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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726578/a-framework-for-optimizing-phytosanitary-thresholds-in-seed-systems
#1
Robin Alan Choudhury, Karen A Garrett, Steven J Klosterman, Krishna V Subbarao, Neil McRoberts
Seedborne pathogens and pests limit production in many agricultural systems. Quarantine programs help prevent the introduction of exotic pathogens into a country, but few regulations directly apply to reducing the re-introduction and spread of endemic pathogens. Use of phytosanitary thresholds helps limit the movement of pathogen inoculum through seed, but the costs associated with rejected seed lots can be prohibitive for voluntary implementation of phytosanitary thresholds. In this paper, we outline a framework to optimize thresholds for seedborne pathogens, balancing the cost of rejected seed lots and benefit of reduced inoculum levels...
July 20, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714937/photosynthesis-inhibiting-activity-of-1-2-chlorophenyl-carbamoyl-and-1-2-nitrophenyl-carbamoyl-naphthalen-2-yl-alkylcarbamates
#2
Tomas Gonec, Josef Stranik, Matus Pesko, Jiri Kos, Michal Oravec, Katarina Kralova, Josef Jampilek
Eight 1-[(2-chlorophenyl)carbamoyl]naphthalen-2-yl alkylcarbamates and eight 1-[(2-nitrophenyl)carbamoyl]naphthalen-2-yl alkylcarbamates were tested for their activity related to the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport (PET) in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts. The PET-inhibiting activity of the compounds was relatively low; the corresponding IC50 values ranged from 0.05 to 0.664 mmol/L; and the highest activity within the series of compounds was observed for 1-[(2-chlorophenyl)-carbamoyl]naphthalen-2-yl propylcarbamate...
July 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703041/a-review-of-control-options-and-externalities-for-verticillium-wilts
#3
Christine L Carroll, Colin A Carter, Rachael E Goodhue, C-Y Cynthia Lin Lawell, Krishna V Subbarao
Plant pathogens migrate to new regions through human activities such as trade, where they may establish themselves and cause disease on agriculturally important crops. Verticillium wilt of lettuce, caused by Verticillium dahliae, is a soilborne fungus that was introduced to coastal California via infested spinach seeds. It has caused significant losses for lettuce growers. Once introduced, Verticillium wilt could be managed by fumigating with methyl bromide and chloropicrin, but this option is no longer available...
July 13, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702918/assessment-of-potential-health-risk-of-fluoride-consumption-through-rice-pulses-and-vegetables-in-addition-to-consumption-of-fluoride-contaminated-drinking-water-of-west-bengal-india
#4
Piyal Bhattacharya, Alok Chandra Samal, Suman Banerjee, Jagadish Pyne, Subhas Chandra Santra
A study was conducted in fluoride-affected Bankura and Purulia districts of West Bengal to assess the potential health risk from fluoride exposure among children, teenagers, and adults due to consumption of rice, pulses, and vegetables in addition to drinking water and incidental ingestion of soil by children. Higher mean fluoride contents (13-63 mg/kg dry weight) were observed in radish, carrot, onion bulb, brinjal, potato tuber, cauliflower, cabbage, coriander, and pigeon pea. The combined influence of rice, pulses, and vegetables to cumulative estimated daily intake (EDI) of fluoride for the studied population was found to be 9...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697385/quantitative-contamination-assessment-of-escherichia-coli-in-baby-spinach-primary-production-in-spain-effects-of-weather-conditions-and-agricultural-practices
#5
Ana Allende, Irene Castro-Ibáñez, Roland Lindqvist, María Isabel Gil, Mieke Uyttendaele, Liesbeth Jacxsens
A quantitative microbial contamination model of Escherichia coli during primary production of baby spinach was developed. The model included only systematic contamination routes (e.g. soil and irrigation water) and it was used to evaluate the potential impact of weather conditions, agricultural practices as well as bacterial fitness in soil on the E. coli levels present in the crop at harvest. The model can be used to estimate E. coli contamination of baby spinach via irrigation water, via soil splashing due to irrigation water or rain events, and also including the inactivation of E...
June 27, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678585/differential-mobilization-and-metal-uptake-versus-leaching-in-multi-metal-soil-columns-using-edta-and-three-metal-bioaccumulators
#6
Firdaus-E- Bareen, Sarwat Saeed, Humera Afrasiab
Tannery waste is a major environmental concern needing proper management. Tannery solid waste (TSW) can be added to the soil as an organic amendment but needs metal removal. Chelant assisted phytoremediation hastens the process of metal removal but also poses risk of leaching. This research evaluates EDTA assisted phytoextraction and associated leaching hazard using metal tolerant plants. Greenhouse trials were carried out with sunflower, spinach and marigold using columns of uniform diameter packed with field soil and multi-metal contamination of TSW (5% and 10%) with four EDTA doses...
July 5, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657161/unambiguous-regiochemical-assignment-of-sulfoquinovosyl-mono-and-di-acylglycerols-in-parsley-and-spinach-leaves-by-liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization-sequential-mass-spectrometry-assisted-by-regioselective-enzymatic-hydrolysis
#7
Sara Granafei, Ilario Losito, Francesco Palmisano, Tommaso R I Cataldi
RATIONALE: Sulfoquinovosylmonoglycerides (SQMG) and sulfoquinovosyldiglycerides (SQDG) in the lipid extracts of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves were investigated. The aim of this work was to assess and establish the chemical characterization of fatty acyl chains in sulfolipids (SQMG and SQDG) and their regiochemistry. METHODS: A key component of this approach is a combination of hydrolysis reactions catalyzed by Lecitase® Ultra, which is a sn1 -regioselective hydrolase enzyme, and reversed-phase liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization and sequential mass spectrometry (RPLC-ESI-MS) by collision induced dissociation (CID)-MS(n) (n=2,3)...
June 28, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651681/no-influence-of-supplemental-dietary-calcium-intake-on-the-bioavailability-of-spinach-carotenoids-in-humans
#8
Joana Corte-Real, Cédric Guignard, Manon Gantenbein, Bernard Weber, Kim Burgard, Lucien Hoffmann, Elke Richling, Torsten Bohn
Dietary carotenoid intake, especially from fruits and vegetables, has been associated with a reduced incidence of several chronic diseases. However, its bioavailability can vary, depending on the food matrix and host factors. Recently, it has been suggested that divalent minerals negatively impinge on carotenoid bioavailability by reducing bile-salt and non-esterified fatty-acid levels in the gut, which normally aid in emulsifying carotenoids. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether supplemental Ca would negatively influence carotenoid absorption in humans...
June 27, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651076/application-of-water-assisted-ultraviolet-light-in-combination-of-chlorine-and-hydrogen-peroxide-to-inactivate-salmonella-on-fresh-produce
#9
Shuanghuan Guo, Runze Huang, Haiqiang Chen
With the demand for fresh produce increases in recent decades, concerns for microbiological safety of fresh produce are also raised. To identify effective ultraviolet (UV) light treatment for fresh produce decontamination, we first determined the effect of three forms of UV treatment, dry UV (samples were treated by UV directly), wet UV (samples were dipped in water briefly and then exposed to UV), and water-assisted UV (samples were treated by UV while being immersed in agitated water) on inactivation of Salmonella inoculated on tomatoes and fresh-cut lettuce...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649706/improving-efficiency-of-viability-qpcr-for-selective-detection-of-infectious-hav-in-food-and-water-samples
#10
W Randazzo, Joaquín Piqueras, Jesús Rodríguez-Díaz, R Aznar, G Sánchez
AIM: To improve the efficacy of intercalating dyes to distinguishing between infectious and inactivated hepatitis A virus (HAV) in food. METHODS AND RESULTS: Different intercalating dyes were evaluated for the discrimination between infectious and thermally-inactivated HAV suspensions combining with the RT-qPCR proposed in the ISO 15216. Among them, PMAxx was the best dye in removing the RT-qPCR signal from inactivated HAV. Applied to lettuce and spinach, PMAxx-Triton pretreatment resulted in complete removal of the RT-qPCR signal from inactivated HAV...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649305/emerging-microbiota-during-cold-storage-and-temperature-abuse-of-ready-to-eat-salad%C3%A2
#11
Karin Söderqvist, Omneya Ahmed Osman, Cecilia Wolff, Stefan Bertilsson, Ivar Vågsholm, Sofia Boqvist
Introduction: Ready-to-eat (RTE) leafy vegetables have a natural leaf microbiota that changes during different processing and handling steps from farm to fork. The objectives of this study were (i) to compare the microbiota of RTE baby spinach and mixed-ingredient salad before and after seven days of storage at 8°C or 15°C; (ii) to explore associations between bacterial communities and the foodborne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, and pathogen model organism Escherichia coli O157:H7 gfp+ when experimentally inoculated into the salads before storage; and (iii) to investigate if bacterial pathogens may be detected in the 16S rRNA amplicon dataset...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625983/strain-level-metagenomic-analysis-of-the-fermented-dairy-beverage-nunu-highlights-potential-food-safety-risks
#12
Aaron M Walsh, Fiona Crispie, Kareem Daari, Orla O'Sullivan, Jennifer C Martin, Cornelius T Arthur, Marcus J Claesson, Karen P Scott, Paul D Cotter
The rapid detection of pathogenic strains in food products is essential for the prevention of disease outbreaks. It has already been demonstrated that whole metagenome shotgun sequencing can be used to detect pathogens in food but, until recently, strain-level detection of pathogens has relied on whole metagenome assembly, which is a computationally demanding process. Here, we demonstrate that three short read alignment-based methods, MetaMLST, PanPhlAn, and StrainPhlAn, can accurately, and rapidly, identify pathogenic strains in spinach metagenomes which were intentionally spiked with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in a previous study...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625892/consumers-acceptance-of-medicinal-herbs-an-application-of-the-technology-acceptance-model-tam
#13
Nargesh Khatun Jokar, Seyyed Ali Noorhosseini, Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari, Christos A Damalas
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The shift in consumers' preferences from synthetic to 'natural' products has led to a resurgence of interest in medicinal plants, particularly in developing countries. However, research data about consumers' preferences for particular products is hard to find. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study was to contribute to the general understanding of consumers' intention for selecting medicinal herbs for consumption. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Factors underpinning consumers' acceptance of medicinal herbs were studied with the technology acceptance model (TAM) in Rasht City of Iran using a structured questionnaire...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605864/time-trends-in-radiocaesium-in-the-japanese-diet-following-nuclear-weapons-testing-and-chernobyl-implications-for-long-term-contamination-post-fukushima
#14
Jim T Smith, Keiko Tagami, Shigeo Uchida
Estimation of time changes in radiocaesium in foodstuffs is key to predicting the long term impact of the Fukushima accident on the Japanese diet. We have modelled >4000 measurements, spanning 50 years, of (137)Cs in foodstuffs and whole diet in Japan after nuclear weapons testing (NWT) and the Chernobyl accident. Broadly consistent long term trends in (137)Cs activity concentrations are seen between different agricultural foodstuffs; whole diet follows this general trend with remarkably little variation between averages for different regions of Japan...
June 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589276/nitrate-in-drinking-water-and-vegetables-intake-and-risk-assessment-in-rural-and-urban-areas-of-nagpur-and-bhandara-districts-of-india
#15
Pinky Taneja, Pawan Labhasetwar, Pranav Nagarnaik
The study focuses on the estimation of health risk from nitrate present in the drinking water and vegetables in Nagpur and Bhandara districts in the state of Maharashtra, India. Drinking water samples from 77 locations from the rural as well as urban areas and 22 varieties of vegetable were collected and analyzed for the presence of nitrate for a period of 1 year (two seasons). The daily intake of nitrate from these water and vegetable samples was then computed and compared with standard acceptable intake levels to assess the associated health risk...
June 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588603/short-term-effect-of-salt-shock-on-ethylene-and-polyamines-depends-on-plant-salt-sensitivity
#16
Pedro J Zapata, María Serrano, Manuel F García-Legaz, M T Pretel, M A Botella
In the present manuscript the short term effect (3-24 h) of a saline shock (NaCl 100 mM) on fresh weight, water content, respiration rate, ethylene production and Na(+), Cl(-), ACC and polyamine concentration was studied in four plant species with different salt sensitivity, pepper, lettuce, spinach, and beetroot. Higher reduction in fresh weight and water content as a consequence of saline shock was found in pepper and lettuce plants than in spinach and beetroot, the latter behaving as more salinity tolerant...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587199/impact-of-sweet-potato-starch-based-nanocomposite-films-activated-with-thyme-essential-oil-on-the-shelf-life-of-baby-spinach-leaves
#17
Aseel Issa, Salam A Ibrahim, Reza Tahergorabi
Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhi) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) have been responsible for an increasing number of outbreaks linked to fresh produce, such as baby spinach leaves, in the last two decades. More recently, antimicrobial biodegradable packaging systems have been attracting much attention in the food packaging industry as eco-friendly alternatives to conventional plastic packaging. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibacterial nanocomposite films on inoculated spinach leaves and on the sensory properties of these leaves during eight days of refrigerated storage...
June 3, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586459/fastmir-an-rna-based-sensor-for-in-vitro-quantification-and-live-cell-localization-of-small-rnas
#18
Kun Huang, Francis Doyle, Zachary E Wurz, Scott A Tenenbaum, Reza K Hammond, Jeffrey L Caplan, Blake C Meyers
Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), play a variety of important regulatory roles in many eukaryotes. Their small size has made it challenging to study them directly in live cells. Here we describe an RNA-based fluorescent sensor for small RNA detection both in vitro and in vivo, adaptable for any small RNA. It utilizes an sxRNA switch for detection of miRNA-mRNA interactions combined with a fluorophore-binding sequence 'Spinach', a GFP-like RNA aptamer for which the RNA-fluorophore complex exhibits strong and consistent fluorescence under an excitation wavelength...
June 6, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586403/evolution-of-class-1-integrons-mobilization-and-dispersal-via-food-borne-bacteria
#19
Timothy M Ghaly, Louise Chow, Amy J Asher, Liette S Waldron, Michael R Gillings
Class 1 integrons have played a major role in the global dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Reconstructing the history of class 1 integrons might help us control further spread of antibiotic resistance by understanding how human activities influence microbial evolution. Here we describe a class 1 integron that represents an intermediate stage in the evolutionary history of clinical integrons. It was embedded in a series of nested transposons, carried on an IncP plasmid resident in Enterobacter, isolated from the surface of baby spinach leaves...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582576/unique-localization-of-the-plastid-specific-ribosomal-proteins-in-the-chloroplast-ribosome-small-subunit-provides-mechanistic-insights-into-the-chloroplastic-translation
#20
Tofayel Ahmed, Jian Shi, Shashi Bhushan
Chloroplastic translation is mediated by a bacterial-type 70S chloroplast ribosome. During the evolution, chloroplast ribosomes have acquired five plastid-specific ribosomal proteins or PSRPs (cS22, cS23, bTHXc, cL37 and cL38) which have been suggested to play important regulatory roles in translation. However, their exact locations on the chloroplast ribosome remain elusive due to lack of a high-resolution structure, hindering our progress to understand their possible roles. Here we present a cryo-EM structure of the 70S chloroplast ribosome from spinach resolved to 3...
June 5, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
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