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Meital Zur, Racheli Magnezi, Shirley Portuguese, Inbal Reuveni, Ron Kedem, Eyal Fruchter
Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is prevalent in 5.9-7.1% of children and adolescents, and 5% of adults. It results in poor academic, occupational, and social functioning. Pharmacotherapy improves core symptoms; however, average adherence levels are low and decrease at 16-17 years of age, just before the recruitment age to Israel Defense Forces (IDF). This study evaluated the effect of adherence to ADHD pharmacotherapy on occupational performance among soldiers...
July 11, 2018: Military Medicine
Sirwan K L Darweesh, M Kamran Ikram, Marjan J Faber, Nienke M de Vries, Charlotte A Haaxma, Albert Hofman, Peter J Koudstaal, Bastiaan R Bloem, M Arfan Ikram
BACKGROUND: Creativity in Parkinson Disease (PD) is strongly related to dopaminergic activity and medication. We hypothesized that PD patients, including those who are in the prediagnostic phase of PD, are prone to choose highly-structured 'conventional' professional occupations and avoid highly-creative 'artistic' occupations. METHODS: At baseline of the population-based Rotterdam Study, we asked 12,147 individuals aged >45 years about their latest occupation, and categorized occupations according to the RIASEC model...
July 14, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Hannah J White, W Ian Montgomery, Jack J Lennon
1.Changes in species distributions through local extinction and colonisation events are a major consequence of climate change. The mechanisms underlying these processes, however, are yet to be fully understood. 2.We investigate the effects of climatic suitability and local rarity on local extinction and colonisation of British birds. We test the hypothesis that local extinction and colonisation on decadal scales are driven by both climatic suitability and the prevalence of the species within an area, and that the balance between these two is affected by species traits...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Ran Kim, Tae Ki Yoon, Inn Soo Kang, Mi Kyoung Koong, Yoo Shin Kim, Myung Joo Kim, Yubin Lee, Jayeon Kim
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to analyze women's opinions and their decision making processes regarding elective oocyte cryopreservation (OC). METHODS: One hundred twenty-four women who had elective OC counseling at the CHA Seoul Fertility Center were asked to complete a survey after their first visit. Data collection regarding age, marital status, monthly income, occupation, religion, reproductive history, questions about the participant's view on their own fecundity, and future parenthood were included...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Pardha S Maram, Sergey V Ushakov, Richard J K Weber, Chris J Benmore, Alexandra Navrotsky
Pyrochlore, an ordered derivative of the defect fluorite structure, shows complex disordering behavior as a function of composition, temperature, pressure, and radiation damage. We propose a thermodynamic model to calculate the disordering enthalpies for several RE2 Zr2 O7 (RE = Sm, Eu, Gd) pyrochlores from experimental site distribution data obtained by in situ high temperature synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Site occupancies show a gradual increase in disorder on both cation and anion sublattices with increasing temperature and even greater disorder is achieved close to the phase transition to defect fluorite...
July 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pierre Bories, Sébastien Lamy, Célestine Simand, Sarah Bertoli, Cyrille Delpierre, Sandra Malak, Luc Fornecker, Stéphane Moreau, Christian Récher, Antoine Nebout
Elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia can be treated with intensive chemotherapy, low-intensity therapy such as low-dose aracytine or hypomethylating agents, or best supportive care. The choice between these treatments is a function of many patient-related and physician-related factors. We investigated how physicians' behavioral characteristics, in particular their attitudes towards risk and uncertainty affect medical decision-making between intensive and non-intensive therapy in this setting. A nationwide cross-sectional online survey of hematologists collected data on medical decision-making for six clinical vignettes involving older acute myeloid leukemia patients that were representative of routine practice...
July 13, 2018: Haematologica
Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi, Fariba Zare Sakhvidi, Amir Houshang Mehrparvar, Maria Foraster, Payam Dadvand
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes is on rise worldwide and environmental factors are being increasingly recognized to be involved in this rise. An emerging body of evidence has evaluated the impact of long-term exposure to noise on diabetes mellitus, highlighting the need to synthesize this evidence. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review and conduct meta-analysis of the available evidence on the association between long-term exposure to transport and occupational noise exposure and diabetes mellitus...
July 10, 2018: Environmental Research
Annalisa Saracino, Mauro Zaccarelli, Patrizia Lorenzini, Alessandra Bandera, Giulia Marchetti, Francesco Castelli, Andrea Gori, Enrico Girardi, Cristina Mussini, Paolo Bonfanti, Adriana Ammassari, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte
BACKGROUND: Social determinants are known to be a driving force of health inequalities, even in high income countries. Aim of our study was to determine if these factors can limit antiretroviral therapy (ART) access, outcome and retention in care of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Italy. METHODS: All ART naïve HIV+ patients (pts) of Italian nationality enrolled in the ICONA Cohort from 2002 to 2016 were included. The association of socio-demographic characteristics (age, sex, risk factor for HIV infection, educational level, occupational status and residency area) with time to: ART initiation (from the first positive anti-HIV test), ART regimen discontinuation, and first HIV-RNA < 50 cp/mL, were evaluated by Cox regression analysis, Kaplan Meier method and log-rank test...
July 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
David Etsey Akpakli, Alfred Kwesi Manyeh, Jonas Kofi Akpakli, Vida Kukula, Margaret Gyapong
OBJECTIVE: Access to improved sanitation facilities is critical to the health and well-being of individuals and communities. However, globally, over 2.5 billion people live without access to safe sanitation facilities and more than 40% of the world population, do not use a toilet, but defecate in the open or in unsanitary places. In Ghana, only 14% of the population have access to improved sanitation facilities with great disparities between rural (8%) and urban (19%) dwellers. This paper sought to examine the determinants of access to improved sanitation facilities by households among rural dwellers in two districts in southern Ghana...
July 13, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Lisa Newington, Kristin Francis, Georgia Ntani, David Warwick, Jo Adams, Karen Walker-Bone
There is a limited evidence base from which to derive recommendations for safe and effective return to different types of occupation after carpal tunnel release surgery. The current practice of members of the British Society for Surgery of the Hand and the British Association of Hand Therapists was investigated with a questionnaire. In total, 173 surgeons and 137 therapists responded from an estimated sample of 1959. Median recommended return-to-work times were 7 days for desk-based duties, 15 days for repetitive light manual duties and 30 days for heavy manual duties...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
Ellen M Mowry, Anna K Hedström, Milena A Gianfrancesco, Xiaorong Shao, Catherine A Schaefer, Ling Shen, Kalliope H Bellesis, Farren B S Briggs, Tomas Olsson, Lars Alfredsson, Lisa F Barcellos
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) incidence has increased recently, particularly in women, suggesting a possible role of one or more environmental exposures in MS risk. The study objective was to determine if animal, dietary, recreational, or occupational exposures are associated with MS risk. METHODS: Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression was used to identify a subset of exposures with potential relevance to disease in a large population-based (Kaiser Permanente Northern California [KPNC]) case-control study...
June 23, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Shunsuke Taito, Nobuaki Shime, Hideto Yasuda, Kohei Ota, Kazuhiro Sarada, Alan Kawarai Lefor, Masamitsu Sanui
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to clarify intensive care unit (ICU)-level factors facilitating out-of-bed mobilization defined as a range of activities from sitting on edge of bed up to walking in mechanically ventilated patients with orotracheal tubes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a survey of all intensive care units (ICUs) certified by the Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine (excluding pediatric ICUs) as training facilities for intensivists. RESULTS: We surveyed 294 ICUs, with a response rate of 57% (n = 168)...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
Alexis Descatha, Grace Sembajwe, Michael Baer, Fabio Boccuni, Cristina Di Tecco, Clément Duret, Bradley A Evanoff, Diana Gagliardi, Ivan D Ivanov, Nancy Leppink, Alessandro Marinaccio, Linda L Magnusson Hanson, Anna Ozguler, Frank Pega, John Pell, Fernando Pico, Annette Prüss-Üstün, Matteo Ronchetti, Yves Roquelaure, Erika Sabbath, Gretchen A Stevens, Akizumi Tsutsumi, Yuka Ujita, Sergio Iavicoli
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing a joint methodology for estimating the national and global work-related burden of disease and injury (WHO/ILO joint methodology), with contributions from a large network of experts. In this paper, we present the protocol for two systematic reviews of parameters for estimating the number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years from stroke attributable to exposure to long working hours, to inform the development of the WHO/ILO joint methodology...
July 10, 2018: Environment International
Xingrao Ke, Hollis Johnson, Xigang Jing, Teresa Michalkiewicz, Yi-Wen Huang, Robert H Lane, Girija G Konduri
Decreased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), a key mediator of perinatal transition, characterizes persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) in neonates and a fetal lamb model; the mechanisms are unclear. We investigated whether increased DNA CpG methylation at the eNOS promoter in estrogen response elements (EREs) and altered histone code together contribute to decreased eNOS expression in PPHN. We isolated pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC) from fetal lambs with PPHN induced by prenatal ductus arteriosus constriction from 128-136 days gestation or gestation matched twin controls...
July 13, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Krishna Neupane, Noel Q Hoffer, Michael T Woodside
Recent advances in single-molecule assays have allowed individual transition paths during the folding of single molecules to be observed directly. We used transition paths of DNA hairpins having different sequences, measured with high-resolution optical tweezers, to test theoretical relations between the properties of the transition paths and the folding kinetics. We showed that folding and unfolding rates were related to the average transition-path times, as expected from theory, for all hairpins studied. We also found that the probability distribution of transition path occupancies agreed with the profile of the average velocity along the transition paths for each of the hairpins, as expected theoretically...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Roy Shore, Harold Beck, John D Boice, Emily Caffrey, Scott Davis, Helen Grogan, F A Mettler, R Julian Preston, John Till, Richard Wakeford, Linda Walsh, Lawrence Dauer
The recently published NCRP Commentary No. 27 evaluated the new information from epidemiologic studies as to their degree of support for applying the linear nonthreshold (LNT) model of carcinogenic effects for radiation protection purposes [1]. The aim was to determine whether recent epidemiologic studies of low-LET radiation, particularly those at low doses and/or low dose rates (LD/LDR), broadly support the LNT model of carcinogenic risk or, on the contrary, demonstrate sufficient evidence that the LNT model is inappropriate for the purposes of radiation protection...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
Maria Cristina Aprea, Pietro Apostoli, Maurizio Bettinelli, Piero Lovreglio, Sara Negri, Luigi Perbellini, Andrea Perico, Maria Cristina Ricossa, Fabiola Salamon, Maria Luisa Scapellato, Ivo Iavicoli
The purpose of this study of the Italian Society of Reference Values (SIVR) was to provide the reference values for metals in the urine of the Italian general population. Thirteen sampling centres situated in the north, centre and south of Italy took part in this project. Each sampling centre selected 20 adult subjects. The sample was made up of 120 male and 140 female non-smokers or smokers who had abandoned the habit at least 5 years previously, aged between 18 and 60 years. Urine samples were obtained from the same subjects in June and again in November of the same year...
July 9, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Rafi Amir-Ud-Din, Shameem Fatima, Shazia Aziz
Violence against women (VAW) is a grave problem in Pakistan, and women from all socioeconomic groups are vulnerable to domestic violence in varying degrees. It is argued that patriarchal definition of gender roles may reinforce the internalized inferiority of women. So, it may not be a mere coincidence that a large number of women in Pakistan justify VAW for various reasons. The objectives of this article are threefold: (a) to identify the drivers of VAW, (b) to see if women's attitudinal acceptance of violence is causally linked with observed violence against women, and (c) to see if attitudinal acceptance of violence mediates between the socioeconomic status of women and observed violence...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Nicole Shaw, Danielle Hitch, Nikki Lyons, Khalid Alharthi, Briony Grant, Ben Laupert
BACKGROUND: Many occupational therapy students experience anxiety and distraction when entering a new setting at the beginning of a clinical placement. Orientation processes may provide students with the information they need to feel more comfortable in an unfamiliar clinical setting. The aim of this project was to evaluate a revised wayfinding video for first- and second-year occupational therapy students, with a particular focus on reducing anxiety. METHODS: A revised version of a wayfinding video (with a duration of 3 minutes and 40 seconds) was created by final-year occupational therapy students and then evaluated using a paper-based descriptive survey...
July 13, 2018: Clinical Teacher
Ali Mohammed Alenezi, Ahmad Aboshaiqah, Omar Baker
AIM: Work-related stress (WRS) in the nursing working environment is prevalent and significantly affects the performance of nurses and organizations. Poor nursing and administrative performance affects the delivery of safety and quality patient care. Thus, this study aims to compare the sources and factors of stress among nurses from hospitals and primary health care centres. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in five government hospitals and four sectors of primary health care centres in Saudi Arabia...
July 12, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Practice
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