May 2018: Medical Care
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