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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930729/strain-level-discrimination-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-in-spinach-using-metagenomic-sequencing
#1
Susan R Leonard, Mark K Mammel, David W Lacher, Christopher A Elkins
Consumption of fresh bagged spinach contaminated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) has led to severe illness and death; however current culture-based methods to detect foodborne STEC are time consuming. Since not all STEC strains are considered pathogenic to humans, it is crucial to incorporate virulence characterization of STEC in the detection method. In this study, we assess the comprehensiveness of utilizing a shotgun metagenomics approach for detection and strain-level identification by spiking spinach with a variety of genomically disparate STEC strains at a low contamination level of 0...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929032/ecdysteroid-containing-food-supplements-from-cyanotis-arachnoidea-on-the-european-market-evidence-for-spinach-product-counterfeiting
#2
Attila Hunyadi, Ibolya Herke, Katalin Lengyel, Mária Báthori, Zoltán Kele, András Simon, Gábor Tóth, Kálmán Szendrei
Phytoecdysteroids like 20-hydroxyecdysone ("ecdysterone") can exert a mild, non-hormonal anabolic/adaptogenic activity in mammals, and as such, are frequently used in food supplements. Spinach is well-known for its relatively low ecdysteroid content. Cyanotis arachnoidea, a plant native in China, is among the richest sources of phytoecdysteroids, and extracts of this plant are marketed in tons per year amounts via the internet at highly competitive prices. Here we report the investigation of a series of food supplements produced in Germany and claimed to contain spinach extracts...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917454/comparative-study-of-betacyanin-profile-and-antimicrobial-activity-of-red-pitahaya-hylocereus-polyrhizus-and-red-spinach-amaranthus-dubius
#3
Yi Yi Yong, Gary Dykes, Sui Mae Lee, Wee Sim Choo
Betacyanins are reddish to violet pigments that can be found in red pitahaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) and red spinach (Amaranthus dubius). This study investigated the impact of sub-fractionation (solvent partitioning) on betacyanin content in both plants. Characterization of betacyanins and evaluation of their antimicrobial activities were also carried out. Betanin was found in both plants. In addition, isobetanin, phyllocactin and hylocerenin were found in red pitahaya whereas amaranthine and decarboxy-amaranthine were found in red spinach...
December 5, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916300/seasonal-induced-changes-in-spinach-rhizosphere-microbial-community-structure-with-varying-salinity-and-drought
#4
A Mark Ibekwe, Selda Ors, Jorge F S Ferreira, Xuan Liu, Donald L Suarez
Salinity is a common problem under irrigated agriculture, especially in low rainfall and high evaporative demand areas of southwestern United States and other semi-arid regions around the world. However, studies on salinity effects on soil microbial communities are relatively few while the effects of irrigation-induced salinity on soil chemical and physical properties and plant growth are well documented. In this study, we examined the effects of salinity, temperature, and temporal variability on soil and rhizosphere microbial communities in sand tanks irrigated with prepared solutions designed to simulate saline wastewater...
December 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914932/detection-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-rnas-in-living-cells-using-spinach-rna-aptamers
#5
Brandon D Burch, Carolina Garrido, David M Margolis
Many techniques currently used to measure HIV RNA production in cells suffer from limitations that include high background signal or the potential to destroy cellular context. Fluorophore-binding RNA aptamers offer the potential for visualizing RNAs directly in living cells with minimal cellular perturbation. We inserted a sequence encoding a fluorophore-binding RNA aptamer, known as Spinach, into the HIV genome such that predicted RNA secondary structures in both Spinach and HIV were preserved. Chimeric HIV-Spinach RNAs were functionally validated in vitro by testing their ability to enhance the fluorescence of a conditional fluorophore (DFHBI), which specifically binds Spinach...
November 30, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914031/a-simple-spectrofluorimetric-method-for-iron-determination-with-a-chalcone-based-schiff-base
#6
Nurhayat Özbek, Hakan Alp, Gonca Çelik, Tuğba Ak, Osman Can Çağılcı, Nurettin Yaylı, Ümmühan Ocak, Miraç Ocak
A chalcone-based Schiff base (5), capable of detecting iron (III) in partially aqueous media, has been designed, then synthesized by the condensation of 3-formyl-2-hydroxyquinoline and acetophenone. To determine iron (III) ion, a simple spectrofluorimetric method was developed by using the synthesized Schiff base. The developed method was validated by analyzing the certified reference material (CRM-SA-C Sandy Soil C). During the process of the determination of iron in food samples, satisfactory accuracy was obtained for spinach and rocket...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889151/efficacy-of-post-harvest-rinsing-and-bleach-disinfection-of-e-%C3%A2-coli-o157-h7-on-spinach-leaf-surfaces
#7
Nichola M Kinsinger, Holly M Mayton, Madeline R Luth, Sharon L Walker
Attachment and detachment kinetics of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from baby spinach leaf epicuticle layers were investigated using a parallel plate flow chamber. Mass transfer rate coefficients were used to determine the impact of water chemistry and common bleach disinfection rinses on the removal and inactivation of the pathogen. Attachment mass transfer rate coefficients generally increased with ionic strength. Detachment mass transfer rate coefficients were nearly the same in KCl and AGW rinses; however, the detachment phase lasted longer in KCl than AGW (18 ± 4 min and 4 ± 2 min, respectively), indicating that the ions present during attachment play a significant role in the cells' ability to remain attached...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876069/mgdg-extracted-from-spinach-enhances-the-cytotoxicity-of-radiation-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#8
Hiroaki Akasaka, Yoshiyuki Mizushina, Kenji Yoshida, Yasuo Ejima, Naritoshi Mukumoto, Tianyuan Wang, Sachiko Inubushi, Masao Nakayama, Yuki Wakahara, Ryohei Sasaki
BACKGROUND: In our previous study, monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (MGDG) purified from spinach was found to have cytotoxic effects in human cancer cell lines. This study further assessed whether MGDG can enhance the cytotoxic effects of radiation in human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Glycoglycerolipids from spinach including MGDG were extracted from dried spinach. The cytotoxicity of MGDG were evaluated by the MTT assay using four human pancreatic cancer cell lines (MIAPaCa-2, AsPC-1, BxPC-3 and PANC-1) and normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs)...
November 22, 2016: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869660/use-of-a-fluorescent-aptamer-rna-as-an-exonic-sequence-to-analyze-self-splicing-ability-of-agroup-i-intron-from-structured-rnas
#9
Airi Furukawa, Takahiro Tanaka, Hiroyuki Furuta, Shigeyoshi Matsumura, Yoshiya Ikawa
Group I self-splicing intron constitutes an important class of functional RNA molecules that can promote chemical transformation. Although the fundamental mechanism of the auto-excision from its precursor RNA has been established, convenient assay systems for its splicing activity are still useful for a further understanding of its detailed mechanism and of its application. Because some host RNA sequences, to which group I introns inserted form stable three-dimensional (3D) structures, the effects of the 3D structures of exonic elements on the splicing efficiency of group I introns are important but not a fully investigated issue...
November 17, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855306/effect-of-phytotoxic-secondary-metabolites-and-semisynthetic-compounds-from-endophytic-fungus-xylaria-feejeensis-strain-sm3e-1b-on-spinach-chloroplast-photosynthesis
#10
Martha Lydia Macías-Rubalcava, Marbella Claudia García-Méndez, Beatriz King-Díaz, Norma Angélica Macías-Ruvalcaba
We investigated the mechanism of action on the photosynthesis light reactions of three major secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Xylaria feejeensis strain SM3e-1b, isolated from Sapium macrocarpum; and four novel derivatives of coriloxine, a major compound produced by X. feejeensis. The natural phytotoxins include one epoxycyclohexenone derivative, coriloxine (1), and two quinone derivatives (2-3). The semisynthetic derivatives of coriloxine are two cyclohexenone (4-6) and two quinone compounds (5-7)...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853264/a-simple-design-for-microwave-assisted-digestion-vessel-with-low-reagent-consumption-suitable-for-food-and-environmental-samples
#11
Mehrdad Gholami, Shima Behkami, Sharifuddin Md Zain, Sezgin Bakirdere
The objective of this work is to prepare a cost-effective, low reagent consumption and high performance polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) vessel that is capable to work in domestic microwave for digesting food and environmental samples. The designed vessel has a relatively thicker wall compared to that of commercial vessels. In this design, eight vessels are placed in an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) holder to keep them safe and stable. This vessel needs only 2.0 mL of HNO3 and 1.0 mL H2O2 to digest 100 mg of biological sample...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852126/traditional-chinese-medicine-food-therapy-and-hypertension-control-a-narrative-review-of-chinese-literature
#12
Ping Zou
Despite the lack of English literature about Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) food therapy, there is abundant Chinese literature about the application of food therapy for hypertension control. This paper summarizes basic concepts of TCM, the principles of food therapy and its application for hypertension control according to Chinese literature. In TCM, food is conceptualized according to both nutritional and functional aspects, and can be used to treat illnesses. Four principles of TCM food therapy including light eating, balancing the "hot" and "cold" nature of food, the harmony of the five flavors of food, and consistency between dietary intake and different health conditions, can be used to facilitate hypertension control...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829691/simulating-the-transfer-of-strontium-90-from-soil-to-leafy-vegetables-by-using-strontium-88
#13
Ding Kuke, Liu Shujuan, He Yingxue, Yan Dong, Zhang Fengshou, Wang Shuifeng, Guo Jinghua, Zhang Wei, Wang Xin, Jiang Xiaoyan
The transfer, from soil to Chinese cabbage and spinach, of radioactive strontium-90 released as a result of accidents in nuclear power stations was studied using a stable isotope of strontium, namely nuclide strontium-88 ((88)Sr). The study led to an experimental model for assessing the hazard of radionuclide strontium-90 ((90)Sr) entering the food chain and for predicting the risk to food safety. Chinese cabbage and spinach were grown in pots in a greenhouse and irrigated with deionized water containing known quantities of strontium...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816287/contamination-and-health-risk-assessment-of-pahs-in-soils-and-crops-in-industrial-areas-of-the-yangtze-river-delta-region-china
#14
Jian Wang, Xiaofang Zhang, Wanting Ling, Rui Liu, Juan Liu, Fuxing Kang, Yanzheng Gao
This is the first investigation into both soil and crop contamination and associated health risks by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in industrial areas of the Yangtze River Delta region (YRDR). Soil and crop samples were collected from farmland surrounded by three typical industries (a steelworks [SW], a petrochemical facility [PF] and a power plant [PP]), and the concentrations and health risks of PAHs in soils and crops were evaluated. The average concentrations of 16 USEPA priority PAHs in surface soil and subsoil were 471...
November 2, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813104/effect-of-surface-properties-on-colloid-retention-on-natural-and-surrogate-produce-surfaces
#15
Volha Lazouskaya, Taozhu Sun, Li Liu, Gang Wang, Yan Jin
Bacterial contamination of fresh produce is a growing concern in food industry. Pathogenic bacteria can attach to and colonize the surfaces of fresh produce and cause disease outbreaks among consumers. Surface properties of both bacteria and produce affect bacterial contamination; however, the effects of produce roughness, topography, and hydrophobicity on bacterial retention are still poorly understood. In this work, we used spherical polystyrene colloids as bacterial surrogates to investigate colloid retention on and removal (by rinsing) from fresh produce surfaces including tomato, orange, apple, lettuce, spinach, and cantaloupe, and from surrogate produce surface Sharklet (a micro-patterned polymer)...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812443/environmental-surveillance-of-commonly-grown-vegetables-for-investigating-potential-lead-and-chromium-contamination-intensification-in-bangladesh
#16
A M M Maruf Hossain, M Shahidul Islam, M Mustafa Mamun, H M Al-Jonaed, M Imran, M Hasibur Rahman, M Azizul Islam Kazi, Syed Fazle Elahi
With regard to previously reported Lead (Pb) and Chromium (Cr) contamination in egg, a semi-quantitative assessment of the general environment of Bangladesh is carried out through nation-wide sampling of commonly grown and consumed vegetables. Five vegetables, namely, White Potato (Solanum tuberosum), Green Cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata var. alba L.), Red Spinach (Amaranthus dubius), White Radish (Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus), and Green Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) were selected for sampling from all 64 Districts of the country as per their availability during the sampling season...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806562/purification-and-characterization-of-principle-antimutagenic-bioactive-as-ethoxy-substituted-phylloquinone-from-spinach-spinacea-oleracea-l-based-on-evaluation-in-models-including-human-lymphoblast-tk-cells
#17
Sanjeev Kumar, Suchandra Chatterjee, Jyoti Tripathi, Satyendra Gautam
During in vitro analysis, spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) leaves extracts displayed varying antimutagenicity when analyzed in models including human lymphoblast (TK+/-) cell line (thymidine kinase gene mutation assay) and Escherichia coli MG1655 (rifampicin resistance assay) against chemical (ethyl methanesulfonate and 5-azacytidine) induced mutagenicity. Highest antimutagenicity was displayed by the quinone extract. The principle bioactive compound exhibited fluorescence in TLC at 366 nm (termed C4) resolved at Rf:0...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798623/nitroaromatic-detection-and-infrared-communication-from-wild-type-plants-using-plant%C3%A2-nanobionics
#18
Min Hao Wong, Juan P Giraldo, Seon-Yeong Kwak, Volodymyr B Koman, Rosalie Sinclair, Tedrick Thomas Salim Lew, Gili Bisker, Pingwei Liu, Michael S Strano
Plant nanobionics aims to embed non-native functions to plants by interfacing them with specifically designed nanoparticles. Here, we demonstrate that living spinach plants (Spinacia oleracea) can be engineered to serve as self-powered pre-concentrators and autosamplers of analytes in ambient groundwater and as infrared communication platforms that can send information to a smartphone. The plants employ a pair of near-infrared fluorescent nanosensors-single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) conjugated to the peptide Bombolitin II to recognize nitroaromatics via infrared fluorescent emission, and polyvinyl-alcohol functionalized SWCNTs that act as an invariant reference signal-embedded within the plant leaf mesophyll...
October 31, 2016: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792944/uptake-of-perfluoroalkyl-substances-and-halogenated-flame-retardants-by-crop-plants-grown-in-biosolids-amended-soils
#19
Irene Navarro, Adrián de la Torre, Paloma Sanz, Miguel Ángel Porcel, Javier Pro, Gregoria Carbonell, María de Los Ángeles Martínez
The bioaccumulation behavior of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) was examined in three horticultural crops and earthworms. Two species, spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), were grown in field soil amended with a single application of biosolids (at agronomic rate for nitrogen), to represent the scenario using commercial biosolids as fertilizer, and the third crop, corn (Zea mays) was grown in spiked soil (~50mg PFOS/kg soil, ~5mg Deca-BDE/kg soil and a mixture of both, ~50mg PFOS and ~5mg Deca-BDE/kg soil) to represent a worst-case scenario...
January 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784633/providing-choice-and-or-variety-during-a-meal-impact-on-vegetable-liking-and-intake
#20
Odile Parizel, Hélène Labouré, Agnès Marsset-Baglieri, Gilles Fromentin, Claire Sulmont-Rossé
Out-of-home catering services frequently offer consumers the opportunity to choose their foods from among different proposals and/or provide consumers with a variety of food. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of choice and/or variety on food liking and food intake. Fifty-nine normal-weight adults were recruited under the condition that they equally liked three vegetable recipes (green beans with butter, zucchinis with olive oil, spinach with cream). Volunteers participated in four sessions at lunch time...
October 23, 2016: Appetite
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