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Mendel Friedman
Cinnamaldehyde is a major constituent of cinnamon essential oils produced by aromatic cinnamon plants. This compound has been reported to exhibit antimicrobial properties in vitro in laboratory media and in animal feeds and human foods contaminated with disease-causing bacteria including Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica. This integrated review surveys and interprets our current knowledge of the chemistry, analysis, safety, mechanism of action, and antibiotic activities of cinnamaldehyde in food animal (cattle, lambs, calves, pigs, poultry) diets and in widely consumed liquid (apple, carrot, tomato, and watermelon juices, milk) and solid foods...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Haifeng Sun, Ruijie Feng, Yanli Nan, Zhang Chen, Nan Sang
To further assess the human being's exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) through the dietary pathway, understanding the partitioning of these chemicals co-existed with nanomaterials in edible vegetable systems deserves specific consideration. In this study, the fiber-optic fluorimetry was applied to in situ examine the effects of graphene (GNS) and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets on the quantification and depuration of three-ringed phenanthrene (Phe) and four-ringed fluoranthene (Fla) adsorbed individually onto the living spinach (Spinacia oleracea L...
November 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Waziha Farha, A M Abd El-Aty, Md Musfiqur Rahman, Ji Hoon Jeong, Ho-Chul Shin, Jing Wang, Sung Shik Shin, Jae-Han Shim
The category of "leafy vegetables" comprises a wide range of plants, including cabbage, lettuce, leeks, spinach, Swiss chard, and kale, and it forms a significant component of the human diet. Typically, leafy vegetables are low in calories and fat, are great sources of vitamins, protein, dietary fibre, minerals (including iron, calcium, and nitrates), and are rich in phytochemicals. To counter the impact of pests on vegetables, a broad variety of pesticides is used. Because of their large surface areas, leafy vegetables are expected to have high residual pesticide levels...
November 14, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Alessandro Bertucci, Alessandro Porchetta, Francesco Ricci
One of the most intriguing ways through which Nature achieves regulation of biological pathways encompasses the coordination of non-covalent interactions that bring biomolecules to be co-localized in a designated restricted space. This nano-confinement leads to a drastic increase in the effective local concentration of the species involved, which ultimately triggers reactions that would otherwise not occur at the low concentrations found in cells. Inspired by this mechanism, we have explored the possibility of using antibodies as bivalent biomolecular substrates for the templated assembly of a functional RNA structure...
November 13, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Baoguang Li, Huanli Liu, Weimin Wang
BACKGROUND: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), including E. coli O157:H7, are responsible for numerous foodborne outbreaks annually worldwide. E. coli O157:H7, as well as pathogenic non-O157:H7 STECs, can cause life-threating complications, such as bloody diarrhea (hemolytic colitis) and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Previously, we developed a real-time PCR assay to detect E. coli O157:H7 in foods by targeting a unique putative fimbriae protein Z3276. To extend the detection spectrum of the assay, we report a multiplex real-time PCR assay to specifically detect E...
November 9, 2017: BMC Microbiology
Li Wang, Chunmei Li, Bining Jiao, Qiwan Li, Hang Su, Jing Wang, Fen Jin
Halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPAHs) are attracting increasing concern because of their greater toxicity than their corresponding parent PAHs. However, human exposure to HPAHs via food consumption is not fully understood. In this study, daily intake via vegetable ingestion of 11 HPAHs and 16 PAHs and subsequent cancer risk were assessed for population in Beijing. A total of 80 vegetable samples were purchased from markets, including five leafy vegetables and three root vegetables. The concentrations of total HPAHs (∑HPAHs) were 0...
November 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Shaoling Sun, Yanqing Sheng, Guoqiang Zhao, Zhaoran Li, Jian Yang
The remediation of polluted coastal rivers is a global challenge in the environmental field. The objective of this study was to investigate the remediation feasibility of a high-salinity river using water spinach (WS) and sticky rice (SR) in hydroponic floating-bed systems. In this study, the total nitrogen (TN) removal rates were 89.7, 92.3, 85.1, and 75.2% in the WS floating-bed system and 81.2 and 78.9% in the SR floating-bed system under different salinities (2-31 psu). Additionally, the total phosphorus (TP) removal rates were 94...
November 4, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Soomin Park, Alexandra L Fischer, Zhirong Li, Roberto Bassi, Krishna K Niyogi, Graham R Fleming
Nonphotochemical quenching mechanisms regulate light harvesting in oxygenic photosynthesis. Measurement techniques for nonphotochemical quenching have typically focused on downstream effects of quenching, such as measuring reduced chlorophyll fluorescence. Here, to directly measure a species involved in quenching, we report snapshot transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy, which rapidly tracks carotenoid radical cation signals as samples acclimate to excess light. The formation of zeaxanthin radical cations, which is possible evidence of zeaxanthin-chlorophyll charge-transfer (CT) quenching, was investigated in spinach thylakoids...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Maki Kobayashi, Naoko Sakai, Kyoko Kamijo, Hiroshi Koike, Satoru Nemoto, Tetsuya Shindo
An analytical method based on LC-MS/MS was developed for the determination of formetanate hydrochloride in agricultural products. Formetanate hydrochloride was confirmed to be stable in acetonitrile. It was therefore extracted from samples with acetonitrile, and the crude extracts were purified using a combination of ethylenediamine-N-propyl silylation silica gel and graphite carbon mini columns. Formetanate hydrochloride in the resulting sample solutions was quantified by LC-MS/MS utilizing an external solvent calibration curve...
2017: Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan
Hyunsuk Shin, Kyungwon Min, Rajeev Arora
Salicylic acid (SA)-treatment has been reported to improve plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses. However, its effect on freezing tolerance has not been well investigated. We investigated the effect of exogenous SA on freezing tolerance of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves. We also explored if nitric oxide (NO) and/or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediation was involved in this response, since these are known as primary signaling molecules involved in many physiological processes. A micro-centrifuge tube-based system used to apply SA to petiolate spinach leaves (0...
October 20, 2017: Cryobiology
Laura Roszyk, Sebastian Kollenda, Sven Hennig
RNAs are involved in interaction networks with other biomolecules and are crucial for proper cell function. Yet their biochemical analysis remains challenging. For Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET), a common tool to study such interaction networks, two interacting molecules have to be fluorescently labeled. "Spinach" is a genetically encodable RNA aptamer that starts to fluoresce upon binding of an organic molecule. Therefore, it is a biological fluorophore tag for RNAs. However, spinach has never been used in a FRET assembly before...
November 8, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
Ze-Jun Jiang, Xiao-Lin Cao, Hui Li, Chan Zhang, A M Abd El-Aty, Fen Jin, Hua Shao, Mao-Jun Jin, Shan-Shan Wang, Yong-Xin She, Jing Wang
In the present study, a quick and sensitive method was developed for simultaneous determination of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPxEOs) and octylphenol ethoxylates (OPxEOs) (x=2-20) in three leafy vegetables, including cabbage, lettuce, and spinach using a modified "QuEChERS" method and ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPSFC-MS/MS) with scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Under optimized conditions, the 38 target analytes were analyzed within a short period of time (5 min)...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Changhao Wang, Malte Sinn, Julia Stifel, Anna C Heiler, Annette Sommershof, Jörg S Hartig
The cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) c-di-GMP, c-di-AMP, and c-AMP-GMP are widely utilized as second messengers in bacteria, where they signal lifestyle changes such as motility and biofilm formation, cell wall and membrane homeostasis, virulence, and exo-electrogenesis. For all known bacterial CDNs, specific riboswitches have been identified that alter gene expression in response to the second messengers. In addition, bacterial CDNs trigger potent immune responses, making them attractive as adjuvants in immune therapies...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Michelle Qiu Carter, Maria T Brandl, Indira T Kudva, Robab Katani, Matthew R Moreau, Vivek Kapur
Cah is a calcium-binding autotransporter protein involved in autoaggregation and biofilm formation. Although cah is widespread in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), we detected mutations in cah at a frequency of 31.3% in this pathogen. In STEC O157:H7 super-shedder strain SS17, a large deletion results in a smaller coding sequence, lacking the C-terminal 71 amino acids compared with Cah in STEC O157:H7 strain EDL933. We examined the function of Cah in biofilm formation and host colonization to better understand selective pressures for cah mutations...
October 20, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Songee Beak, Hyeri Kim, Kyung Bin Song
Olive flounder bone gelatin (OBG) was used for a film base material in this study. In addition, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) were incorporated into the OBG film to prepare a nanocomposite film and to impart antimicrobial activity to it. The tensile strength of the OBG film increased by 6.62 MPa, and water vapor permeability and water solubility decreased by 0.93 × 10(-9) g/m s Pa and 13.79%, respectively, by the addition of ZnO to the OBG film. In particular, the OBG-ZnO film exhibited antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Shun-An Zheng, Zeying Wu, Chun Chen, Junfeng Liang, Hongkun Huang, Xiangqun Zheng
Mercury (Hg) can evaporate and enter the plants through the stomata of plant leaves, which will cause a serious threat to local food safety and human health. For the risk assessment, this study aimed to investigate the concentration and accumulation of total gaseous mercury (TGM) in five typical leafy vegetables (Chinese chives (Allium tuberosum Rottler), amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus L.), rape (Brassica campestris L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)) grown on sewage-irrigated areas in Tianjin, China...
October 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Afzal Hossain, Mst Afifa Khatun, Mahfuza Islam, Roksana Huque
Antioxidant rich green leafy vegetables including garden spinach leaf, water spinach leaf, Indian spinach leaf, and green leaved amaranth were selected to evaluate the effects of water boiling and oil frying on their total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), reducing power (RP), and antioxidant capacity. The results revealed that there was a significant increase in TPC, TFC, and RP in all the selected vegetables indicating the effectiveness of the cooking process on the antioxidant potential of leafy vegetables...
September 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Győző Garab, Bettina Ughy, Pieter de Waard, Parveen Akhtar, Uroš Javornik, Christos Kotakis, Primož Šket, Václav Karlický, Zuzana Materová, Vladimír Špunda, Janez Plavec, Herbert van Amerongen, László Vígh, Henk Van As, Petar H Lambrev
Chloroplast thylakoid membranes contain virtually all components of the energy-converting photosynthetic machinery. Their energized state, driving ATP synthesis, is enabled by the bilayer organization of the membrane. However, their most abundant lipid species is a non-bilayer-forming lipid, monogalactosyl-diacylglycerol; the role of lipid polymorphism in these membranes is poorly understood. Earlier (31)P-NMR experiments revealed the coexistence of a bilayer and a non-bilayer, isotropic lipid phase in spinach thylakoids...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Pauline Quémart, Laura M Gonnerman, Jennifer Downing, S Hélène Deacon
The way children organize words in their memory has intrigued many researchers in the past 20 years. Given the large number of morphologically complex words in many languages, the influence of morphemes on this organization is being increasingly examined. The aim of this study was to understand how morphemic information influences English-speaking children's word recognition. Children in grades 3 and 5 were asked to complete a lexical decision priming task. Prime-target pairs varied in semantic similarity, with low (e...
October 12, 2017: Developmental Science
Tomas Gonec, Jiri Kos, Matus Pesko, Jana Dohanosova, Michal Oravec, Tibor Liptaj, Katarina Kralova, Josef Jampilek
Series of seventeen new multihalogenated 1-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxanilides was prepared and characterized. All the compounds were tested for their activity related to the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport (PET) in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts. 1-Hydroxy-N-phenylnaphthalene-2-carboxamides substituted in the anilide part by 3,5-dichloro-, 4-bromo-3-chloro-, 2,5-dibromo- and 3,4,5-trichloro atoms were the most potent PET inhibitors (IC50 = 5.2, 6.7, 7.6 and 8.0 µM, respectively)...
October 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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