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culture AND child development

Michael Benson, Moneer K Hanna
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The desire to preserve the prepuce is often based on cultural norms. Recently, the concept of "genital autonomy" has been invoked to delay circumcision (or any genital altering procedure) until the individual reaches maturity and can make his or her own decision. However, some uncircumcised boys develop one or more episodes of balanitis resulting in scarring of the prepuce and pathologic phimosis which is difficult to treat. Herein we report on the management of severe phimosis and preputial scarring using preputial Z-plasties...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Georgia Chronaki, Michael Wigelsworth, Marc D Pell, Sonja A Kotz
Humans have an innate set of emotions recognised universally. However, emotion recognition also depends on socio-cultural rules. Although adults recognise vocal emotions universally, they identify emotions more accurately in their native language. We examined developmental trajectories of universal vocal emotion recognition in children. Eighty native English speakers completed a vocal emotion recognition task in their native language (English) and foreign languages (Spanish, Chinese, and Arabic) expressing anger, happiness, sadness, fear, and neutrality...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Julieann Coombes, Kate Hunter, Tamara Mackean, Andrew J A Holland, Elizabeth Sullivan, Rebecca Ivers
BACKGROUND: Access to multidisciplinary health care services for First Nation children with a chronic condition is critical for the child's health and well-being, but disparities and inequality in health care systems have been almost impossible to eradicate for First Nation people globally. The objective of this review is to identify the factors that impact access and ongoing care for First Nation children globally with a chronic condition. METHODS: An extensive systematic search was conducted of nine electronic databases to identify primary studies that explored factors affecting access to ongoing services for First Nation children with a chronic disease or injury...
June 14, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Sarah B Epstein, Beth R Crisp
It has been claimed that effective responses to child sexual abuse (CSA) must engage with the specific cultural, social, and religious contexts of the target communities. For Jewish communities in Australia, the program J-Safe was established to raise awareness, create cultural change, and empower the Jewish community to be able to prevent, recognize, and address child sexual assault within the school setting. This paper reports on the experiences of teachers in two Jewish-day schools who had participated in the J-Safe Project's protective behaviors teacher training program...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Sebastian Martinez, Julia Johannsen, Gaston Gertner, Jorge Franco, Ana B Perez Exposito, Rosario M Bartolini, Irma Condori, Jhovanna Flores Ayllón, Ramiro Llanque, Nohora Alvarado, Christian Lunstedt, Cecilia Ferrufino, Teresa Reinaga, Mauricio Chumacero, Carlos Foronda, Santiago Albarracin, Ana Maria Aguilar
Background: Stunting affects child survival and is a key indicator of child well-being. Therefore, reducing stunting is a global goal. Improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices is a recommended approach to reduce the risk of mortality and ameliorate nutritional status. Behavioural change interventions have the potential to improve IYCF practices. Methods: We evaluated the effectiveness of an innovative behavioural change strategy on caregiver's knowledge, IYCF practices and nutritional status of children from low-income households in El Alto, Bolivia...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Nikolaos Tsigilis, Athanasios Gregoriadis, Vasilis Grammatikopoulos, Evridiki Zachopoulou
Teacher-child relationships in early childhood are a fundamental prerequisite for children's social, emotional, and academic development. The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS) is one of the most widely accepted and used instruments that evaluate the quality of teacher-child relationships. STRS is a 28-item questionnaire that assess three relational dimensions, Closeness, Conflict, and Dependency. The relevant literature has shown a pattern regarding the difficulty to support the STRS factor structure with CFA, while it is well-documented with EFA...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Kirsten E Bevelander, Katharina Herte, Catherine Kakoulakis, Inés Sanguino, Anna-Lena Tebbe, Markus R Tünte
The social context is an important factor underlying unhealthy eating behavior and the development of inappropriate weight gain. Evidence is accumulating that powerful social influences can also be used as a tool to impact people's eating behavior in a positive manner. Social norm-based messages have potential to steer people in making healthier food choices. The research field on nutritional social norms is still emerging and more research is needed to gain insights into why some people adhere to social norms whereas others do not...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Hadia Radwan, Mona Hashim, Reyad Shaker Obaid, Hayder Hasan, Farah Naja, Hessa Al Ghazal, Hamid Jan Jan Mohamed, Rana Rizk, Marwa Al Hilali, Rana Rayess, Ghamra Izzaldin
BACKGROUND: The United Arab Emirates (UAE) exhibits alarming high prevalence of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) and their risk factors. Emerging evidence highlighted the role of maternal and early child nutrition in preventing later-onset NCDs. The objectives of this article are to describe the design and methodology of the first Mother and Infant Study Cohort (MISC) in UAE; present the baseline demographic characteristics of the study participants; and discuss the challenges of the cohort and their respective responding strategies...
2018: PloS One
Amy Y C Chan, Sarah-Jane Morgan
In this paper we report an initial validation of the Shape Trail Test-Child Version (STT-CV) with a non-clinical sample of children aged 6 to 9 years. The STT-CV has been developed as an age-appropriate and culturally fair direct downward extension of the Trail Making Test (TMT) for the assessment of cognitive flexibility. Children completed the STT-CV and four established measures of executive functions that assessed working memory, inhibitory control and task switching. Results showed the expected age-based differences in completion times for both parts of the STT-CV (Trail A and Trail B)...
2018: PloS One
Suzinne Pak-Gorstein, Maneesh Batra, Brian Johnston, H Mollie Grow, Abigail Grant, Richard Shugerman, Sylvia Lago, F Bruder Stapleton, Heather McPhillips
PROBLEM: Pediatric residency programs have been tasked to train a workforce of pediatricians with skills in community pediatrics and advocacy, and knowledge of global child health priorities. APPROACH: In 2009, the University of Washington (UW) Seattle Children's Hospital pediatric residency program developed the Resident Education in Advocacy and Child Health (REACH) program, a combined pathway for global health (GH) and community pediatric (CP) training. After participating in a combined curriculum, residents complete a community immersion either in Kisii, Kenya (GH) or rural Washington (CP)...
May 29, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Julieta A Franco-Ramírez, Carlos E Cabrera-Pivaral, Gabriel Zárate-Guerrero, Sergio A Franco-Chávez, María Á Covarrubias-Bermúdez, Marco A Zavala-González
Background: Puerperal care and feeding of the newborn are guided by entrenched cultural meanings between women, so it is important to know and identify how they are acquired and perpetuated. Regarding this knowledge, the social representations that Mexican pregnant teenagers have about puerperium, lactation and newborn care were studied. Methods: An interpretative study was made based on principles of the theory of social representations. Interviews were conducted to obtain information from 30 Mexican adolescents who attended prenatal care at the gynecological obstetrics area in a second-level hospital during 2015...
2018: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
Milagros Nores, Camila Fernandez
Building capacity within health and education systems of low- and middle-income countries in order to deliver high-quality early childhood services requires coordinated efforts across sectors, effective governance, sufficient funding, an adequate workforce, reliable data systems, and continuous monitoring, evaluation, and improvement cycles; it also requires partnerships with the private sector, communities, and parents. In addition, building capacity requires leadership, innovation of strategies to fit into existing structures, evidence-based intervention models, and effective partnerships that help make interventions more culturally relevant, help finance them, and help create institutional long-term support and sustainability for them...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Tara M Randis, Madeline Murguia Rice, Leslie Myatt, Alan T N Tita, Kenneth J Leveno, Uma M Reddy, Michael W Varner, John M Thorp, Brian M Mercer, Mara J Dinsmoor, Susan M Ramin, Marshall W Carpenter, Philip Samuels, Anthony Sciscione, Jorge E Tolosa, George Saade, Yoram Sorokin
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of sepsis and other adverse neonatal outcomes in women with a clinical diagnosis of chorioamnionitis. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of a multi-center placebo-controlled trial of vitamins C/E to prevent preeclampsia in low risk nulliparous women. Clinical chorioamnionitis was defined as either the "clinical diagnosis" of chorioamnionitis or antibiotic administration during labor because of an elevated temperature or uterine tenderness in the absence of another cause...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Kelly O'Donovan, Theophilus I Emeto
Virtual elimination of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a global target. A review of the literature was conducted using medical databases and health department websites to examine the current trends related to perinatal HIV exposure and MTCT in Australia in comparison with other high-income countries (HICs). The review discusses the uptake of prevention strategies and barriers that impede MTCT prevention. The literature suggests an increase in the numbers of HIV-exposed deliveries, but a marked decline in the rates of MTCT within HICs...
May 22, 2018: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
M Rebecca O'Connor, Ali Adem, Helene Starks
PURPOSE: This study sought to gain a greater understanding of perceptions related to barriers/facilitators for pediatric (ages 0-17) clinical research participation among East African immigrant community members. DESIGN AND METHODS: Community leader interviews (n = 6) and focus groups with lay members (n = 16) from the three largest East African communities in the Seattle area (Eritrean, Ethiopian and Somali) were conducted. Discussions were semi-structured based on existing barrier/facilitator research and analyzed using directed content analysis to identify major themes...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
Juan Bornman, MaryAnn Romski, Kerstin Tonsing, Rose Sevcik, Robyn White, Andrea Barton-Hulsey, Refilwe Morwane
BACKGROUND:  South African speech-language therapists have identified the need for culturally valid and sensitive assessment tools that can accommodate multiple languages and cover a reasonable age range. The Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) extend from birth to 68 months, contain five separate subscales including receptive language, expressive language, gross motor, fine motor and visual reception scale, are straightforward to administer and have been successfully used in other African countries, such as Uganda...
March 8, 2018: South African Journal of Communication Disorders. die Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Kommunikasieafwykings
Jennifer Marshall, Elizabeth Doone, Mindy Price
BACKGROUND: This study examined parents' developmental concerns for their children within the context of systems of care in Malaysia. METHODS: Focus groups and interviews were conducted in peninsular Malaysia and Borneo. RESULTS: Parents' perceptions of developmental delay stemmed from three sources: the cultural, resource, and the social environments. CONCLUSION: There is a need to develop a medical support system in Malaysia that considers a life-course perspective, including prenatal care, screening/diagnosis, and services...
May 20, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Ty Beal, Alison Tumilowicz, Aang Sutrisna, Doddy Izwardy, Lynnette M Neufeld
Child stunting reduction is the first of 6 goals in the Global Nutrition Targets for 2025 and a key indicator in the second Sustainable Development Goal of Zero Hunger. The prevalence of child stunting in Indonesia has remained high over the past decade, and at the national level is approximately 37%. It is unclear whether current approaches to reduce child stunting align with the scientific evidence in Indonesia. We use the World Health Organization conceptual framework on child stunting to review the available literature and identify what has been studied and can be concluded about the determinants of child stunting in Indonesia and where data gaps remain...
May 17, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Dvora Joseph Davey, Elise Farley, Catriona Towriss, Yolanda Gomba, Linda-Gail Bekker, Pamina Gorbach, Steven Shoptaw, Thomas Coates, Landon Myer
HIV acquisition during pregnancy and breastfeeding significantly contributes toward paediatric HIV infection; however, little is known about risk behaviours in HIV-uninfected pregnant and postpartum women. We conducted twenty-six in-depth-interviews between July and December 2016 using a semi-structured interview guide among HIV-uninfected pregnant and recently postpartum women at-risk of HIV acquisition (defined as reporting ≥1 of the following: partner's serostatus unknown or HIV-infected, recent condomless sex in pregnancy, and/or alcohol use during pregnancy) who attended primary healthcare services...
2018: PloS One
Josephine Etowa, Shannan MacDonald, Jean Hannan, J Craig Phillips, Nana Yaa Boadu, Seye Babatunde
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The World Health Organizations (WHO) strategy is to eliminate pediatric HIV. HIV prevention guidelines in high-income countries recommend mothers living with HIV avoid breastfeeding. Yet, breastfeeding is promoted as the normal and unequalled method of feeding infants. This creates a paradox for mothers coming from cultures where breastfeeding is an expectation and formula feeding suggests illness. Therefore, the purpose of this literature review is to examine the context influencing infant feeding among African immigrant women living with HIV to develop interventions to reduce the risk of HIV mother-to-child transmission...
April 2018: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
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