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Daisuke Takagi, Kentaro Ifuku, Taishi Nishimura, Chikahiro Miyake
The light reactions of photosynthesis are known to comprise both linear and cyclic electron flow in order to convert light energy into chemical energy in the form of NADPH and ATP. Antimycin A (AA) has been proposed as an inhibitor of ferredoxin-dependent cyclic electron flow around photosystem I (CEF-PSI) in photosynthesis research. However, its precise inhibitory mechanism and target site had not been elucidated yet. Here we show that AA inhibits the cyclic (alternative) electron flow via cytochrome b559 (Cyt b559 ) within photosystem II (CEF-PSII)...
May 22, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
Paul M Connell, Stacey R Finkelstein, Maura L Scott, Beth Vallen
Despite convenience and nutrition advantages of frozen vegetables, consumption of them is low compared with fresh vegetables and continues to decrease. In two studies, we observe a negative bias for frozen vegetables compared with fresh vegetables. In study 1, we used an Implicit Association Test (IAT) to demonstrate that generalized negative associations with frozen vegetables are automatic, robust, and ingrained in long-term memory. In study 2, we conceptually replicate this finding with an explicit measure and extend it by examining the role of transforming the food product in formation of the observed negative bias...
May 19, 2018: Appetite
Xiaofeng Cai, Lihao Lin, Xiaoli Wang, Chenxi Xu, Quanhua Wang
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is widely cultivated as an economically important green leafy vegetable crop for fresh and processing consumption. The red purple spinach shows abundant anthocyanin accumulation in the leaf and leaf petiole. However, the molecular mechanisms of anthocyanin synthesis in this species are still undetermined. In the present study, we investigated the pigments formation and identified anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in spinach, and performed the expression analysis of anthocyanin related genes in the purple and green cultivar by quantitative PCR...
May 22, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Esther Meinen, Tom Dueck, Frank Kempkes, Cecilia Stanghellini
This paper deals with vegetable cultivation that could be faced in a space mission. This paper focusses on optimization, light, temperature and the harvesting process, while other factors concerning cultivation in space missions, i.e. gravity, radiation, were not addressed. It describes the work done in preparation of the deployment of a mobile test facility for vegetable production of fresh food at the Neumayer III Antarctic research station. A selection of vegetable crops was grown under varying light and temperature conditions to quantify crop yield response to climate factors that determine resource requirement of the production system...
May 17, 2018: Scientia Horticulturae
Matthias Gilbert, Hanno Bährs, Christian E W Steinberg, Christian Wilhelm
Humic substances (HSs) can influence the growth and composition of freshwater phytoplankton assemblage. Since HSs contain many phenolic and quinonic moieties and cause growth reductions in eco-physiological field experiments, HSs are considered photosystem II herbicides. To test this specific mode of action in vivo and in vitro, respectively, we used intact cells of the green alga Desmodesmus armatus, as well as thylakoids isolated from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) as a model system for the green algal chloroplast...
May 18, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
Muladili Yuemaier, Mayire Tuerhong, Abulizi Keremu, Nafeisha Kadeer, Ayiguzhali Aimaiti, Xilinguli Wushouer, Adilijiang Yiming, Xiamixinuer Yilike
This study aimed to establish and explore the biological basis of abnormal phlegmatic syndrome with premature ovarian failure (POF) model in rats based on the Uighur medicine (UM) in the first place and investigate the effects of unique herbal medicine, Balgham Munziq (BMq). Mature female Wistar rats were fed with spinach and coriander in cold and humid condition for approximately 20 weeks until abnormal phlegmatic syndrome (APS) model was established. When APS model was confirmed by Uighur medical experts, APS with POF disease rats were subdivided into APS with POF disease model group and APS with POF disease treated with BMq group; the rest of them were subdivided into APS model group and APS treated with BMq group...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Edoardo Bertini, Matilde Merlin, Elisa Gecchele, Andrea Puggia, Annalisa Brozzetti, Mauro Commisso, Alberto Falorni, Vittorio Bini, Victor Klymyuk, Mario Pezzotti, Linda Avesani
Type-1 diabetes (T1D) is a metabolic disease involving the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. It is often diagnosed by the detection of autoantibodies, typically those recognizing insulin itself or the 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65). Oral insulin can be used to induce systemic immunological tolerance and thus prevent or delay the onset of T1D, suggesting that combination treatments with other autoantigens such as GAD65 could be even more successful. GAD65 has induced oral tolerance and prevented T1D in preclinical studies but it is difficult to produce in sufficient quantities for clinical testing...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
L Cornara, A Smeriglio, J Frigerio, M Labra, E Di Gristina, M Denaro, E Mora, D Trombetta
Today, in many European countries, people are looking for wild edible plants to experience new tastes and flavors, by following the new trend of being green and environmentally friendly. Young borage and spinach leaves can be easily confused by inexpert pickers with those of other plants, including poisonous ones, such as Mandragora autumnalis Bertol. (mandrake) or Digitalis purpurea L. (foxglove), common in southern and northern Italy respectively. In the last twenty years, several cases of intoxication by accidental ingestion of mandrake and foxglove have been reported...
May 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Min Jeong Kim, Seockmo Ku, Sun Young Kim, Hyun Ha Lee, Hui Jin, Sini Kang, Rui Li, Tony V Johnston, Myeong Soo Park, Geun Eog Ji
Over the past decade, a variety of lactic acid bacteria have been commercially available to and steadily used by consumers. However, recent studies have shown that some lactic acid bacteria produce toxic substances and display properties of virulence. To establish safety guidelines for lactic acid bacteria, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) has suggested that lactic acid bacteria be characterized and proven safe for consumers’ health via multiple experiments (e...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Haley S Smolinski, Siyi Wang, Lin Ren, Yuhuan Chen, Barbara Kowalcyk, Ellen Thomas, Jane VAN Doren, Elliot T Ryser
Several outbreaks of foodborne illness traced to leafy greens and culinary herbs have been hypothesized to involve cross-contamination during washing and processing. This study aimed to assess the redistribution of Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 during pilot-scale production of baby spinach and cilantro and redistribution of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during pilot-scale production of romaine lettuce. Four inoculated surrogate:uninoculated product weight ratios (10:100, 5:100, 1:100, and 0.5:100) and three inoculation levels (103 , 101 , and 10-1 CFU/g) were used for the three commodities...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Gitanjali NandaKafle, Amy A Christie, Sébastien Vilain, Volker S Brözel
Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli , such as serotype O157:H7, are a leading cause of food-associated outbreaks. While the primary reservoir is associated with cattle, plant foods have been associated as sources of human infection. E. coli is able to grow in the tissue of food plants such as spinach. While fecal contamination is the primary suspect, soil has been underestimated as a potential reservoir. Persistence of bacterial populations in open systems is the product of growth, death, predation, and competition...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Dongfang Wang, Guilong Zhang, Zhangyu Dai, Linglin Zhou, Po Bian, Kang Zheng, Zhengyan Wu, Dongqing Cai
In this work, a novel nano-system with sandwich-like structure was synthesized via face-to-face combination of two pieces of waste cotton fabrics (CFs) carrying ferrous sulfide (FeS) and carboxyl-functionalized ferroferric oxide (CFFM) respectively, and the obtained nano system was named as FeS/CFFM/CF. Therein, FeS has high reduction and adsorption capabilities for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), CFFM possesses a high adsorption ability on cadmium ion (Cd(II)) through electrostatics attraction and chelation, and CF displays high immobilization ability for FeS and CFFM and adsorption performance on Cd(II)...
May 7, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xiang Wu, Wei Wang, Lizhong Zhu
The mechanism of enhanced accumulation of organic contaminants in crops with engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) were investigated by co-exposure of crops (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk (Swamp morning-glory), Cucumis sativus L. (cucumber), Zea mays L. (corn), Spinacia oleracea L. (spinach) and Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin))to a range of chemicals (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)) and ENMs (TiO2 , Ag, Al2 O3 , graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs)) in soil...
May 2, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Marcelo Aguilar, Pedro Mondaca, Rosanna Ginocchio, Kooichi Vidal, Sébastien Sauvé, Alexander Neaman
Human exposure to trace elements has been a large concern due to the potential health issues. Accordingly, this study aimed to compare the concentrations of arsenic, copper, and zinc in the edible parts of vegetables grown in a mining-agricultural area and in an exclusively agricultural area and to compare the potential human health risks of consuming vegetables from both areas. The consumption habits of the studied population were extracted from the 2010 National Alimentary Survey of Chile. In most cases, the concentrations of trace elements in the edible tissues of vegetables (lettuce, spinach, garlic, onion, carrot, potato, sweet corn, and tomato) were higher in the mining-agricultural area than those in the control area...
May 3, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kamrun Nahar, Fariha Kabir, Priota Islam, Md Mizanur Rahman, Md Abdullah Al Mamun, Md Faruk, Nusrat Subhan, G M Sayedur Rahman, Hasan Mahmud Reza, Md Ashraful Alam
Red spinach (Amaranthus tricolor) has been reported to possess many benefits and medicinal properties and used as a part of traditional medicine in Ayurveda and Siddha. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of Amaranthus tricolor on isoproterenol-induced oxidative stress, fibrosis, and myocardial damage in ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomy surgery was conducted to remove both ovaries from the rats. After recovery, rats were administered with ISO subcutaneously (50 mg/kg) twice a week and were treated with ethanolic extracts of A...
April 27, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Rosa L Ocaña de Jesús, Ana T Gutiérrez Ibáñez, Jesús R Sánchez Pale, María D Mariezcurrena Berasain, Carlos A Eslava Campos, Antonio Laguna Cerda
The presence of pathogenic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli affects the quality and safety of vegetables that are consumed fresh and is associated with serious health problems. The objective of this study was to determine if three different strains of E. coli can penetrate and remain in plants and tomato fruits. A completely randomized experimental design was followed for which a tomato crop ("Cid" variety) was established under greenhouse conditions and three treatments were evaluated, T1 (E. coli O157:H7), T2 (E...
April 27, 2018: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Lakmini P Egodawatta, Gabriella K Macoustra, Lien K Ngo, Dianne F Jolley
Elevated concentrations of As and Sb impact environmental quality and human health. In this study total and bioavailable As and Sb were measured from recently and historically contaminated soils and the phytotoxicity of these soils was evaluated with Ipomoea aquatica (35-d exposure from germination) using biomass, length of plant tissues and photosynthetic efficiency. As and Sb were both present within the soil (co-contaminated). The bioavailable As and Sb in soils were determined by a Sequential Extraction Procedure (SEP) and compared to total soil concentrations and bioaccumulation in the edible parts of I...
April 25, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Kate L Brookie, Georgia I Best, Tamlin S Conner
Background: Higher intakes of fruits and vegetables, rich in micronutrients, have been associated with better mental health. However, cooking or processing may reduce the availability of these important micronutrients. This study investigated the differential associations between intake of raw fruits and vegetables, compared to processed (cooked or canned) fruits and vegetables, and mental health in young adults. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey design, 422 young adults ages 18-25 (66.1% female) living in New Zealand and the United States completed an online survey that assessed typical consumption of raw vs...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Igor Kljujev, Vera Raicevic, Jelena Jovicic-Petrovic, Bojana Vujovic, Milica Mirkovic, Michael Rothballer
The microbiologically contaminated vegetables represent a risk for consumers, especially vegetables without thermal processing. It is known that human pathogen bacteria, such as Listeria monocytogenes, could exist on fresh vegetables. The fresh vegetables could become Listeria-contaminated if they come in touch with contaminated soil, manure, irrigation water. The aim of this work was to investigate the presence of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in different kind of vegetables grown in field and greenhouse condition as well as surface and endophytic colonization plant roots of different vegetables species by L...
April 20, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Walter Randazzo, Andrea Vásquez-García, Maria A Bracho, María Jesús Alcaraz, Rosa Aznar, Gloria Sánchez
The hepatitis E virus (HEV), which is an increasing cause of acute viral hepatitis in Europe, is a zoonotic virus that is mainly transmitted through contaminated water, consumption of raw or undercooked meat from pigs or wild boar, blood transfusion, and organ transplantation. Although the role of HEV transmission through contaminated produce has not been confirmed, the presence of HEV has been reported in irrigation waters and in vegetables. The present study used a World Health Organization (WHO) international standard and clinical samples to evaluate the performance characteristics of three RT-qPCR assays for detection and quantification of HEV...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
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