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Mohamed A Gedi, Rhianna Briars, Felius Yuseli, Noorazwani Zainol, Randa Darwish, Andrew M Salter, David A Gray
A study of the literature indicates that chloroplasts synthesise a range of molecules, many of which have nutritional value for humans, but the nutritional credentials of chloroplasts recovered from plant cells are not established. Chloroplast-rich-fractions (CRFs) were prepared from green plant species and the macro- and micro-nutrient composition compared with the whole leaf materials (WLMs). The results indicated that, on a dry weight basis, CRF material from a range of green biomass was enriched in lipids and proteins, and in a range of micronutrients compared with the WLM...
August 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Nigar Ahmadova, Fikret Mamedov
Photosystem II (PS II) contains two redox-active tyrosine residues on the donor side at symmetrical positions to the primary donor, P680. TyrZ, part of the water-oxidizing complex, is a preferential fast electron donor while TyrD is a slow auxiliary donor to P680(+). We used PS II membranes from spinach which were depleted of the water oxidation complex (Mn-depleted PS II) to study electron donation from both tyrosines by time-resolved EPR spectroscopy under visible and far-red continuous light and laser flash illumination...
September 18, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
Erika M du Plessis, Sarasha Govender, Bala Pillay, Lise Korsten
Knowledge of the microbiological quality and prevalence of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes in bacterial isolates from leafy green vegetables supplied by formal suppliers (retailers) and informal suppliers (street vendors) in South Africa is limited. Because leafy vegetables have been implicated in foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide, 180 cabbage and spinach samples were collected from three major retailers and nine street vendors in Johannesburg, South Africa. Escherichia coli and coliforms were enumerated using Petrifilm plates...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Xavier Allirot, Edurne Maiz, Elena Urdaneta
Involving children in the different steps of meal preparation has been suggested as a strategy for enhancing dietary habits in childhood. It has previously been shown that involving children in cooking can increase their willingness to taste novel foods and direct their food choices towards foods containing vegetables. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of involving children in food purchasing on food choices, intake, liking and appetite. A between-subject experiment was conducted with 86 children (from 8 to 10 years old)...
September 13, 2017: Appetite
Ganga Karunamuni, Megan M Sheehan, Yong Qiu Doughman, Shi Gu, Jiayang Sun, Youjun Li, James P Strainic, Andrew M Rollins, Michael W Jenkins, Michiko Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Despite decades of public education about dire consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure, drinking alcohol during pregnancy remains prevalent. As high as 40% of live-born infants exposed to alcohol during gestation and diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome have congenital heart defects that can be life-threatening. In animal models, the methyl donor betaine, found in foods such as wheat bran, quinoa, beets and spinach, ameliorated neurobehavioral deficits associated with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) but effects on heart development are unknown...
September 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Mayumi Seto, Koichiro Uriu, Isao Kawaguchi, Hiroyuki Yokomizo
The Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) has published instructions for radiological protection against food after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in 2011. Following the instructions, the export and consumption of food items identified as being contaminated were restricted for a certain period. We assessed the validity of the imposed restriction periods for two representative vegetables (spinach and cabbage) grown in Fukushima Prefecture from two perspectives: effectiveness for reducing dietary dose and economic efficiency...
September 7, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Ola Alessa, Safaa Najla, Ramzi Murshed
The effects of different fertilizers [the control with no fertilizer (C), inorganic fertilization (I), combined inorganic and organic fertilizer (IOHumax1) and (IOHumax2)] on yield and nutrients contents of two spinach varieties ("Balady and Virofly") were investigated. Significant effects of variety were observed on vegetative growth and nutrients contents. While Virofly had significantly higher leaf area (236.96 cm(2)), stem diameter (7.43 mm) and fresh weight of vegetative and radical parts (15.05 and 0...
July 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Arthur B Cecílio, Matheus S Bianco, Caroline F Tardivo, Gabriel C M Pugina
The intercropping is a production system that aims to provide increased yield with less environmental impact, due to greater efficiency in the use of natural resources and inputs involved in the production process. An experiment was carried out to evaluate the agronomic viability of kale and New Zealand spinach intercropping as a function of the spinach transplanting time. (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days after transplanting of the kale). The total yield (TY) and yield per harvest (YH) of the kale in intercropping did not differ from those obtained in monoculture...
August 31, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Sameena N Malik, Prakash C Ghosh, Atul N Vaidya, Vishal Waindeskar, Sera Das, Sandeep N Mudliar
In this study, the comparative performance of coagulation, ozone, coagulation + ozone + coagulation and potassium ferrate processes to remove chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, and toxicity from a highly polluted textile wastewater were evaluated. Experimental results showed that ferrate alone had no effect on COD, color and toxicity removal. Whereas, in combination with FeSO4, it has shown the highest removal efficiency of 96.5%, 83% and 75% for respective parameters at the optimal dose of 40 mgL(-1) + 3 ml FeSO4 (1 M) in comparison with other processes...
September 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Joana Corte-Real, Charles Desmarchelier, Patrick Borel, Elke Richling, Lucien Hoffmann, Torsten Bohn
Magnesium may reduce carotenoid bioavailability by forming insoluble complexes with bile salts/fatty acids, inhibiting micelle formation. Here, we investigated whether altering bile/pancreatin concentration influenced potential negative effects of magnesium on carotenoid bioaccessibility. Spinach (4g) was digested in vitro with added magnesium (0, 200, 400mg/L) and canola oil/coffee creamer, at varying bile extract (1 or 8mM) and pancreatin (100 or 990mg/L) concentrations. Bioaccessibility was determined for β-carotene, lutein, and total carotenoids via HPLC...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Hang Qi, Qingguo Huang, Yen-Con Hung
This study evaluated the effects of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water treatment on the removal of pesticide residues (diazinon, cyprodinil and phosmet) from spinach, snap beans and grapes, and the effect on produce quality. High available chlorine content (ACC) and long treatment time of EO water resulted in high pesticide removals. Up to 59.2, 66.5 and 37.1% of diazinon; 43.8, 50.0 and 31.5% of cyprodinil; 85.7, 73.0 and 49.4% of phosmet; were removed from spinach, snap beans and grapes, respectively, after 15min EO water treatment at 120mg/l ACC...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
S Pérez-Burillo, J A Rufián-Henares, S Pastoriza
Many methods have been developed to measure the antioxidant capacity of foods under non physiological-relevant conditions. In this study, three methods (TEACOH, GEACRED and TEACAAPH) are developed to measure antioxidant capacity at physiological pH, using indigo carmine as a redox dye. TEACOH and TEACAAPH determine foodstuffs' scavenging capacity against hydroxyl (OH) and AAPH radicals, while the third method measures the global reducing capacity of the sample. The results obtained for commercial teas, commercial beverages containing tea as the main ingredient and different solid foods (spinach, onion, salami, etc...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Ilya Kuprov
Liquid state NMR is the only class of magnetic resonance experiments for which the simulation problem is solved comprehensively for spin systems of any size. This paper contains a practical walkthrough for one of the many available simulation packages - Spinach. Its unique feature is polynomial complexity scaling: the ability to simulate large spin systems quantum mechanically and with accurate account of relaxation, diffusion, chemical processes and hydrodynamics. This paper is a gentle introduction written with a PhD student in mind...
September 5, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
Yetunde E Alozie, Henrietta N Ene-Obong
One hundred recipes of waterleaf and wild spinach soup (afang) consumed among the Ibibios in South-south Nigeria were collected through interview and questionnaire from indigenous homemakers and food sellers, harmonized, standardized, prepared and their nutrient content calculated. Mean weights of ingredients were calculated to obtain the control recipe. Major ingredients in the soup were analyzed chemically. Edible portions, retention factors to be applied in recipe calculation were determined. Sensory evaluation was conducted on five of the most preferred recipes on a nine-point hedonic scale...
January 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Chao Guo, Zhong-Liu Wu
Cytochrome P450 enzymes are versatile biocatalysts with great potential in biotechnology. A new bacterial P450 was identified from the genome of Rhodococcus wratislaviensis NBRC 100605 and annotated as CYP108N7. The enzyme accepted the ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase from spinach as surrogate redox partners for improved electron transfer efficiency. It was heterologous expressed in Escherichia coli together with the redox partners and a glucose dehydrogenase which supplied the reduced cofactor NADPH. The resulting whole-cell biocatalyst catalyzed a variety of reactions including sulfoxidation, epoxidation, hydroxylation, demethylation and dehalogenation...
November 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Anna J Williams, Willie M Cooper, Shawn Ramsaroop, Pierre Alusta, Dan A Buzatu, Jon G Wilkes
Very low cell count detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in foods is critical, since an infective dose for this pathogen may be only 10 cells, and fewer still for vulnerable populations. A flow cytometer is able to detect and count individual cells of a target bacterium, in this case E. coli O157:H7. The challenge is to find the single cell in a complex matrix like raw spinach. To find that cell requires growing it as quickly as possible to a number sufficiently in excess of matrix background that identification is certain...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jashbir Singh, G K Jayaprakasha, Bhimanagouda S Patil
RATIONALE: Spinach is green leafy vegetable rich source of flavonoids, phenolic acids, carotenoids, vitamin A, C and E. Spinach contains unique flavonoids which have significant anticarcinogenic, antiinflammatory and free radical scavenging activities. The present study reports the systematic identification and quantification of novel flavonoids by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HR-QTOFMS). METHODS: Ultrasonication technique was used for the extraction of flavonoids from spinach...
August 23, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Shankar Shrestha, Eiji Haramoto, Junko Shindo
AIMS: To assess diarrheal risks from enteropathogenic E. coli, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium from consuming raw spinach, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. METHODS AND RESULTS: The annual infection risk was quantified using the probabilistic Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment approach, which considered 12 vegetable washing combinations. A new model was used to estimate dose of pathogens per exposure comprising parameters such as pathogen concentration in vegetable wash water before selling and eating, vegetable consumption rate, remaining pathogen ratio after washing, remaining water on vegetables after washing, and water treatment removal efficiency...
August 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Muhammad Khalid, Danial Hassani, Muhammad Bilal, Fayaz Asad, Danfeng Huang
BACKGROUND: This study evaluates the influences of bio fertilizers containing mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus fasciculatum, Glomus mosseae) individually or in combination with N-fixer (Azotobacter chroococcum), K solubilizer (Bacillus mucilaginous) and P solubilizer (Bacillus megaterium) on soil fertility and phytochemical levels of spinach. RESULTS: Root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi was increased in the presence of bacterial inoculation in comparison to individual inoculation treatments...
August 16, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Charusheela Ramanan, Marco Ferretti, Henny van Roon, Vladimir I Novoderezhkin, Rienk van Grondelle
LHCII, the major light harvesting antenna from plants, plays a dual role in photosynthesis. In low light it is a light-harvester, while in high light it is a quencher that protects the organism from photodamage. The switching mechanism between these two orthogonal conditions is mediated by protein dynamic disorder and photoprotective energy dissipation. The latter in particular is thought to occur in part via spectroscopically 'dark' states. We searched for such states in LHCII trimers from spinach, at both room temperature and at 77 K...
August 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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