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Kondwani R Msangosoko, Mark A Boetel
The sugarbeet root maggot, Tetanops myopaeformis Röder (Diptera: Ulidiidae), is native to North America. However, its primary crop host, sugarbeet, Beta vulgaris L., was introduced to the continent from Europe in the late 19th century. This field and greenhouse research was conducted to compare the relative attractiveness of eight cultivated and wild plant species for oviposition by T. myopaeformis, and the suitability of these potential host plants for larval development to elucidate the potential native and current host range of this pest...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Maria A Morosanova, Zahar V Samodelov, Elena I Morosanova
The interaction of silica-titania xerogel with triphenylmethane dyes (pyrocatechol violet, chrome azurol S, eriochrome cyanine R) has been investigated to create a new sensor material for solid phase spectrophotometric determination of food oxalates. The complex forming reaction between xerogel incorporated titanium(IV) and triphenylmethane dyes has been studied; half-reaction periods, complex composition, equilibrium constants, and xerogel sorption capacity have been calculated for each dye. Eriochrome cyanine R (ECR) is characterized by the shortest half-reaction period, the smallest equilibrium constant, and the greatest capacity; it has been chosen for the sensor material construction because titanium(IV)-ECR complex is formed faster and can be destroyed easier than other studied complexes...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Sinead T J Mcdonagh, Lee J Wylie, Christopher Thompson, Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M Jones
This article provides an overview of the current literature relating to the efficacy of dietary nitrate (NO3 - ) ingestion in altering aspects of cardiovascular and metabolic health and exercise capacity in healthy and diseased individuals. The consumption of NO3 - -rich vegetables, such as spinach and beetroot, have been variously shown to promote nitric oxide bioavailability, reduce systemic blood pressure, enhance tissue blood flow, modulate muscle O2 utilisation and improve exercise tolerance both in normoxia and in hypoxia, as is commonly observed in a number of disease states...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Maike Passon, Judith Bühlmeier, Benno F Zimmermann, Anja Stratmann, Stefan Latz, Peter Stehle, Rudolf Galensa
SCOPE: After intrinsic labeling of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., Chenopodiaceae) with13 CO2 we investigated, if labeled polyphenol metabolites were detectable in human plasma. METHODS AND RESULT: In a pilot intervention trial five healthy men consumed 5 g freeze-dried13 C labeled spinach including a total amount of 160 μmol methoxyflavonols, including 70 μmol 5,3',4'-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-6,7-methylendioxyflavone-4'-glucuronide. Plasma samples of all subjects were analyzed with regard to their13 C/12 C ratio...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Ganyu Gu, Andrea Ottesen, Samantha Bolten, Padmini Ramachandran, Elizabeth Reed, Steve Rideout, Yaguang Luo, Jitendra Patel, Eric Brown, Xiangwu Nou
Fresh produce, like spinach, harbors diverse bacterial populations, including spoilage and potentially pathogenic bacteria. This study examined the effects of produce washing in chlorinated water and subsequent storage on the microbiota of spinach. Baby spinach leaves from a commercial fresh-cut produce processor were assessed before and after washing in chlorinated water, and then after one week's storage at 4, 10, and 15 °C. Microbial communities on spinach were analyzed by non-selective plating, qPCR, and 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Mizue Asada, Taishi Nishimura, Kentaro Ifuku, Hiroyuki Mino
The binding site of the extrinsic protein PsbP in plant photosystem II was mapped by pulsed electron-electron double resonance, using mutant spinach PsbP (Pro20Cys, Ser82Cys, Ala111Cys, and Ala186Cys) labeled with 4-maleimido-TEMPO (MSL) spin label. The distances between the spin label and the Tyr160 neutral radical (YD ) in PsbD, the D2 subunit of plant photosystem II, were 50.8 ± 3.5 Å, 54.9 ± 4.0 Å, 57.8 ± 4.9 Å, and 58.4 ± 14.1 Å, respectively. The geometry inferred from these distances was fitted to the PsbP crystal structure (PDB: 4RTI) to obtain the coordinates of YD relative to PsbP...
March 7, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Zhengchen Wu, Ke Tian, Ting Huang, Wei Hu, Feifei Xie, Jingjing Wang, Mengxing Su, Lei Li
A variety of biomass-based carbon materials with two-level porous structure have been successfully prepared by one-step carbonization process. The first level of micro-scale pores templates from the inherent porous tissues, while the second one of nanopores is produced by the in-suit etching by the embedded alkaline metal elements. The superimposed effect of nano and micro-scale pores endows the hierarchically porous carbons (HPCs) with excellent microwave absorption (MA) performance. Among them, the spinach-derived HPC exhibits a maximum reflection loss of -62...
March 7, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zhan-Ming Ying, Bin Tu, Lan Liu, Hao Tang, Li-Juan Tang, Jian-Hui Jiang
A novel Spinach-based fluorescent light-up biosensor utilizing the T7 in vitro transcription process to generate unmodified Spinach sequences for multiplexed microRNA detection has been developed.
March 7, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Jacklyn K Jackson, Amanda J Patterson, Lesley K MacDonald-Wicks, Christopher Oldmeadow, Mark A McEvoy
Context: Depleted nitric oxide levels in the human body play a major role in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. Inorganic nitrate/nitrite (rich dietary sources include beetroot and spinach) can act as a nitric oxide donor because nitrate/nitrite can be metabolized to produce nitric oxide. Objective: This review and meta-analysis sought to investigate the role of inorganic nitrate/nitrite in preventing or treating cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans. Data Sources: Electronic databases, including Medline, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane, and Scopus, were searched...
March 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Solmaz Alborzi, Luis J Bastarrachea, Qiao Ding, Rohan V Tikekar
An antimicrobial effect of benzoic acid (BA) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was evaluated as a potential antimicrobial treatment against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria innocua. A 30 min exposure to the combination of 15 mM BA and 1 mM EDTA at 22 °C resulted in approximately 3 logarithmic reductions in stationary phase E. coli O157:H7. Logarithmic phase E. coli O157:H7 was more sensitive (P < 0.05) to the treatment and 1 mM EDTA alone caused more than 5 logarithmic reductions. L. innocua was also sensitive to a treatment with 15 mM BA alone, which induced 5 logarithmic reductions...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Yingjie Miao, Guotong Xiong, Mengyang Bai, Ying Ge, Zufang Wu
Fresh-cut produce is at greater risk of Salmonella contamination. Detection and early warning systems play an important role in reducing the dissemination of contaminated products. One-step Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) targeting Salmonella tmRNA with or without a 6-h enrichment was evaluated for the detection of Salmonella in fresh-cut vegetables after 6-h storage. LOD of one-step RT-qPCR was 1.0 CFU ml-1 (about 100 copies tmRNA ml-1 ) by assessed 10-fold serially diluted RNA from 106 CFU ml-1 bacteria culture...
February 28, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Hsin-Bai Yin, Xiangwu Nou, Ganyu Gu, Jitendra Patel
AIMS: The effect of reclaimed wastewater (RCW) and roof-harvest rainwater (RHW) on microbiological quality of irrigated spinach was investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Spinach grown in the controlled environment chamber was irrigated by RCW, RHW, or creek water (CW; control water) for four weeks, and then six replicate spinach samples from each treatment were collected weekly at 0 h and 24 h post-irrigation. Spinach samples were analyzed for populations of fecal bacterial indicators and pathogens...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Faiz Ahmed Ansari, Mahmoud Nasr, Mayuri Chabukdhara, Faizal Bux
This study presented a comprehensive analysis of heavy metal contents in foodstuffs and the associated health risk for the residential population in Durban, South Africa. The concentrations of elements in fruits and vegetables, respectively, were (in mg kg-1 dry weight) Cu, 0.52-1.47 and 0.27-2.25; Zn, 0.30-3.05 and 0.56-6.24, Fe, 1.70-22.60 and 0.73-44.90; Mn, 0.37-28.50 and 0.67-13.70; Cr, 0.47-1.47 and 0.37-3.06; Ni 0.03-1.14 and 0.11-2.5;, and Pb, 1.52-3.45 and 1.57-4.52. Multivariate analysis revealed that pineapple in fruits and turnip and carrot in vegetables contained remarkable components of trace metals...
February 19, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Masahiro Mitsuboshi, Yuuzou Kioka, Katsunori Noguchi, Susumu Asakawa
Preventive measures against soil-borne diseases need to be implemented before cultivation because very few countermeasures are available after the development of diseases. Some soils suppress soil-borne diseases despite the presence of a high population density of pathogens. If the suppressiveness of soil against soil-borne diseases may be predicted and diagnosed for crop fields, it may be possible to reduce the labor and cost associated with excessive disinfection practices. We herein evaluated the suppressiveness of soils in fields with the long-term application of organic amendments by examining the growth of pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum co-cultivated with indigenous soil microorganisms on agar plates...
February 16, 2018: Microbes and Environments
Eun Young Ro, Geun Su Kim, Do Young Kwon, Young Min Park, Sang Woo Cho, Sang Yun Lee, Ik Hyun Yeo, Ki Sun Yoon
The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of cultured sugar/vinegar (CSV) blend and nisin to control the risk of Listeria monocytogenes in ready to cook (RTC) ravioli. Ravioli dough was prepared with 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1% CSV blend and 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% nisin. Inoculated spinach or artichoke raviolis with 2.0 ± 0.5 log cfu/g of L. monocytogenes were packed aerobically or using modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), and then stored at 4, 10, 17, and 24 °C for 60 days. Growth kinetic parameters of the observed data fit well to the Baranyi equation...
February 2018: Journal of Food Safety
Huanyao Gao, Tamanna Azam, Sajini Randeniya, Jérémy Couturier, Nicolas Rouhier, Michael K Johnson
Dihydroxyacid dehydratase (DHAD) is the third enzyme required for branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis in bacteria, fungi, and plants. DHAD enzymes contain two distinct types of active-site Fe-S clusters. The best characterized examples are Escherichia coli DHAD, which contains an oxygen-labile [Fe4S4] cluster, and spinach DHAD, which contains an oxygen-resistant [Fe2S2] cluster. Although the Fe-S cluster is crucial for DHAD function, little is known about the cluster-coordination environment or the mechanism of catalysis and cluster biogenesis...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ying-Ying Huang, Yang-Xiu Mu, Chun-Tao He, Hui-Ling Fu, Xue-Song Wang, Fei-Yue Gong, Zhong-Yi Yang
Breeding for pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) can reduce pollutant accumulation in crops. However, the PSC breeding would face the risk of nutritional quality reduction, which is usually ignored in conventional breeding programs targeting to increase crop yield or nutritional quality. Thus, the doubt whether the risk would exist has to be clarified for supporting the PSC breeding. In the present study, a newly bred Cd/Pb-PSC of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatic Forsk.) and its parents (QLQ with low-Cd/Pb accumulation ability and T308 with high yield) of water spinach were employed to clarify the above-mentioned issue...
February 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Samie R Jaffrey
Genetically encoded sensors are important tools for measuring metabolites and other small molecules in vitro and in live cells. Until recently, genetically encoded sensors exclusively comprised fluorescent proteins that undergo changes in Förster resonance energy transfer upon binding a target analyte. However, recently a new class of fluorescent sensor has been developed composed of RNA. These RNA-based sensors rely on Spinach and other RNA mimics of green fluorescent protein. In each case, the RNA-based sensors contain an analyte-binding aptamer domain which transduces binding of the analyte into a conformational change in Spinach...
2018: Advances in Pharmacology
Qiurui Liu, Mingdi Jiang, Zeliang Ju, Xuguang Qiao, Zhixiang Xu
A direct competitive biomimetic immunosorbent assay method based on molecularly imprinted polymer was developed for the determination of trichlorfon. A CdSe/ZnS quantum dot label was used as the marker. The hydrophilic imprinted film was synthesized directly on the surface of a 96-well plate, and characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermo-gravimetric analyses. The method exhibited high stability, selectivity, and sensitivity. Under optimal conditions, the limits of detection and sensitivity of the biomimetic immunosorbent assay method were 9...
June 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Brooke Pearson, Alexander Mills, Madeline Tucker, Siyue Gao, Lynne McLandsborough, Lili He
Bacterial foodborne illness continues to be a pressing issue in our food supply. Rapid detection methods are needed for perishable foods due to their short shelf lives and significant contribution to foodborne illness. Previously, a sensitive and reliable surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sandwich assay based on 3-mercaptophenylboronic acid (3-MBPA) as a capturer and indicator molecule was developed for rapid bacteria detection. In this study, we explored the advantages and constraints of this assay over the conventional aerobic plate count (APC) method and further developed methods for detection in real environmental and food matrices...
June 2018: Food Microbiology
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