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Jun-Beom Park, Ji-Hoon Kang, Kyung Bin Song
Endive is widely consumed in a fresh-cut form due to its rich nutritional content. However, fresh-cut vegetables are susceptible to contamination by pathogenic bacteria. This study investigated the antibacterial activities of the combined treatment of cinnamon leaf oil emulsion containing cetylpyridinium chloride or benzalkonium chloride (CLC and CLB, respectively) as a cationic surfactant and ultrasound (US) against Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on endive. The combined treatment of CLC or CLB with US reduced the population of L...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Mauro Esposito, Antonella De Roma, Stefania Cavallo, Gianfranco Diletti, Loredana Baldi, Giampiero Scortichini
The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo- p -concentrations dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in fruit and vegetables collected in farms located in the well-known "Land of Fires" area of Southern Italy, in an effort to learn more about the environmental pollution of this high-risk area due to illegal waste dumping and uncontrolled burning near cultivated fields. Concentrations were in the range 0.011-2.26 ng g-1 for the six "indicator" non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs), and 0...
November 10, 2017: Toxics
Han-Gyu Park, Ganesan Sathiyanarayanan, Cheol-Hwan Hwang, Da-Hee Ann, Jung-Ho Kim, Geul Bang, Kyoung-Soon Jang, Hee Wook Ryu, Yoo Kyung Lee, Yung-Hun Yang, Yun-Gon Kim
Climate change causes permafrost thawing, and we are confronted with the unpredictable risk of newly discovered permafrost microbes that have disease-causing capabilities. Here, we first characterized the detailed chemical structure of the lipid A moiety from a Pseudomonas species that was isolated from thawing arctic permafrost using MALDI-based mass spectrometric approaches (i.e., MALDI-TOF MS and MALDI-QIT-TOF MS(n)). The MALDI multi-stage mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of lipid A extracted from the Pseudomonas sp...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tugce Senturk Parreidt, Markus Schmid, Carolin Hauser
Characterizing the physical properties of a surface is largely dependent on determining the contact angle exhibited by a liquid. Contact angles on the surfaces of rough and irregularly-shaped food samples are difficult to measure using a contact angle meter (goniometer). As a consequence, values for the surface energy and its components can be mismeasured. The aim of this work was to use a novel contact angle measurement method, namely the snake-based ImageJ program, to accurately measure the contact angles of rough and irregular shapes, such as food samples, and so enable more accurate calculation of the surface energy of food materials...
April 20, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Qiong Yi, Shuanghu Tang, Xiaolin Fan, Mu Zhang, Yuwan Pang, Xu Huang, Qiaoyi Huang
Globally, vegetable fields are the primary source of greenhouse gas emissions. A closed-chamber method together with gas chromatography was used to measure the fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in typical vegetable fields planted with four vegetables sequentially over time in the same field: endive, lettuce, cabbage and sweet corn. Results showed that N2O fluxes occurred in pulses with the N2O emission peak varying greatly among the crops. In addition, N2O emissions were linearly associated with the nitrogen (N) application rate (r = 0...
2017: PloS One
Anna Berthold-Pluta, Monika Garbowska, Ilona Stefańska, Antoni Pluta
Bacteria of the genus Cronobacter are emerging food-borne pathogens. Foods contaminated with Cronobacter spp. may pose a risk to infants or adults with suppressed immunity. This study was aimed at determining the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat (RTE) plant-origin food products available on the Polish market with special emphasis on the prevalence of Cronobacter genus bacteria. Analyses were carried out on 60 samples of commercial RTE type plant-origin food products, including: leaf vegetables (20 samples), sprouts (20 samples) and non-pasteurized vegetable, fruit and fruit-vegetable juices (20 samples)...
August 2017: Food Microbiology
Carlo Annaratone, Ans De Roeck, Maarten L A T M Hertog, Bart M Nicolaï
Belgian endive (Cichorium intybus L. var. foliosum Hegi), a popular produce in northern Europe, has been thoroughly studied in regard to its bitter sesquiterpene lactones content. Much less is known about on its sweetness and crunchiness, which are typically linked to the content of polar compounds such as sugars, organic acids and salts. Through HILIC-HPLC-MS, it was shown that simple sugars, amino acids, and potassium chloride are abundant in Belgian endive extracts. Subsequently, a HILIC-HPLC-ELSD method for the analysis of such compounds with run times below six minutes was developed...
August 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Francesca D'Acunzo, Donato Giannino, Vincenzo Longo, Marco Ciardi, Giulio Testone, Giovanni Mele, Chiara Nicolodi, Maria Gonnella, Massimiliano Renna, Giuseppe Arnesi, Alessandro Schiappa, Ornella Ursini
Chicories produce a wide range of vegetables with important nutritional value. We determined the variation of sterol, total polyphenol, nitrate contents and antioxidant capacity (SC, TPC, NC, AC) in endive leaves and stem-chicory novel vegetables, cultivated in two Italian regions. Within a given area, the SC was similar in smooth- and curly leafed endives (106.3-176.0 mg/kg FW); sitosterol and stigmasterol were major fractions (45-56 versus 38-43%). The stem SC was independent of landrace (101.5-118.6 mg/kg FW); sitosterol prevailed on stigmasterol and fucosterol (73-76 versus 12-14% versus 8-9%); the latter reached 15...
February 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Miyu Fuzawa, Kang-Mo Ku, Sindy Paola Palma-Salgado, Kenya Nagasaka, Hao Feng, John A Juvik, Daisuke Sano, Joanna L Shisler, Thanh H Nguyen
The use of sanitizers is essential for produce safety. However, little is known about how sanitizer efficacy varies with respect to the chemical surface properties of produce. To answer this question, the disinfection efficacies of an oxidant-based sanitizer and a new surfactant-based sanitizer for porcine rotavirus (PRV) strain OSU were examined. PRV was attached to the leaf surfaces of two kale cultivars with high epicuticular wax contents and one cultivar of endive with a low epicuticular wax content and then treated with each sanitizer...
October 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Massimiliano D'Imperio, Massimiliano Renna, Angela Cardinali, Donato Buttaro, Francesco Serio, Pietro Santamaria
Calcium is an essential nutrient for human health, because it is a structural component and takes part in a variety of biological processes. The aim of this study was to increase Ca content of baby leaf vegetables (BLV: basil, mizuna, tatsoi and endive), as fresh-cut products. For the production of biofortified BLV, a floating system with two level of Ca (100 and 200mgL(-1)) in the nutrient solution was used. In addition, the assessment of bioaccessibility of Ca, by in vitro digestion process, was performed...
December 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Chaoqun Liu, Wenting Wang, Weiqun Lin, Wenhua Ling, Dongliang Wang
SCOPE: Chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. foliosum, Belgian endive), a typical Mediterranean vegetable, and its constituent protocatechuic acid (PCA) can inhibit established atherosclerosis progression. We thus investigated whether chicory can improve vascular relaxation, a critical pathway for combating atherosclerosis, and whether PCA is a contributor to a chicory-induced effect. METHODS AND RESULTS: Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/- ) mice with established atherosclerosis and C57BL/6J mice without atherosclerosis were fed an AIN-93G diet, or AIN-93G plus 0...
October 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
A Sanna, B Meloni, A Ruggeri, S Succa, C Sanna, V Carraro, V Coroneo
BACKGROUND: The microbiological quality of the water used in irrigation is crucial for the safety of products, such as fruit and vegetables, especially when destined to be consumed raw. However, the microbiological quality of this water is not defined at a community regulatory level or at a national level. METHODS: With our present work, we wanted to investigate the microbiological quality of the water used for crop irrigation in various Sardinian provinces. Since in most fields the irrigation water is filtered to remove any impurities, the sample was processed twice - both before and after the filtering process...
March 2016: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
L Filippo D'Antuono, Federico Ferioli, Manuela Agata Manco
In the present study, curly endive (Cichorium endivia L. var. crispum) and escarole (Cichorium endivia L. var. latifolium) accessions were investigated for their sensory characters (bitterness, astringency and herbaceous flavour) and acceptance in relation to sesquiterpene lactone and phenolic content. Different facets of the perception of these sensory traits in relation to lactones and phenolics were brought out. Lactucopicrin and kaempferol malonyl glucoside were consistently related to bitterness, astringency and herbaceous flavour perceptions...
May 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Zhong-qun He, Jun Wang
Temperature sensitive periods and growth characteristics of endive under different temperatures were investigated in greenhouse by weekly reciprocal transferring experiment condition between warm (17 °C) and cold (average 10.5 °C) environment. The results indicated that difference in growth rate of endive was significant in cold and warm environments. There was no temperature sensitive period in endive, and it could feel outside temperature, thus, conducted vernalization induction in setting temperature range (2-17 °C)...
May 2015: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Annunziata Giangaspero, Marianna Marangi, Anson V Koehler, R Papini, G Normanno, V Lacasella, A Lonigro, Robin B Gasser
To date, in Europe, there is scant information on the occurrence of Cyclospora in water from treatment plants and in humans, and no data are available on soil or fresh plant products. Here, we undertook the first molecular survey of Cyclospora in multiple biological matrices collected from the Apulia region of southern Italy. Samples of irrigation water from four municipal treatment plants, eight different types of vegetables or fruit (cucumber, lettuce, fennel, celery, tomato, melon, endive and chicory) and soil from the same farms on which these plants were grown, as well as faecal samples from humans living in the same region were tested by qPCR-coupled single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and DNA sequencing...
October 15, 2015: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Feng-Hua Wang, Min Qiao, Zheng Chen, Jian-Qiang Su, Yong-Guan Zhu
Lettuce and endive, which can be eaten raw, were planted on the manure-amended soil in order to explore the influence of plants on the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in bulk soil and rhizosphere soil, and the occurrence of ARGs on harvested vegetables. Twelve ARGs and one integrase gene (intI1) were detected in all soil samples. Five ARGs (sulI, tetG, tetC, tetA, and tetM) showed lower abundance in the soil with plants than those without. ARGs and intI1 gene were also detected on harvested vegetables grown in manure-amended soil, including endophytes and phyllosphere microorganisms...
December 15, 2015: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Weiqun Lin, Chaoqun Liu, Hai Yang, Wenting Wang, Wenhua Ling, Dongliang Wang
SCOPE: Since protocatechuic acid exerts an atheroprotective role, we investigated how chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. foliosum, Belgian endive) rich in protocatechuic acid, a typical vegetable in Mediterranean diet, affects preestablished atherosclerosis progression. METHODS AND RESULTS: Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed AIN diets containing 0.5% freeze-dried chicory for 10 weeks displayed a reduction in lesion size with a concomitant improvement in lesion stability indicated by fewer macrophages and more collagen content...
September 2015: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Daniela Baldantoni, Luigi Morra, Massimo Zaccardelli, Anna Alfani
Leafy vegetables have a relatively high potential for Cd uptake and translocation, and are thus considered Cd accumulators. For this reason, leaves and roots of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and endive (Cichorium endivia L.) plants, grown on different agricultural soils in Campania region (southern Italy), subjected to different fertilisation treatments (unfertilisation, compost amendment and mineral fertilisation), were analysed for Cd concentrations. Moreover, to clarify if the highest concentrations found are linked to older and inedible or to younger and edible leaves, external and internal endive leaves were separately analysed...
January 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Angela H A M van Hoek, Christiaan Veenman, Wendy M van Overbeek, Gretta Lynch, Ana Maria de Roda Husman, Hetty Blaak
In total 1216 vegetables obtained from Dutch stores during 2012 and 2013 were analysed to determine the prevalence of 3rd-generation cephalosporin (3GC) resistant bacteria on soil-grown fresh produce possibly consumed raw. Vegetables grown conventionally and organically, from Dutch as well as foreign origin were compared. Included were the following vegetable types; blanched celery (n=192), bunched carrots (n=190), butterhead lettuce (n=137), chicory (n=96), endive (n=188), iceberg lettuce (n=193) and radish (n=120)...
July 2, 2015: International Journal of Food Microbiology
B Kramer, J Wunderlich, P Muranyi
The objective of this study was the determination of the efficiency of pulsed light (PL) treatments for the decontamination of endive salad and mung bean sprouts, as well as the assessment of quality changes in relation to discoloration and alteration of respiration activity. Produce samples were artificially inoculated with two bacterial test strains Escherichia coli (DSM 498) and Listeria innocua (DSM 20649) and exposed to PL at different energy doses. The inactivation efficiency with regard to the naturally occurring microbiota was also investigated...
February 2015: Journal of Food Protection
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