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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048186/toward-a-laboratory-model-for-psychotherapeutic-treatment-screening-implementation-intentions-and-incentives-for-abstinence-in-an-analog-of-smoking-relapse
#1
Lara N Moody, Lindsey M Poe, Warren K Bickel
Despite reductions in cigarette smoking in the United States, approximately 40 million Americans are smokers. Innovative interventions are needed to help remaining smokers quit. To develop innovative interventions, precise and effective tools are needed. Here, a laboratory model of smoking relapse is assessed for its ability to detect increased resistance to smoking across 2 interventions and for its sensitivity to differing degrees of effectiveness. Nicotine-deprived participants (N = 36) completed, in randomized order, 4 smoking resistance sessions with and without implementation intentions and monetary incentives...
October 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048183/an-initial-study-of-behavioral-addiction-symptom-severity-and-demand-for-indoor-tanning
#2
Amel Becirevic, Derek D Reed, Michael Amlung, James G Murphy, Jerod L Stapleton, Joel J Hillhouse
Indoor tanning remains a popular activity in Western cultures despite a growing body of literature suggesting its link to skin cancer and melanoma. Advances in indoor tanning research have illuminated problematic patterns of its use. With problems such as difficulty quitting, devoting resources toward its use at the expense of healthy activities, and excessive motivation and urges to tan, symptoms of excessive indoor tanning appear consistent with behavioral addiction. The present study bridges the gap between clinical approaches to understanding indoor tanning problems and behavioral economic considerations of unhealthy habits and addiction...
October 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046305/neuromodulation-directed-at-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-subjects-with-obesity-reduces-snack-food-intake-and-hunger-in-a-randomized-trial
#3
Sascha Heinitz, Martin Reinhardt, Paolo Piaggi, Christopher M Weise, Enrique Diaz, Emma J Stinson, Colleen Venti, Susanne B Votruba, Eric M Wassermann, Miguel Alonso-Alonso, Jonathan Krakoff, Marci E Gluck
Background: Obesity is associated with reduced activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a region of the brain that plays a key role in the support of self-regulatory aspects of eating behavior and inhibitory control. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive technique used to modulate brain activity.Objectives: We tested whether repeated anodal tDCS targeted at the left DLPFC (compared with sham tDCS) has an immediate effect on eating behavior during ad libitum food intake, resulting in weight change, and whether it might influence longer-term food intake-related appetite ratings in individuals with obesity...
October 18, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044760/development-of-novel-and-non-invasive-diagnostic-markers-for-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-using-urothelial-cells-in-voided-urine
#4
Hiroshi Shimura, Takahiko Mitsui, Sachiko Tsuchiya, Tatsuya Miyamoto, Tatsuya Ihara, Satoru Kira, Hiroshi Nakagomi, Norifumi Sawada, Yuki Imai, Takanori Mochizuki, Masayuki Takeda
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and the expression of connexin (Cx) and transient receptor potential (TRP) channel on urothelial cells non-invasively collected from voided urine in humans. METHODS: A total of 55 patients (36 males and 19 females, median age: 71 years old), who were followed up at University of Yamanashi Hospital, were enrolled in the present study. Urothelial cells were collected from voided urine of patients, and the mRNA expression of each subtype of Cxs and TRP channels was measured using quantitive real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...
October 17, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044574/context-specific-inhibition-is-related-to-craving-in-alcohol-use-disorders-a-dangerous-imbalance
#5
Maria Stein, Werner Fey, Thomas Koenig, Jacqueline Oehy, Franz Moggi
BACKGROUND: Most contemporary neuroscientific models of alcohol use disorders (AUD) incorporate an imbalance between enhanced cue reactivity, which results in a strong urge to consume, and the impaired inhibitory control of that urge. While these phenomena have been frequently investigated separately, studies involving both aspects and thus precisely investigating the postulated imbalance are rare. In this study, inhibition was investigated in an addiction-specific context and individual craving levels were also examined...
October 16, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043868/determinants-of-optimal-bowel-function-in-ileal-pouch-anal-anastomosis-physiological-differences-contributing-to-pouch-function
#6
Marie Louise Sunde, Petr Ricanek, Tom Øresland, Jørgen Jahnsen, Nazir Naimy, Arne Engebreth Færden
BACKGROUND: Variability in functional outcome after ileal-pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) is to a large extent unexplained. The aim of this study was to perform multiple physiological and biochemical tests including an endoscopic examination with histology on IPAA patients with well and poorly functioning pouches to determine factors, or combinations thereof, contributing to functional outcome. METHODS: All patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing restorative proctocolectomy between 2000 and 2013 (N = 108) were interviewed using a pouch functioning score...
October 18, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043712/uterus-dysplasia-associated-with-cervico-vaginal-agenesis
#7
Ali Mahdavi, Hadi Mirfazaelian, Ladan Younesi Asl, Zeynab Hasani, Maryam Bahreini
Müllerian ducts can form upper parts of normal female reproductive system and any failure in ductal fusion may result in to müllerian duct anomalies (MDA). We present a case of MDA and a uterus dysplasia with no evidence of cervical or upper vaginal tissue. This case showes the role of magnetic resonace imaging (MRI) on MDA diagnosis and urges the need for a unified reliable and practical classification more compatible with clinical practice.
January 2018: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041868/the-evolving-role-of-people-with-ms-in-clinical-research-some-progress-but-more-is-needed
#8
Kathryn Smith
People with multiple sclerosis (MS) have been participants in clinical trials over many years, enabling the development and approval of many treatments for relapsing-remitting MS. Today, people with MS expect to be active collaborators in clinical trials and throughout the research and development process. Researchers and clinicians can benefit from including people with MS in all aspects of research and trials, and are urged to do so, so that we can move forward more quickly in developing needed treatments for progressive MS...
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038713/coexistence-of-lupus-nephritis-and-sickle-cell-trait-an-electron-microscopic-assessment-of-renal-glomerular-damage-case-report-of-a-rare-association
#9
Yahya Elficki, Atif Rawas, Asseil Ali Bossei, Areej Bdawod, Reem Zabani, Bayan Shams
Because of similarities of the musculoskeletal, central nervous system, and renal manifestations in both diseases, diagnosing systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients can be difficult to establish. Although Sickle Cell Trait (SCT) is still considered a benign form of SCD, its impact on kidney injury and other renal manifestations is well recognized in the literature. In this case report, we look at the challenges that develop when diagnosing patients with a concurrence of both diseases and the importance of early recognition and treatment of lupus nephritis in SCT patients...
September 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035690/the-psychology-of-music-rhythm-and-movement
#10
Daniel J Levitin, Jessica A Grahn, Justin London
The urge to move to music is universal among humans. Unlike visual art, which is manifest across space, music is manifest across time. When listeners get carried away by the music, either through movement (such as dancing) or through reverie (such as trance), it is usually the temporal qualities of the music- its pulse, tempo, and rhythmic patterns-that put them in this state. In this article, we review studies addressing rhythm, meter, movement, synchronization, entrainment, the perception of groove, and other temporal factors that constitute a first step to understanding how and why music literally moves us...
October 16, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034210/biomarkers-for-response-of-melanoma-patients-to-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-a-systematic-review
#11
Charissa A C Jessurun, Julien A M Vos, Jacqueline Limpens, Rosalie M Luiten
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), targeting CTLA-4 or PD-1 molecules, have shown impressive therapeutic results. However, only 20-40% of advanced melanoma patients have durable responses to ICI, and these positive effects must be balanced against severe off-target immune toxicity and high costs. This urges the development of predictive biomarkers for ICI response to select patients with likely clinical benefit from treatment. Although many candidate biomarkers exist, a systematic overview of biomarkers and their usefulness is lacking...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033423/recurrent-bleeding-from-a-hepatic-artery-pseudoaneurysm-after-biliary-stent-placement
#12
Kenji Yamauchi, Daisuke Uchida, Hironari Kato, Hiroyuki Okada
A 78-year-old woman was admitted with benign biliary stenosis. A plastic stent was placed at the left branch to prevent obstructive cholangitis. Two weeks after the procedure, the patient was readmitted with cholangitis caused by hemobilia. However, computed tomography (CT), endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), peroral cholangioscopy, and abdominal angiography failed to establish the bleeding source. At the seventh bleeding, CT revealed a hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm for which coil embolization was successfully performed...
October 16, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033378/citizens-urge-fda-to-restrict-high-potency-opioids
#13
John Paul G Kolcun, Karthik Madhavan, Michael Y Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033365/laser-procedure-for-female-urinary-stress-incontinence-a-review-of-the-literature
#14
C Conté, T Jauffret, S Vieillefosse, J F Hermieu, X Deffieux
INTRODUCTION: There is increasing interest in noninvasive treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI), including a vaginal laser procedure. In view of a lack of data on this technique, we conducted a non-systematic review of the literature. METHODS: We reviewed studies concerning the laser treatment of SUI from PubMed, Medline, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science. Study design, outcome measure, number of participants, procedural complications and results were analyzed...
October 12, 2017: Progrès en Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032704/addressing-barriers-to-clozapine-underutilization-a-national-effort
#15
Deanna L Kelly, Oliver Freudenreich, MacKenzie A Sayer, Raymond C Love
Although clozapine has demonstrated unique efficacy for the treatment of seriously ill patients with refractory psychosis, its real-world use presents challenges to clinicians in a variety of settings, leading to its underutilization in the United States. The barriers include a lack of prescriber knowledge and confidence, negative prescriber attitudes, special monitoring requirements, administrative burden, unprepared health systems, and inadequate appreciation of clozapine's unique nature by policy makers and payers...
October 16, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032449/effectiveness-of-a-self-help-cognitive-behavioural-treatment-program-for-problem-gamblers-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
T P S Oei, N Raylu, W W Lai
The study aimed to strengthen the scarce literature on self-help treatments for Problem Gambling (PG) by comparing the effectiveness of a Self-Help Cognitive Behavioral Treatment (SHCBT) program (n = 23) with a 6-week Waitlist condition (n = 32) in problem gamblers. Participants were community volunteers with gambling problems and were randomly allocated to the Waitlist and treatment conditions. Results showed significant improvements at post-treatment in gambling behaviors including frequency of gambling, average amount gambled per day and PG symptoms as well as a number of gambling correlates including psychological states (e...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031923/deae-dextran-coated-paclitaxel-nanoparticles-act-as-multifunctional-nano-system-for-intranuclear-delivery-to-triple-negative-breast-cancer-through-vegf-and-notch1-inhibition
#17
Anita K Bakrania, Bhavesh C Variya, Lalji V Rathod, Snehal S Patel
Triple negative breast cancer revolution has identified a plethora of therapeutic targets making it apparent that a single target for its treatment could be rare hence creating an urge to develop robust technologies for combination drug therapy. Paclitaxel, hailed as the most significant advancement in chemotherapy faces several underpinnings due to its low solubility and permeability. Advancing research has demonstrated the role of interferons in cancer. DEAE-Dextran, an emerging molecule with evidence of interferon induction was utilized in the present study to develop a nanoformulation in conjugation with paclitaxel to target multiple therapeutic pathways, with diminution of paclitaxel adverse effects and develop a specific targeted nano system...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031764/combined-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study-in-patients-with-idiopathic-restless-legs-syndrome
#18
Yaoyao Zhuo, Yuncheng Wu, Yanhong Xu, Lunbo Lu, Ting Li, Xifu Wang, Kangan Li
OBJECTIVE: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder characterized by an urge to move the legs along with paraesthesia deep within them. In this study, we aimed to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) to investigate the changes in regional spontaneous brain activity change for RLS patients against age- and gender-matched normal control (NC) subjects. METHODS: A total of 35 RLS patients and 27 age- and gender-matched NC subjects were recruited for group comparison research that used DTI and ReHo techniques...
October 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031750/the-urge-to-move-and-breathe-the-impact-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-treatment-in-patients-with-previously-diagnosed-clinically-significant-restless-legs-syndrome
#19
Cristiana Silva, Ana Rita Peralta, Carla Bentes
OBJECTIVE: The association between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has seldom been reported. There is one study reporting improvement of RLS symptoms severity in patients naive of treatment after initiation of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for OSAS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the OSAS treatment in patients with previously diagnosed, clinically significant RLS in a usual clinical setting. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of RLS patients from a sleep clinic with a concomitant or subsequent diagnosis of OSAS...
October 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030357/cqc-is-urged-to-speed-up-publication-of-inspection-reports
#20
Anne Gulland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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