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Katharina Vejdovszky, Roland Grossgut, Hermann Unterluggauer, Norbert Inreiter, Johann Steinwider
Perchlorate is frequently found as contaminant in a diversity of food. Based on analytical data of perchlorate occurrence in food products from the Austrian market, this study calculated dietary perchlorate exposure of the Austrian population for the three age classes of adults, children and infants. Furthermore, a detailed risk assessment was conducted based on the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.3 µg/kg bodyweight/day, established by the European Food Safety Authority in 2014. Calculations of a scenario of average food consumption did not indicate elevated health risks by dietary perchlorate uptake...
January 11, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Alejandro Jiménez-Gómez, José David Flores-Félix, Paula García-Fraile, Pedro F Mateos, Esther Menéndez, Encarna Velázquez, Raúl Rivas
The growing interest in a healthy lifestyle and in environmental protection is changing habits regarding food consumption and agricultural practices. Good agricultural practice is indispensable, particularly for raw vegetables, and can include the use of plant probiotic bacteria for the purpose of biofertilization. In this work we analysed the probiotic potential of the rhizobial strain PEPV40, identified as Rhizobium laguerreae through the analysis of the recA and atpD genes, on the growth of spinach plants...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shoboo Salehpour, Mehdi Jonoobi, Masoud Ahmadzadeh, Valentina Siracusa, Fatemeh Rafieian, Kristiina Oksman
Biodegradable nanocomposites were prepared from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and cellulose nanofiber (CNF) by using liquid nitrogen, freeze drying and hot press techniques. The effect of CNF content on the biodegradability of the films was investigated by visual observation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), weight loss, CO2 evolution, differential scanning calorimetry, measuring the amount of mineralized carbon of the specimens buried in municipal solid waste. Ecotoxicity was evaluated by plants growth tests with cress and spinach...
January 7, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Carlos A Gómez-Aldapa, Esmeralda Rangel-Vargas, Ma Refugio Torres-Vitela, Angélica Villarruel-López, Otilio A Acevedo-Sandoval, Alberto J Gordillo-Martínez, Angélica Godínez-Oviedo, Javier Castro-Rosas
Leafy greens have been associated with foodborne disease outbreaks in different countries. To decrease microbial contamination of leafy greens, chemical agents are commonly used; however, a number of studies have shown these agents to have limited antimicrobial effect against pathogenic bacteria on vegetables. The objective of this study was to compare the antibacterial effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extracts (water, methanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate), sodium hypochlorite, acetic acid, and colloidal silver against foodborne bacteria on leafy greens...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Shuai Wei, Ramachandran Chelliah, Byung-Jae Park, Joong-Hyun Park, Fereidoun Forghani, Youn-Seo Park, Min-Seok Cho, Dong-Suk Park, Deog-Hwan Oh
The aim of the study was to identify and evaluate specific biomarkers to differentiate within Bacillus cereus group species from contaminated food samples with the use of real-time PCR. A total of 120 strains, comprising of 28 reference, 2 type, 78 wild strains of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis along with 12 strains representing 2 bacterial groups - B. mycoides, B. pseudomycoides, B. weihenstephanensis (B. cereus group); B. amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes (non-Bacillus sp...
January 3, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Mette D E Jepsen, Steffen M Sparvath, Thorbjørn B Nielsen, Ane H Langvad, Guido Grossi, Kurt V Gothelf, Ebbe S Andersen
Fluorescent RNA aptamers are useful as markers for tracking RNA molecules inside cells and for creating biosensor devices. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) based on fluorescent proteins has been used to detect conformational changes, however, such FRET devices have not yet been produced using fluorescent RNA aptamers. Here we develop an RNA aptamer-based FRET (apta-FRET) system using single-stranded RNA origami scaffolds. To obtain FRET, the fluorescent aptamers Spinach and Mango are placed in close proximity on the RNA scaffolds and a new fluorophore is synthesized to increase spectral overlap...
January 2, 2018: Nature Communications
Yu-Ra Kang, Joon Park, Sung Keun Jung, Yoon Hyuk Chang
The aims of this study were to synthesize chlorophyll derivatives, pheophytins and Zn-pheophytins, from chlorophylls extracted from spinach, characterize them, and evaluate their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The chlorophylls isolated from spinach were identified by means of FT-IR and NMR spectroscopies. The synthesis of pheophytins and Zn-pheophytins was confirmed by UV-Vis spectral analyses. The antioxidant activity of chlorophylls, pheophytins, and Zn-pheophytins was studied. The results revealed that the Zn-pheophytins showed the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching activities, followed by chlorophylls and pheophytins...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Anett Stephan, Simone Hahn-Löbmann, Fred Rosche, Mirko Buchholz, Anatoli Giritch, Yuri Gleba
Colicins are natural non-antibiotic bacterial proteins with a narrow spectrum but an extremely high antibacterial activity. These proteins are promising food additives for the control of major pathogenic Shiga toxin-producing E. coli serovars in meats and produce. In the USA, colicins produced in edible plants such as spinach and leafy beets have already been accepted by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) as food-processing antibacterials through the GRAS (generally recognized as safe) regulatory review process...
December 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Noorani Barkat, Jashbir Singh, G K Jayaprakasha, Bhimanagouda S Patil
BACKGROUND: Spinach is a green leafy vegetable, rich in health-promoting compounds. The present study analyzed the levels of phytochemicals and health-promoting properties of spinach harvested at 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 days after planting. RESULTS: The time of harvest had a significant effect on nitrate levels, which increased from 1909±70.6 μg g-1 (20 days) to 3668±101.3 μg g-1 (40 days) and then decreased to 974±164 μg g-1 (60 days). Lutein, chlorophyll a, and chlorophyll b were found to be maximum at 60 days whereas β-carotene was higher at 50 days...
December 28, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Osamu Iida, Mitsuyoshi Takahara, Yoshimitsu Soga, Akio Kodama, Hiroto Terashi, Nobuyoshi Azuma
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare clinical outcomes between surgical reconstruction and endovascular therapy (EVT) for critical limb ischemia (CLI) in today's real-world settings. METHODS AND RESULTS: This multicenter, prospective, observational study registered and followed 548 Japanese CLI patients. The registration was in advance of revascularization; 197 patients were scheduled to receive surgical reconstruction, and the remaining 351 were scheduled to receive EVT...
December 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
Saqib Bashir, Jun Zhu, Qingling Fu, Hongqing Hu
Agricultural soils contamination with cadmium (Cd) has become a serious concern through anthropogenic activities. The possible environmental friendly solutions for Cd are required to address its mobility through various cost effective amendments. This study aims to evaluate the impact of rice straw biochar (BC), zeolite (ZE) and rock phosphate (RP) stabilizers to minimize the potential risk of Cd mobility and its uptake by water spinach in acidic soil through pot experiment. Concentration of Cd in TCLP and CaCl2 extract gradually decreased with the increase of amendments (BC, ZE and RP) rates...
November 29, 2017: Chemosphere
Xiaolin Cai, Xiaochen Chen, Naiyi Yin, Huili Du, Guoxin Sun, Lihong Wang, Yudong Xu, Yuqing Chen, Yanshan Cui
The influence of the human gut microbiota on the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of trace elements in vegetables has barely been studied. An in vitro digestion model combining the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) and the Simulator of Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME) was applied. Results showed that the gut microbiota increased the bioaccessibility of iron (Fe) in ten test vegetables by 1.3-1.8 times, but reduced the bioaccessibility of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in vegetables in the colon phase by 3...
December 13, 2017: Food & Function
Irene Aparicio, Julia Martín, Concepción Abril, Juan Luis Santos, Esteban Alonso
A multiresidue method has been developed for the determination of emerging pollutants in leafy and root vegetables. Selected compounds were 6 perfluoroalkyl compounds (5 perfluorocarboxylic acids and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid), 3 non-ionic surfactants (nonylphenol and nonylphenolethoxylates), 8 anionic surfactants (4 alkylsulfates and 4 linear alkylbenzene sulfonates), 4 preservatives (parabens), 2 biocides (triclosan and triclocarban), 2 plasticizers (bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate), 6 UV-filters (benzophenones) and 4 hormones...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Nicholas W West, Edward M Golenberg
While unisexual flowers have evolved repeatedly throughout angiosperm families, the actual identification of sex-determining genes has been elusive, and their regulation within populations remains largely undefined. Here, we tested the mechanism of the feminization pathway in cultivated spinach (Spinacia oleracea), and investigated how this pathway may regulate alternative sexual development. We tested the effect of gibberellic acid (GA) on sex determination through exogenous applications of GA and inhibitors of GA synthesis and proteasome activity...
December 11, 2017: New Phytologist
Tomohiro Kudoh, Mitsuhiko Takahashi, Takayuki Osabe, Atsushi Toyoda, Hideki Hirakawa, Yutaka Suzuki, Nobuko Ohmido, Yasuyuki Onodera
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is a dioecious plant with male heterogametic sex determination and homomorphic sex chromosomes (XY). The dioecism is utilized for producing commercial hybrid seeds, and hence understanding the molecular-genetic basis of the species' sex determining locus is an important issue for spinach breeding. In this study, seven dominant DNA markers were shown to completely co-segregate with the male-determining gene in segregating spinach populations comprising > 1500 plants. In addition, these seven dominant DNA markers were completely associated with the male-determining gene in over 100 spinach germplasm accessions and cultivars...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Fangmeng Duan, Jun Ding, Dongsun Lee, Xueli Lu, Yuqi Feng, Wenwen Song
Brassinosteroids (BRs) play an essential role in plant growth, development, and responses to diverse abiotic stresses. However, previous studies mainly analyzed how exogenous BRs influenced plant physiological reactions to drought stress, therefore, genetic evidences for the endogenous BRs-mediated regulation of plant responses still remain elusive. In this study, a key BRs biosynthetic gene, SoCYP85A1 was cloned from Spinacia oleracea, which has a complete open reading frame of 1,392 bp encoding a 464 amino acid peptide and shares high sequence similarities with CYP85A1 from other plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Takako Aboshi, Shiho Ishiguri, Yoshihito Shiono, Tetsuya Murayama
Basella alba is a perennial plant of the Basellaceae and is known by various common names including Malabar spinach. There are few insects that cause damage to B. alba. In this study, we examined the effect of B. alba leaves on the growth of Spodoptera litura larvae. B. alba leaves and a methanolic extract of the leaves inhibited the growth of S. litura larvae. Half of the larvae reared on the leaves died within 1 week. We found that two flavonoids, vitexin, and vitexin-2″-O-arabinofuranoside, were abundant in the methanol extract of leaves...
December 6, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Jun Qin, Ainong Shi, Beiquan Mou, Michael A Grusak, Yuejin Weng, Waltram Ravelombola, Gehendra Bhattarai, Lingdi Dong, Wei Yang
BACKGROUND: Spinach is a useful source of dietary vitamins and mineral elements. Breeding new spinach cultivars with high nutritional value is one of the main goals in spinach breeding programs worldwide, and identification of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for mineral element concentrations is necessary to support spinach molecular breeding. The purpose of this study was to conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and to identify SNP markers associated with mineral elements in the USDA-GRIN spinach germplasm collection...
December 4, 2017: BMC Genomics
Ainong Shi, Jun Qin, Beiquan Mou, James Correll, Yuejin Weng, David Brenner, Chunda Feng, Dennis Motes, Wei Yang, Lingdi Dong, Gehendra Bhattarai, Waltram Ravelombola
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., 2n = 2x = 12) is an economically important vegetable crop worldwide and one of the healthiest vegetables due to its high concentrations of nutrients and minerals. The objective of this research was to conduct genetic diversity and population structure analysis of a collection of world-wide spinach genotypes using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) was used to discover SNPs in spinach genotypes. Three sets of spinach genotypes were used: 1) 268 USDA GRIN spinach germplasm accessions originally collected from 30 countries; 2) 45 commercial spinach F1 hybrids from three countries; and 3) 30 US Arkansas spinach cultivars/breeding lines...
2017: PloS One
Mobasher Ali Abid, Muhammad Ashfaq, Muhammad Junaid Hassan Sharif, Khalid Rauf, Wajahat Mahmood, Ikarmullah Khan, Ghulam Abbas
The current study was aimed at investigating the total antioxidant activity (TAC) of various fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices habitat in Pakistan. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay was used to measure the TAC of various extracts (aqueous, ethanolic and aqueous-ethanolic). Following is the potency order for fruits (guava >strawberry >Pomegranate >apple >kinnow >melon >lemon >banana), vegetables (spinach >Cabbage (Purple) >Jalapeno >Radish >Brinjal >Bell Pepper >Lettuce >Carrot >Cabbage (White) >Onion >Potato >Tomato >Cucumber) and herbs/spices (clove >Rosemary >Thyme >Oregano >Cinnamon >Cumin >Kalonji >Paprika >Neem (Flower) >Fennel >Black Cardamom >Turmeric >Coriander >Ginger >Garlic)...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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