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Molecular subtype,

Michael Koennecke, Ludger Klimek, Joaquim Mullol, Philippe Gevaert, Barbara Wollenberg
Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous, multifactorial inflammatory disease of the nasal and paranasal mucosa. It has not been possible to date to develop an internationally standardized, uniform classification for this disorder. A phenotype classification according to CRS with (CRSwNP) and without polyposis (CRSsNP) is usually made. However, a large number of studies have shown that there are also different endotypes of CRS within these phenotypes, with different pathophysiologies of chronic inflammation of the nasal mucosa...
2018: Allergo Journal International
Ji-Hye Ahn, Hyun-Sung Lee, Ju-Seog Lee, Yeon-Su Lee, Jong-Lyul Park, Seon-Young Kim, Jung-Ah Hwang, Nawapol Kunkeaw, Sung Yun Jung, Tae Jin Kim, Kwang-Soo Lee, Sung Ho Jeon, Inhan Lee, Betty H Johnson, Jung-Hye Choi, Yong Sun Lee
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling and microRNAs (miRNAs) are important gene regulatory components in cancer. Usually in advanced malignant stages, TGF-β signaling is elevated but global miRNA expression is suppressed. Such a gene expression signature is well illustrated in a fibrosis (or mesenchymal) subtype of ovarian cancer (OC) that is of poor prognosis. However, the interplay between the two pathways in the OC subtype has not yet been elucidated. nc886 is a recently identified non-coding RNA implicated in several malignancies...
March 21, 2018: Nature Communications
Byung Hyun Baek, Hyung Seok Kim, Woong Yoon, Yun Young Lee, Jang Mi Baek, Eun Hee Kim, Seul Kee Kim
Objective: In this study we investigate the association between the expression of inflammatory mediators measured in clots retrieved by mechanical thrombectomy, stroke etiology, and the susceptibility vessel sign (SVS) on gradient-echo (GRE) MR imaging in acute ischemic stroke patients. Methods: We performed molecular analysis of intracranial clots retrieved by mechanical thrombectomy from 82 patients with acute stroke. Seventy-two of these patients underwent GRE imaging before endovascular therapy...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Balázs Győrffy, Lőrinc Pongor, Giulia Bottai, Xiaotong Li, Jan Budczies, András Szabó, Christos Hatzis, Lajos Pusztai, Libero Santarpia
BACKGROUND: Sequence variations in coding and non-coding regions of the genome can affect gene expression and signalling pathways, which in turn may influence disease outcome. METHODS: In this study, we integrated somatic mutations, gene expression and clinical data from 930 breast cancer patients included in the TCGA database. Genes associated with single mutations in molecular breast cancer subtypes were identified by the Mann-Whitney U-test and their prognostic value was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses...
March 21, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Mathieu Niquille, Greta Limoni, Foivos Markopoulos, Christelle Cadilhac, Julien Prados, Anthony Holtmaat, Alexandre Dayer
Delineating the basic cellular components of cortical inhibitory circuits remains a fundamental issue in order to understand their specific contributions to microcircuit function. It is still unclear how current classifications of cortical interneuron subtypes relate to biological processes such as their developmental specification. Here we identified the developmental trajectory of neurogliaform cells (NGCs), the main effectors of a powerful inhibitory motif recruited by long-range connections. Using in vivo genetic lineage-tracing in mice, we report that NGCs originate from a specific pool of 5-HT3A R-expressing Hmx3+ cells located in the preoptic area (POA)...
March 20, 2018: ELife
Shih-Fan Lai, Yu-Hsuan Chen, Tony Hsiang-Kuang Liang, Che-Yu Hsu, Huang-Chun Lien, Yen-Sen Lu, Chiun-Sheng Huang, Sung-Hsin Kuo
INTRODUCTION: Whole brain (WB) re-irradiation for breast cancer patients with progressive brain metastasis after first-course WB radiotherapy (WBRT) is controversial. In this study, we sought to investigate the association between the molecular sub-classifications and breast-specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA, which includes the Karnofsky performance status, molecular subtypes, and age as its indices) and the outcomes of breast cancer patients who received WB re-irradiation. METHODS: Twenty-three breast cancer patients who received WB re-irradiation for relapsed and progressive intracranial lesions after first-course WBRT between 2004 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Chunyao Zhou, Yongheng Wang, Xing Liu, Yuchao Liang, Ziwen Fan, Tao Jiang, Yinyan Wang, Lei Wang
BACKGROUND: The newly proposed putamen classification system shows good prognostic value in patients with insular LGGs, yet no study towards the molecular profiles of putamen involved LGGs has been proposed. METHODS: Clinical information and imaging data of patients diagnosed with insular low-grade gliomas were collected retrospectively. Genetic information of the 34 tumors was assessed using RNA-sequencing. Gene set enrichment analysis was further performed to identify the genes showing differential expression between putamen-involved tumors and putamen non-involved tumors...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Anson V Koehler, Tao Wang, Shane R Haydon, Robin B Gasser
Cryptosporidium viatorum is a globally distributed pathogenic species of Cryptosporidium that has only ever been recorded from humans, until now. For the first time, we molecularly characterised a novel subtype of C. viatorum (subtype XVbA2G1) from the endemic Australian swamp rat ( Rattus lutreolus ) using the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA ( SSU ) gene and then subtyped it using the 60-kilodalton glycoprotein ( gp60 ) gene. In total, faecal samples from 21 swamp rats (three were positive for C. viatorum ), three broad toothed rats ( Mastacomys fuscus ) and two bush rats ( Rattus fuscipes ) were tested for Cryptosporidium ...
April 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Cheong-Yong Yun, Seon Mi Ko, Yong Pyo Choi, Beom Joon Kim, Jungno Lee, Jae Mun Kim, Ju Yeon Kim, Jin Yong Song, Song-Hee Kim, Bang Yeon Hwang, Jin Tae Hong, Sang-Bae Han, Youngsoo Kim
Rationale: cAMP up-regulates microphthalmia-associated transcription factor subtype M (MITF-M) and tyrosinase (Tyro) in the generation of heavily pigmented melanosomes. Here, we communicate a therapeutic mechanism of hyperpigmented disorder by α-viniferin, an active constituent of Caragana sinica . Methods: We used cAMP-elevated melanocyte cultures or facial hyperpigmented patches for pigmentation assays, and applied immunoprecipitation, immunobloting, RT-PCR or reporter gene for elucidation of the antimelanogenic mechanism...
2018: Theranostics
Natalia M Pukhovskaya, Olga V Morozova, Nelya P Vysochina, Nadejda B Belozerova, Svetlana V Bakhmetyeva, Nina I Zdanovskaya, Stephen J Seligman, Leonid I Ivanov
Isolates of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) from arthropod vectors (ticks and mosquitoes) in the Amur, the Jewish Autonomous and the Sakhalin regions as well as on the Khabarovsk territory of the Far East of Russia were studied. Different proportions of four main tick species of the family Ixodidae: Ixodes persulcatus P. Schulze, 1930; Haemaphysalis concinna Koch, 1844; Haemaphysalis japonica douglasi Nuttall et Warburton, 1915 and Dermacentor silvarum Olenev, 1932 were found in forests and near settlements...
February 8, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Diego F Munoz, Cong Xu, Sylvia K Plevritis
We present a Monte Carlo simulation model that reproduces US invasive breast cancer incidence and mortality trends from 1975 to 2010 as a function of screening and adjuvant treatment. This model was developed for multiple purposes, including to quantify the impact of screening and adjuvant therapy on past and current trends, predict future trends, and evaluate potential outcomes under hypothetical screening and treatment interventions. The model first generates the life histories of individual breast cancer patients by determining the patient's age, tumor size, estrogen receptor (ER) status, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) status, SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) historic stage, detection mode at time of detection, preclinical tumor course, and death age and cause of death (breast cancer v...
April 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Oguzhan Alagoz, Mehmet Ali Ergun, Mucahit Cevik, Brian L Sprague, Dennis G Fryback, Ronald E Gangnon, John M Hampton, Natasha K Stout, Amy Trentham-Dietz
The University of Wisconsin Breast Cancer Epidemiology Simulation Model (UWBCS), also referred to as Model W, is a discrete-event microsimulation model that uses a systems engineering approach to replicate breast cancer epidemiology in the US over time. This population-based model simulates the lifetimes of individual women through 4 main model components: breast cancer natural history, detection, treatment, and mortality. A key feature of the UWBCS is that, in addition to specifying a population distribution in tumor growth rates, the model allows for heterogeneity in tumor behavior, with some tumors having limited malignant potential (i...
April 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Jeroen J van den Broek, Nicolien T van Ravesteyn, Eveline A Heijnsdijk, Harry J de Koning
The MISCAN-Fadia microsimulation model uses continuous tumor growth to simulate the natural history of breast cancer and has been used extensively to estimate the impact of screening and adjuvant treatment on breast cancer incidence and mortality trends. The model simulates individual life histories from birth to death, with and without breast cancer, in the presence and in the absence of screening and treatment. Life histories are simulated according to discrete events such as birth, tumor inception, the tumor's clinical diagnosis diameter in the absence of screening, and death from breast cancer or death from other causes...
April 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Jeanne S Mandelblatt, Aimee M Near, Diana L Miglioretti, Diego Munoz, Brian L Sprague, Amy Trentham-Dietz, Ronald Gangnon, Allison W Kurian, Harald Weedon-Fekjaer, Kathleen A Cronin, Sylvia K Plevritis
BACKGROUND: Since their inception in 2000, the Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Network (CISNET) breast cancer models have collaborated to use a nationally representative core of common input parameters to represent key components of breast cancer control in each model. Employment of common inputs permits greater ability to compare model output than when each model begins with different input parameters. The use of common inputs also enhances inferences about the results, and provides a range of reasonable results based on variations in model structure, assumptions, and methods of use of the input values...
April 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Sandra J Lee, Xiaoxue Li, Hui Huang, Marvin Zelen
BACKGROUND: We present updated features to a model developed by Dana-Farber investigators within the Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network (CISNET). The initial model was developed to evaluate the impact of mammography screening strategies. METHODS: This major update includes the incorporation of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) as part of the natural history of breast cancer. The updated model allows DCIS in the pre-clinical state to regress to undetectable early-stage DCIS, or to transition to invasive breast cancer, or to clinical DCIS...
April 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Diego F Munoz, Sylvia K Plevritis
BACKGROUND: As molecular subtyping of breast cancer influences clinical management, the evaluation of screening and adjuvant treatment interventions at the population level needs to account for molecular subtyping. Performing such analyses are challenging because molecular subtype-specific, long-term outcomes are not readily accessible; these markers were not historically recorded in tumor registries. We present a modeling approach to estimate historical survival outcomes by estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status...
April 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Clyde B Schechter, Aimee M Near, Jinani Jayasekera, Young Chandler, Jeanne S Mandelblatt
BACKGROUND: The Georgetown University-Albert Einstein College of Medicine breast cancer simulation model (Model GE) has evolved over time in structure and function to reflect advances in knowledge about breast cancer, improvements in early detection and treatment technology, and progress in computing resources. This article describes the model and provides examples of model applications. METHODS: The model is a discrete events microsimulation of single-life histories of women from multiple birth cohorts...
April 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Hui Gao, Zhuo Dong, Xinkou Gong, Juancong Dong, Yuyu Zhang, Wei Wei, Rui Wang, Shunzi Jin
Exposure to ionizing radiation often induces T helper (Th) cell differentiation, resulting in an imbalance of Th1 and Th2 cellular subtypes, which can affect the efficacy of cancer radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to analyze differential expression of Th1, Th2 and Th3/Type 1 regulatory T cell (Tr1) subtype-related genes and cytokines in mouse thymocytes after high- and low-dose systemic radiation, using functional classification gene arrays and Elisa assays, and to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying radiation's immune effects and their relationship with Th1/Th2 immunity...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
LiLi Shi, Bin Li, Ting Ting Zhou, Wei Wang, Siuming F Chan
The recent use of RNA-Seq to study the transcriptomes of different species has helped identify a large number of new genes from different non-model organisms. In this study, five distinctive transcripts encoding for neuropeptide members of the CHH/MIH/GIH family have been identified from the spermatophore transcriptome of the shrimp Fenneropenaeus merguiensis. The size of these transcripts ranged from 531 bp to 1771 bp. Four transcripts encoded different CHH-family subtype I members, and one transcript encoded a subtype II member...
2018: PloS One
Daniel Katzman, Daniel H Sterman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review article describes current diagnostic and treatment modalities for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). RECENT FINDINGS: Few randomized trials in MPM have demonstrated improved survival with current therapies. A randomized trial of first-line chemotherapy with and without bevacizumab in unresectable MPM is the only randomized trial of a new treatment regimen to demonstrate a survival benefit since cisplatin with pemetrexed became the standard of care for unresectable MPM in 2003...
March 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
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