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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625983/strain-level-metagenomic-analysis-of-the-fermented-dairy-beverage-nunu-highlights-potential-food-safety-risks
#1
Aaron M Walsh, Fiona Crispie, Kareem Daari, Orla O'Sullivan, Jennifer C Martin, Cornelius T Arthur, Marcus J Claesson, Karen P Scott, Paul D Cotter
The rapid detection of pathogenic strains in food products is essential for the prevention of disease outbreaks. It has already been demonstrated that whole metagenome shotgun sequencing can be used to detect pathogens in food but, until recently, strain-level detection of pathogens has relied on whole metagenome assembly, which is a computationally demanding process. Here, we demonstrate that three short read alignment-based methods, MetaMLST, PanPhlAn, and StrainPhlAn, can accurately, and rapidly, identify pathogenic strains in spinach metagenomes which were intentionally spiked with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in a previous study...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625892/consumers-acceptance-of-medicinal-herbs-an-application-of-the-technology-acceptance-model-tam
#2
Nargesh Khatun Jokar, Seyyed Ali Noorhosseini, Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari, Christos A Damalas
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The shift in consumers' preferences from synthetic to 'natural' products has led to a resurgence of interest in medicinal plants, particularly in developing countries. However, research data about consumers' preferences for particular products is hard to find. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study was to contribute to the general understanding of consumers' intention for selecting medicinal herbs for consumption. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Factors underpinning consumers' acceptance of medicinal herbs were studied with the technology acceptance model (TAM) in Rasht City of Iran using a structured questionnaire...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605864/time-trends-in-radiocaesium-in-the-japanese-diet-following-nuclear-weapons-testing-and-chernobyl-implications-for-long-term-contamination-post-fukushima
#3
Jim T Smith, Keiko Tagami, Shigeo Uchida
Estimation of time changes in radiocaesium in foodstuffs is key to predicting the long term impact of the Fukushima accident on the Japanese diet. We have modelled >4000 measurements, spanning 50 years, of (137)Cs in foodstuffs and whole diet in Japan after nuclear weapons testing (NWT) and the Chernobyl accident. Broadly consistent long term trends in (137)Cs activity concentrations are seen between different agricultural foodstuffs; whole diet follows this general trend with remarkably little variation between averages for different regions of Japan...
June 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589276/nitrate-in-drinking-water-and-vegetables-intake-and-risk-assessment-in-rural-and-urban-areas-of-nagpur-and-bhandara-districts-of-india
#4
Pinky Taneja, Pawan Labhasetwar, Pranav Nagarnaik
The study focuses on the estimation of health risk from nitrate present in the drinking water and vegetables in Nagpur and Bhandara districts in the state of Maharashtra, India. Drinking water samples from 77 locations from the rural as well as urban areas and 22 varieties of vegetable were collected and analyzed for the presence of nitrate for a period of 1 year (two seasons). The daily intake of nitrate from these water and vegetable samples was then computed and compared with standard acceptable intake levels to assess the associated health risk...
June 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588603/short-term-effect-of-salt-shock-on-ethylene-and-polyamines-depends-on-plant-salt-sensitivity
#5
Pedro J Zapata, María Serrano, Manuel F García-Legaz, M T Pretel, M A Botella
In the present manuscript the short term effect (3-24 h) of a saline shock (NaCl 100 mM) on fresh weight, water content, respiration rate, ethylene production and Na(+), Cl(-), ACC and polyamine concentration was studied in four plant species with different salt sensitivity, pepper, lettuce, spinach, and beetroot. Higher reduction in fresh weight and water content as a consequence of saline shock was found in pepper and lettuce plants than in spinach and beetroot, the latter behaving as more salinity tolerant...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587199/impact-of-sweet-potato-starch-based-nanocomposite-films-activated-with-thyme-essential-oil-on-the-shelf-life-of-baby-spinach-leaves
#6
Aseel Issa, Salam A Ibrahim, Reza Tahergorabi
Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhi) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) have been responsible for an increasing number of outbreaks linked to fresh produce, such as baby spinach leaves, in the last two decades. More recently, antimicrobial biodegradable packaging systems have been attracting much attention in the food packaging industry as eco-friendly alternatives to conventional plastic packaging. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibacterial nanocomposite films on inoculated spinach leaves and on the sensory properties of these leaves during eight days of refrigerated storage...
June 3, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586459/fastmir-an-rna-based-sensor-for-in-vitro-quantification-and-live-cell-localization-of-small-rnas
#7
Kun Huang, Francis Doyle, Zachary E Wurz, Scott A Tenenbaum, Reza K Hammond, Jeffrey L Caplan, Blake C Meyers
Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), play a variety of important regulatory roles in many eukaryotes. Their small size has made it challenging to study them directly in live cells. Here we describe an RNA-based fluorescent sensor for small RNA detection both in vitro and in vivo, adaptable for any small RNA. It utilizes an sxRNA switch for detection of miRNA-mRNA interactions combined with a fluorophore-binding sequence 'Spinach', a GFP-like RNA aptamer for which the RNA-fluorophore complex exhibits strong and consistent fluorescence under an excitation wavelength...
June 6, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586403/evolution-of-class-1-integrons-mobilization-and-dispersal-via-food-borne-bacteria
#8
Timothy M Ghaly, Louise Chow, Amy J Asher, Liette S Waldron, Michael R Gillings
Class 1 integrons have played a major role in the global dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Reconstructing the history of class 1 integrons might help us control further spread of antibiotic resistance by understanding how human activities influence microbial evolution. Here we describe a class 1 integron that represents an intermediate stage in the evolutionary history of clinical integrons. It was embedded in a series of nested transposons, carried on an IncP plasmid resident in Enterobacter, isolated from the surface of baby spinach leaves...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582576/unique-localization-of-the-plastid-specific-ribosomal-proteins-in-the-chloroplast-ribosome-small-subunit-provides-mechanistic-insights-into-the-chloroplastic-translation
#9
Tofayel Ahmed, Jian Shi, Shashi Bhushan
Chloroplastic translation is mediated by a bacterial-type 70S chloroplast ribosome. During the evolution, chloroplast ribosomes have acquired five plastid-specific ribosomal proteins or PSRPs (cS22, cS23, bTHXc, cL37 and cL38) which have been suggested to play important regulatory roles in translation. However, their exact locations on the chloroplast ribosome remain elusive due to lack of a high-resolution structure, hindering our progress to understand their possible roles. Here we present a cryo-EM structure of the 70S chloroplast ribosome from spinach resolved to 3...
June 5, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576363/effect-of-green-tea-extract-on-enteric-viruses-and-its-application-as-natural-sanitizer
#10
W Randazzo, I Falcó, R Aznar, G Sánchez
In this work, the effect of green tea extract (GTE) was assessed against murine norovirus (MNV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) at different temperatures, exposure times and pH conditions. Initially, GTE at 0.5 and 5 mg/ml were individually mixed with each virus at 5 log TCID50/ml and incubated 2 h at 37 °C at different pHs (from 5.5 to 8.5). GTE affected both viruses depending on pH with higher reductions observed in alkaline conditions. Secondly, different concentrations of GTE (0.5 and 5 mg/ml) were mixed with viral suspensions and incubated for 2 or 16 h at 4, 25 and 37 °C at pH 7...
September 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566748/a-pathway-for-protective-quenching-in-antenna-proteins-of-photosystem-ii
#11
Sotiris Papadatos, Antreas C Charalambous, Vangelis Daskalakis
Photosynthesis is common in nature, converting sunlight energy into proton motive force and reducing power. The increased spectral range absorption of light exerted by pigments (i.e. chlorophylls, Chls) within Light Harvesting Complexes (LHCs) proves an important advantage under low light conditions. However, in the exposure to excess light, oxidative damages and ultimately cell death can occur. A down-regulatory mechanism, thus, has been evolved (non-photochemical quenching, NPQ). The mechanistic details of its major component (qE) are missing at the atomic scale...
May 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556680/efficacy-of-gaseous-ozone-application-during-vacuum-cooling-against-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-on-spinach-leaves-as-influenced-by-bacterium-population-size
#12
Mustafa Yesil, David R Kasler, En Huang, Ahmed E Yousef
Foodborne disease outbreaks associated with the consumption of fresh produce pose a threat to public health, decrease consumer confidence in minimally processed foods, and negatively impact the sales of these commodities. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of population size of inoculated pathogen on its inactivation by gaseous ozone treatment during vacuum cooling. Spinach leaves were spot inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 at approximate initial populations of 10(8), 10(7), and 10(5) CFU/g...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555544/development-and-characterization-of-sindbis-virus-with-encoded-fluorescent-rna-aptamer-spinach2-for-imaging-of-replication-and-immune-mediated-changes-in-intracellular-nbsp-viral-rna
#13
Voraphoj Nilaratanakul, Debra A Hauer, Diane E Griffin
Viral RNA studies often rely on in situ hybridization and reverse transcriptase-PCR to provide snapshots of RNA dynamics in infected cells. To facilitate analysis of cellular RNAs, aptamers Spinach and Spinach2 that bind and activate the conditional fluorophore 3, 5-difluoro-4-hydroxybenzylidene imidazolinon have been developed. To determine the feasibility of applying this technology to viral RNA, we have used cDNA clones of the TE strain of Sindbis virus (SINV) to construct multiple viruses containing one or two copies of tRNA-scaffolded Spinach2 after a second subgenomic promoter, TEds-1Sp and TEds-2Sp within the 3'UTR, TE-1UTRSp, or after a second subgenomic promoter and in the 3'UTR, TEds-1Sp+1 UTRSp...
May 30, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555047/synthesis-and-free-radical-scavenging-activity-of-new-hydroxybenzylidene-hydrazines
#14
Frantisek Sersen, Fridrich Gregan, Peter Kotora, Jarmila Kmetova, Juraj Filo, Dusan Loos, Juraj Gregan
Hydroxybenzylidene hydrazines exhibit a wide spectrum of biological activities. Here, we report synthesis and free radical scavenging activity of nine new N-(hydroxybenzylidene)-N'-[2,6-dinitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)]phenylhydrazines. The chemical structures of these compounds were confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 19F-NMR, IR spectroscopy, LC-MS, and elemental analysis. The prepared compounds were tested for their activity to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), galvinoxyl radical (GOR), and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radicals...
May 29, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550677/mineral-profile-of-children-s-fast-food-menu-samples
#15
Maria Luisa Cervera, Miguel de la Guardia, Manuela Ruiz-de-Cenzano, Arancha Rochina-Marco, Óscar López-Salazar
Children's fast food menus, including hamburgers served with french fries, dessert, and a soft drink, were analyzed to obtain the mineral profile of trace elements. The developed analytical methodology involved sample digestion under pressure inside a microwave oven with a mixture of HNO₃ and H₂O₂ and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The method was validated by carrying out the analysis of certified reference materials (NIST 1570a spinach leaves, NCS ZC73016 chicken, and NIST 1568a rice flour) and using recovery experiments...
May 26, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550604/microencapsulation-of-%C3%AE-carotene-based-on-casein-guar-gum-blend-using-zeta-potential-yield-stress-phenomenon-an-approach-to-enhance-photo-stability-and-retention-of-functionality
#16
Deepika Thakur, Ashay Jain, Gargi Ghoshal, U S Shivhare, O P Katare
β-Carotene, abundant majorly in carrot, pink guava yams, spinach, kale, sweet potato, and palm oil, is an important nutrient for human health due to its scavenging action upon reactive free radicals wherever produced in the body. Inclusion of liposoluble β-carotene in foods and food ingredients is a challenging aspect due to its labile nature and low absorption from natural sources. This fact has led to the application of encapsulation of β-carotene to improve stability and bioavailability. The present work was aimed to fabricate microcapsules (MCs) of β-carotene oily dispersion using the complex coacervation technique with casein (CA) and guar gum (GG) blend...
May 26, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548831/folate-biofortification-in-hydroponically-cultivated-spinach-by-the-addition-of-phenylalanine
#17
Sho Watanabe, Yuta Ohtani, Yohei Tatsukami, Wataru Aoki, Takashi Amemiya, Yasunori Sukekiyo, Seiichi Kubokawa, Mitsuyoshi Ueda
Folate is an important vitamin mainly ingested from vegetables, and folate deficiency causes various health problems. Recently, several studies demonstrated folate biofortification in plants or food crops by metabolic engineering through genetic modifications. However, the production and sales of genetically modified foods are under strict regulation. Here, we developed a new approach to achieve folate biofortification in spinach (Spinacia oleracea) without genetic modification. We hydroponically cultivated spinach with the addition of three candidate compounds expected to fortify folate...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544262/synthesis-theoretical-studies-and-effect-on-the-photosynthetic-electron-transport-of-trifluoromethyl-arylamides
#18
Róbson Ricardo Teixeira, Marcus Vinícius de Andrade Barros, Gustavo Costa Bressan, Raoni Pais Siqueira, Fabíola Suelen Dos Santos, Michele Bertazzini, Rudolf Kiralj, Márcia Miguel Castro Ferreira, Giuseppe Forlani
BACKGROUND: The photosynthetic apparatus is targeted by various herbicides, including several amides such as diuron and linuron. Considering the need for the discovery of new active ingredients to cope with weed resistance, the synthesis of a series of trifluoromethyl aryl amides is herein described whose inhibitory properties were assessed in vitro on the photosynthetic electron transport chain, and in vivo on the growth of a model cyanobacterial strain. Theoretical studies were also carried out...
May 25, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541664/prediction-of-collision-cross-section-values-for-small-molecules-application-to-pesticide-residue-analysis
#19
Lubertus Bijlsma, Richard Bade, Alberto Celma, Lauren Mullin, Gareth Cleland, Sara Stead, Felix Hernandez, Juan V Sancho
The use of collision cross-section (CCS) values obtained by ion mobility high-resolution mass spectrometry has added a third dimension (alongside retention time and exact mass) to aid in the identification of compounds. However, its utility is limited by the number of experimental CCS values currently available. This work demonstrates the potential of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the prediction of CCS values of pesticides. The predictor, based on eight software-chosen molecular descriptors, was optimized using CCS values of 205 small molecules and validated using a set of 131 pesticides...
June 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537264/draft-genome-of-spinach-and-transcriptome-diversity-of-120-spinacia-accessions
#20
Chenxi Xu, Chen Jiao, Honghe Sun, Xiaofeng Cai, Xiaoli Wang, Chenhui Ge, Yi Zheng, Wenli Liu, Xuepeng Sun, Yimin Xu, Jie Deng, Zhonghua Zhang, Sanwen Huang, Shaojun Dai, Beiquan Mou, Quanxi Wang, Zhangjun Fei, Quanhua Wang
Spinach is an important leafy vegetable enriched with multiple necessary nutrients. Here we report the draft genome sequence of spinach (Spinacia oleracea, 2n=12), which contains 25,495 protein-coding genes. The spinach genome is highly repetitive with 74.4% of its content in the form of transposable elements. No recent whole genome duplication events are observed in spinach. Genome syntenic analysis between spinach and sugar beet suggests substantial inter- and intra-chromosome rearrangements during the Caryophyllales genome evolution...
May 24, 2017: Nature Communications
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