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Tofayel Ahmed, Zhan Yin, Shashi Bhushan
Protein synthesis in the chloroplast is mediated by the chloroplast ribosome (chloro-ribosome). Overall architecture of the chloro-ribosome is considerably similar to the Escherichia coli (E. coli) ribosome but certain differences are evident. The chloro-ribosome proteins are generally larger because of the presence of chloroplast-specific extensions in their N- and C-termini. The chloro-ribosome harbours six plastid-specific ribosomal proteins (PSRPs); four in the small subunit and two in the large subunit...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jenny Z Zhang, Katarzyna P Sokol, Nicholas Paul, Elisabet Romero, Rienk van Grondelle, Erwin Reisner
The integration of the water-oxidation enzyme photosystem II (PSII) into electrodes allows the electrons extracted from water oxidation to be harnessed for enzyme characterization and to drive novel endergonic reactions. However, PSII continues to underperform in integrated photoelectrochemical systems despite extensive optimization efforts. Here we carried out protein-film photoelectrochemistry using spinach and Thermosynechococcus elongatus PSII, and we identified a competing charge transfer pathway at the enzyme-electrode interface that short-circuits the known water-oxidation pathway...
October 10, 2016: Nature Chemical Biology
Judith Hempel, Christopher N Schädle, Jasmin Sprenger, Annerose Heller, Reinhold Carle, Ralf M Schweiggert
Goji berries (Lycium barbarum L.) have been known to contain strikingly high levels of zeaxanthin, while the physical deposition form and bioaccessibility of the latter was yet unknown. In the present study, we associated ripening-induced modifications in the profile of carotenoids with fundamental changes of the deposition state of carotenoids in goji berries. Unripe fruit contained common chloroplast-specific carotenoids being protein-bound within chloroplastidal thylakoids. The subsequent ripening-induced transformation of chloroplasts to tubular chromoplasts was accompanied by an accumulation of up to 36mg/100g FW zeaxanthin dipalmitate and further minor xanthophyll esters, prevailing in a presumably liquid-crystalline state within the nano-scaled chromoplast tubules...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Jun'ichi Mano, Asami Ishibashi, Hitoshi Muneuchi, Chihiro Morita, Hiroki Sakai, Md Sanaullah Biswas, Takao Koeduka, Sakihito Kitajima
Acrolein is a lipid-derived highly reactive aldehyde, mediating oxidative signal and damage in plants. We found acrolein-scavenging glutathione transferase activity in plants and purified a low K M isozyme from spinach. Various environmental stressors on plants cause the generation of acrolein, a highly toxic aldehyde produced from lipid peroxides, via the promotion of the formation of reactive oxygen species, which oxidize membrane lipids. In mammals, acrolein is scavenged by glutathione transferase (GST; EC 2...
October 7, 2016: Planta
Tianxi Yang, Bin Zhao, Ruyan Hou, Zhiyun Zhang, Amanda J Kinchla, John M Clark, Lili He
Understanding pesticide penetration is important for effectively applying pesticides and in reducing pesticide exposures from food. This study aims to evaluate multiclass systemic and nonsystemic pesticide penetration in 3 representative fresh produce (apples, grapes, and spinach leaves). Surface-enhanced Raman scattering mapping was applied for in situ and real-time tracking of pesticide penetration over time. The results show that 100 mg/L of systemic pesticides, thiabendazole and acetamiprid, penetrated more rapidly and deeply with maximum depth around 220 μm after 48-h exposure into the tested fresh produce than 100 mg/L of nonsystemic pesticides, ferbam and phosmet, with maximum depth about 80 μm...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Food Science
Tomoko Imura, Tomohiro Masuda, Yuji Wada, Masaki Tomonaga, Katsunori Okajima
Colour vision in primates is believed to be an adaptation for finding ripe fruit and young leaves. The contribution of the luminance distribution, which influences how humans evaluate the freshness of food, has not been explored with respect to the detection of subtle distinctions in food quality in non-human primates. We examined how chimpanzees, which are closely related to humans, perceive the freshness of foods. The findings suggest that chimpanzees were able to choose fresher cabbage based on both colour and grey-scale images...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nicholas Henry Cohen Lewis, Natalie L Gruenke, Thomas A A Oliver, Graham R Fleming, Matteo Ballottari, Roberto Bassi
Light Harvesting Complex II (LHCII) serves a central role in light harvesting for oxygenic photosynthesis, and is arguably the most important photosynthetic antenna complex. In this work, we present two-dimensional electronic-vibrational (2DEV) spectra of LHCII isolated from spinach, demonstrating the possibility of using this technique to track the transfer of electronic excitation energy between specific pigments within the complex. We assign the spectral bands via comparison with the 2DEV spectra of the isolated chromophores, chlorophyll a and b, and present evidence that excitation energy between the pigments of the complex are observed in these spectra...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Cody T Haun, Wesley C Kephart, Angelia M Holland, Christopher B Mobley, Anna E McCloskey, Joshua J Shake, David D Pascoe, Michael D Roberts, Jeffrey S Martin
INTRODUCTION: Inorganic nitrate ingestion has been posited to affect arterial blood pressure and vascular function. PURPOSE: We sought to determine the acute effect of a red spinach extract (RSE) high in inorganic nitrate on vascular reactivity 1-h after ingestion in peripheral conduit and resistance arteries. METHODS: Fifteen (n = 15; males 8, females 7) apparently healthy subjects (aged 23.1 ± 3.3 years; BMI 27.2 ± 3.7 kg/m(2)) participated in this crossover design, double-blinded study...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Yupeng He, Enguang Nie, Chengming Li, Qingfu Ye, Haiyan Wang
The increasing discharge of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) into the environment has generated serious public concern. The recent awareness of the environmental impact of this emerging class of pollutants and their potential adverse effects on human health have been documented in many reports. However, information regarding uptake and intracellular distribution of PPCPs in hydrophytes under hydroponic conditions, and potential human exposure is very limited. A laboratory experiment was conducted using (14)C-labeled triclosan (TCS) to investigate uptake and distribution of TCS in six aquatic plants (water spinach, purple perilla, cress, penny grass, cane shoot, and rice), and the subcellular distribution of (14)C-TCS was determined in these plants...
September 29, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Divya Chaturvedi, Vinay Kumar Singh
Fasciolosis is a water and food-borne disease caused by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. This disease is widespread in different parts of the world. Lymnaeidae and Planorbidae snails are the intermediate hosts of these flukes. Snail population management is a good tool to control fasciolosis because gastropods represent the weakest link in the life-cycle of trematodes. Chlorophyll can be extracted from any green plant. Chlorophyllin was prepared from spinach in 100% ethanol by using different types of chemicals...
August 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Xin Li, Lung Wa Chung, Guohui Li
Fluorescent RNA aptamer Spinach can bind and activate a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like chromophore (an anionic DFHBDI chromophore) displaying green fluorescence. Spectroscopic properties, spectral tuning, and the photoisomerization mechanism in the Spinach-DFHBDI complex have been investigated by high-level QM and hybrid ONIOM(QM:AMBER) methods (QM method: (TD)DFT, SF-BHHLYP, SAC-CI, LT-DF-LCC2, CASSCF, or MS-CASPT2), as well as classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. First, our benchmark calculations have shown that TD-DFT and spin-flip (SF) TD-DFT (SF-BHHLYP) failed to give a satisfactory description of absorption and emission of the anionic DFHBDI chromophore...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Louise Crozier, Pete E Hedley, Jenny Morris, Carol Wagstaff, Simon C Andrews, Ian Toth, Robert W Jackson, Nicola J Holden
[This corrects the article on p. 1088 in vol. 7, PMID: 27462311.].
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Long Yang, Hui Zhao, Yucong Li, Yanqiong Zhang, Hanzhang Ye, Genfu Zhao, Xin Ran, Feng Liu, Can-Peng Li
In this work, the molecular recognition of dimethomorph by disulfide bridged β-cyclodextrin (SS-β-CD) was studied by UV spectroscopy, (2)D NMR, and molecular modeling. The results indicated that the SS-β-CD/dimethomorph was more stable than β-CD/dimethomorph, which is ascribed to the fact that the disulfide chain plays an important role in stabilizing the appropriate dual-CD conformation and also promoting the inclusion of the host and guest. In addition, a robust fluorescence method for dimethomorph sensing has been developed based on competitive host-guest interaction by selecting safranine T (ST) as optical indicator and SS-β-CD functionalized reduced graphene oxide (SS-β-CD-RGO) as the receptor...
September 14, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Riko Tanaka, Makoto Amijima, Yuji Iwata, Nozomu Koizumi, Kei-Ichiro Mishiba
Enhancement of endoreduplication in dark-grown hypocotyl is a common feature in dicotyledonous polysomatic plants, and TIBA-mediated inhibition of the endoreduplication is partially due to abnormal actin organization. Many higher plant species use endoreduplication during cell differentiation. However, the mechanisms underlying this process have remained elusive. In this study, we examined endoreduplication in hypocotyls and cotyledons in response to light in some dicotyledonous plant species. Enhancement of endoreduplication was found in the dark-grown hypocotyls of all the polysomatic species analyzed across five different families, indicating that this process is a common feature in dicotyledonous plants having polysomatic tissues...
September 16, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Ting Li, Xinshan Lu, Yanfei Sun, Xingbin Yang
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance, which is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, has become a leading nutrition problem. Inorganic nitrate enriched in spinach has been demonstrated to reverse the pathological features of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. However, the effects of a direct intake of nitrate-enriched spinach on insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction have not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of spinach nitrate on insulin resistance, lipid metabolism, endothelial function, and inflammation in mice fed with a high-fat and high-fructose diet...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
Luis A Ortega-Ramirez, Brenda A Silva-Espinoza, Irasema Vargas-Arispuro, Gustavo A Gonzalez-Aguilar, M Reynaldo Cruz-Valenzuela, Filomena Nazzaro, J Fernando Ayala-Zavala
BACKGROUND: Cymbopogon citratus and Allium cepa essential oils (EOs) are rich in terpenes and sulfur compounds respectively, both with antibacterial activity and different cell targets, supporting the idea that their combination can increase their efficacy. RESULTS: Major constituents of C. citratus were geranial and neral, while A. cepa presented dipropyl disulfide and dipropyl trisulfide. Cymbopogon citratus and A. cepa EOs inhibited the in vitro growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (minimal inhibitory concentrations of 2...
September 9, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Maho Okuda, Dominique Fourmy, Satoko Yoshizawa
Fluorogenic RNA aptamers provide a powerful tool for study of RNA analogous to green fluorescent protein for the study of proteins. Spinach and Broccoli are RNAs selected in vitro or in vivo respectively to bind to an exogenous chromophore. They can be genetically inserted into an RNA of interest for live-cell imaging. Spinach aptamer has been altered to increase thermal stability and stabilize the desired folding. How well these fluorogenic RNA aptamers behave when inserted into structured cellular RNAs and how aptamer properties might be affected remains poorly characterized...
September 7, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Javaid Hassan Sheikh, M Z Chishti, Majidah Rasheed, Irfan-Ur-Rauf Tak, Shoaib Ali Dar, Eugenia P Lal, Dawood Mohiuddin
In order to list the genera buildup on Brassica oleracea (Cauliflower), Capsicum frustscens (Chillies), Spinacia oleracea (Spinach) and Phaseolus vulgaris (Farash bean) a general survey was carried in the summer season of 2013. On examining the soil samples as well as root samples of Cauliflower Boleodorus, Psilenchus, Helicotylenchus, Merlinius, Aglenchus and Filenchus were encountered with their absolute density of 18, 31, 34.5, 35, 35 and 31.5 %. On Chillies, Tylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Psilenchus, Pratylenchus and Hirschmaniella with their absolute frequency of 86, 96...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Ebrahem M Eid, Ahmed F El-Bebany, Sulaiman A Alrumman, Abd El-Latif Hesham, Mostafa A Taher, Khaled F Fawy
In this study, we present the response of spinach to different amendment rates of sewage sludge (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g kg(-1)) in a greenhouse pot experiment, where plant growth, biomass and heavy metal uptake were measured. The results showed that sewage sludge application increased soil EC, organic matter, chromium and zinc concentrations and decreased soil pH. All heavy metal concentrations of the sewage sludge were below the permissible limits for land application of sewage sludge recommended by the Council of the European Communities...
September 3, 2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Mingming Tian, Qing Zhang, Xiude Hua, Bowen Tang, Beibei Gao, Minghua Wang
In this study, the stereoselectivity of flufiprole enantiomers in regards to their bioactivity, acute toxicity and environmental fate is reported for the first time. Four types of representative insects (Plutella xylostella, Nilaparvata lugens, Mythimna separata and Acyrthosiphon pisum) were used to investigate enantioselective bioactivity. Acute toxicities of flufiprole enantiomers toward two non-target organisms were also evaluated. Moreover, stereoselective degradation in four vegetables under field conditions was studied in response to food safety concerns...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
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