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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934070/presence-of-trihalomethanes-in-ready-to-eat-vegetables-disinfected-with-chlorine
#1
Valentina Coroneo, Valentina Carraro, Barbara Marras, Alessandro Marrucci, Sara Succa, Barbara Meloni, Antonella Pinna, Alberto Angioni, Adriana Sanna, Marco Schintu
Trihalomethanes (THMs) - CHCl3, CHCl2Br, CHClBr2 and CHBr3 - are drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs). These compounds can also be absorbed by different types of foods, including ready-to-eat (RTE) fresh vegetables. The potential absorption of THMs during washing of RTE vegetables could pose a potential risk to consumers' health. The concentration of THMs in the water used in the manufacturing process of these products shall not exceed the limit of 100 or 80 µgL(-1) according to European Union (EU) and United States legislation respectively...
September 21, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934012/liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-simultaneous-quantification-of-azoxystrobin-and-its-metabolites-azoxystrobin-free-acid-and-2-hydroxybenzonitrile-in-greenhouse-grown-lettuce
#2
Maheswor Gautam, Inge S Fomsgaard
Lettuce is an important part of the diet in Europe. The permitted levels of pesticides in lettuce are strictly regulated and there is growing urge among food safety authorities to analyse pesticide metabolites as well. Azoxystrobin is one of pesticides that is frequently detected in lettuce. Although there are several analytical methods for the determination of azoxystrobin in lettuce, a sensitive method for the determination of its metabolites in lettuce is lacking. This study aimed at developing an extraction and LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of azoxystrobin, and its metabolites azoxystrobin free acid and 2-hydroxybenzonitrile in lettuce...
September 21, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933648/optimization-of-animal-manure-vermicomposting-based-on-biomass-production-of-earthworms-and-higher-plants
#3
Yan V Borges, Luciano Alves, Ivan Bianchi, Jonas C Espíndola, Juahil M De Oliveira, Claudemir M Radetski, Cleder A Somensi
The goal of this study was to optimize the mixture of swine manure (SM) and cattle manure (CM) used in the vermicomposting process, seeking to increase the manure biodegradation rate and enhance the biomass production of both earthworms and higher plants. To achieve this goal, physico-chemical parameters were determined to assess the final compost quality after 50 days of vermicomposting. The different manure ratios used to produce the composts (C) were as follows (SM:CM, % m/m basis): C1 100:0, C2 (75:25), C3 (50:50), C4 (25:75), and C5 (0:100)...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933019/effects-of-municipal-solid-waste-and-sewage-sludge-compost-based-growing-media-on-the-yield-and-heavy-metal-content-of-four-lettuce-cultivars
#4
Concetta Eliana Gattullo, Carlo Mininni, Angelo Parente, Francesco Fabiano Montesano, Ignazio Allegretta, Roberto Terzano
Compost has been recently suggested as an alternative to peat for the preparation of growing substrates in soilless cultivation systems. However, some physico-chemical properties of compost may reduce plant performance and endanger the quality of productions, in particular for possible heavy metal accumulation in edible parts. This study aims at evaluating the suitability of a municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) and a sewage sludge compost (SSC) as components of growing media for the soilless cultivation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927018/the-effect-of-harvesting-on-the-composition-of-essential-oils-from-five-varieties-of-ocimum-basilicum-l-cultivated-in-the-island-of-kefalonia-greece
#5
Gerasimia Tsasi, Theofilos Mailis, Artemis Daskalaki, Eleni Sakadani, Panagis Razis, Yiannis Samaras, Helen Skaltsa
Five varieties of Ocimum basilicum L. namely lettuce, cinnamon, minimum, latifolia, and violetto were separately cultivated in field and greenhouse in the island Kefalonia (Greece). The effect of successive harvesting to the essential oil content was evaluated. In total 23 samples of essential oils (EOs) were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Ninety-six constituents, which accounted for almost 99% of the oils, were identified. Cluster analysis was performed for all of the varieties in greenhouse and field conditions, in order to investigate the possible differentiation on the chemical composition of the essential oils, obtained between harvests during growing period...
September 18, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914413/study-of-the-mechanism-of-remediation-of-cd-contaminated-soil-by-novel-biochars
#6
Zhongxin Tan, Yuanhang Wang, Limei Zhang, Qiaoyun Huang
This article used novel non-magnetized and magnetized biochars prepared under a CO2 atmosphere returned to Cd-contaminated soil and compared these to the effects of conventional biochars prepared under a N2 atmosphere with regard to Cd-contaminated soil remediation. A pot experiment with lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was conducted to investigate the relative soil remediation effects of these biochars. The soil used for the pot experiment was spiked with 20 mg kg(-1) Cd and amended with 5% of a biochar before sowing...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910714/nitrogen-discharge-pathways-in-vegetable-production-as-non-point-sources-of-pollution-and-measures-to-control-it
#7
Ju Min, Weiming Shi
Discharge of nitrogen (N) from fertilizers applied to vegetables is becoming a serious environmental problem. In a field experiment involving a celery-tomato-fallow-lettuce rotation, leaching was the primary pathway of N loss (56.1±0.4% of the total), followed, in descending order, by runoff (11.7±0.3%), N2O emissions (1.6±0.1%), and volatilization of ammonia (0.5±0.1%). Decreasing the traditional dose of N by 40% in each growth season decreased N leaching by 22.3±4.5, 39.8±6.7, 40.3±2.9 and 27.4±3...
September 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905619/determination-of-trace-perfluoroalkyl-carboxylic-acids-in-edible-crop-matrices-matrix-effect-and-method-development
#8
Lei Xiang, Lei Chen, Tao Xiao, Ce-Hui Mo, Yan-Wen Li, Quan-Ying Cai, Hui Li, Dongmei Zhou, Ming-Hung Wong
A robust method was developed for simultaneous determination of nine trace perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in various edible crop matrices including cereal (grain), root vegetable (carrot), leafy vegetable (lettuce), and melon vegetable (pumpkin) using ultrasonic extraction followed by solid-phase extraction clean-up and high liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The varieties of extractants and clean-up cartridges, the usage of Supelclean graphitized carbon, and the matrix effect and its potential influencing factors were estimated to gain an optimal extraction procedure...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905277/on-site-phytoremediation-applicability-assessment-in-alur-ilmu-universiti-kebangsaan-malaysia-based-on-spatial-and-pollution-removal-analyses
#9
Mohd Hafiyyan Mahmud, Khai Ern Lee, Thian Lai Goh
The present paper aims to assess the phytoremediation performance based on pollution removal efficiency of the highly polluted region of Alur Ilmu urban river for its applicability of on-site treatment. Thirteen stations along Alur Ilmu were selected to produce thematic maps through spatial distribution analysis based on six water quality parameters of Malaysia's Water Quality Index (WQI) for dry and raining seasons. The maps generated were used to identify the highly polluted region for phytoremediation applicability assessment...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898962/occupational-rhinoconjunctivitis-caused-by-the-common-indoor-plant-hoya-compacta
#10
D Sherson, A D Nielsen, C G Mortz, L Vestergaard, L P A Brandt, E Jørs, J Bælum
Background: Allergic reactions to the common house plant Hoya compacta (HC) have not previously been described. Aims: To confirm HC as the cause of rhinoconjunctivitis in three horticultural workers. Methods: Greenhouse working conditions were reproduced in our challenge chamber. Results: All three cases developed rhinoconjunctivitis when working with HC plants. A control challenge was performed in two cases with iceberg lettuce causing no symptoms...
August 1, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893530/-combination-of-phosphorus-solubilizing-and-mobilizing-fungi-with-phosphate-rocks-and-volcanic-materials-to-promote-plant-growth-of-lettuce-lactuca-sativa-l
#11
María S Velázquez, Marta N Cabello, Lorena A Elíades, María L Russo, Natalia Allegrucci, Santiago Schalamuk
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) increase the uptake of soluble phosphates, while phosphorus solubilizing fungi (S) promote solubilization of insoluble phosphates complexes, favoring plant nutrition. Another alternative to maintaining crop productivity is to combine minerals and rocks that provide nutrients and other desirable properties. The aim of this work was to combine AMF and S with pyroclastic materials (ashes and pumices) from Puyehue volcano and phosphate rocks (PR) from Rio Chico Group (Chubut) - to formulate a substrate for the production of potted Lactuca sativa...
September 8, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887415/inactivation-of-human-norovirus-gi-gii-and-surrogates-by-free-chlorine-in-postharvest-leafy-green-wash-water
#12
Nathan Dunkin, Shih-Chi Weng, Joseph G Jacangelo, Kellogg J Schwab
Human noroviruses (hNoVs) are a known public health concern associated with the consumption of leafy green vegetables. While a number of studies have investigated pathogen reduction on the surfaces of leafy greens during the postharvest washing process, there remains a paucity of data on the level of treatment needed to inactivate viruses in the wash water, which is critical for preventing cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to quantify the susceptibility of hNoV GI, hNoV GII, murine norovirus (MNV), and bacteriophage MS2 to free chlorine in whole leaf, chopped romaine, and shredded iceberg lettuce industrial leafy green wash waters, each sampled three times over a 4-month period...
September 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884564/pattern-of-food-intolerance-in-patients-with-gastro-esophageal-reflux-symptoms
#13
Michele Caselli, Natalina Lo Cascio, Stefano Rabitti, Leonardo H Eusebi, Elena Zeni, Cecilia Soavi, Francesca Cassol, Giovanni Zuliani, Rocco M Zagari
BACKGROUND: Many food items have been involved in gastro-esophageal reflux disease pathogenesis and dietary modification has been proposed as first-line treatment. Test-based exclusion diets have shown to significantly reduce reflux symptoms. we aimed to assess the patterns of food intolerance in a series of patients with typical gastro-esophageal reflux symptoms (GERS). METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated all patients with typical reflux symptoms, attending the Centre Study Association on Food Intolerance and Nutrition of Ferrara from January 2010 to October 2015, who resulted positive to at least one food item at the leucocytotoxic test...
September 7, 2017: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867739/inhibitory-effects-of-juices-prepared-from-individual-vegetables-on-cyp3a4-activity-in-recombinant-cyp3a4-and-ls180-cells
#14
Masayuki Tsujimoto, Chie Agawa, Shinya Ueda, Takayoshi Yamane, Haruna Kitayama, Aya Terao, Tomoya Fukuda, Tetsuya Minegaki, Kohshi Nishiguchi
Human intestinal absorption and drug metabolism vary to a large extent among individuals. For example, CYP3A4 activity has large individual variation that cannot be attributed to only genetic differences. Various flavonoids in vegetables, such as kaempferol and quercetin, possess inhibitory effects, and some vegetable and fruit juices have also been found to inhibit CYP3A4 activity. Therefore, differences in daily intake of flavonoid-containing vegetables may induce individual variation in intestinal bioavailability...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854232/role-of-the-aphid-species-and-their-feeding-locations-in-parasitization-behavior-of-aphelinus-abdominalis-a-parasitoid-of-the-lettuce-aphid-nasonovia-ribisnigri
#15
Govinda Shrestha, Henrik Skovgård, Gadi V P Reddy, Tove Steenberg, Annie Enkegaard
Aphid species feeding on lettuce occupy distinct feeding sites: the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri prefers to feed on heart leaves, whereas the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae feeds only on outer leaves. The aphid parasitoid Aphelinus abdominalis, known to be able to regulate M. euphorbiae on many crops, has recently been indicated as a promising biocontrol candidate also for use against N. ribisnigri, a major pest of lettuce. This study therefore examined A. abdominalis parasitization preference between N...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853631/approaches-toward-identification-of-surrogates-to-validate-antimicrobial-washes-as-preventive-controls-for-fresh-cut-leafy-greens
#16
A Shazer, D Stewart, K Deng, M Tortorello
In fresh-cut produce production, antimicrobials may be used during washing to control the risk of cross-contamination by microbial hazards. Surrogate microorganisms have long been used to validate processes, but none have been identified for validating the efficacy of antimicrobial washing of fresh-cut produce. The objective of this study was to develop procedures by which surrogates may be identified for use in validating the control of cross-contamination for fresh-cut lettuce operations. Four microbial characteristics, which may be important factors in cross-contamination events, were quantitatively evaluated in potential surrogate microorganisms for comparison to a reasonably foreseeable hazard, Escherichia coli O157:H7: sensitivity to chlorine in solution, sensitivity to chlorine on lettuce leaf surfaces, shedding from contaminated lettuce leaves into the water during washing, and cross-contamination from inoculated to uninoculated lettuce leaves during chorine washing...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852802/an-ultra-dense-integrated-linkage-map-for-hexaploid-chrysanthemum-enables-multi-allelic-qtl-analysis
#17
Geert van Geest, Peter M Bourke, Roeland E Voorrips, Agnieszka Marasek-Ciolakowska, Yanlin Liao, Aike Post, Uulke van Meeteren, Richard G F Visser, Chris Maliepaard, Paul Arens
We constructed the first integrated genetic linkage map in a polysomic hexaploid. This enabled us to estimate inheritance of parental haplotypes in the offspring and detect multi-allelic QTL. Construction and use of linkage maps are challenging in hexaploids with polysomic inheritance. Full map integration requires calculations of recombination frequency between markers with complex segregation types. In addition, detection of QTL in hexaploids requires information on all six alleles at one locus for each individual...
August 29, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841422/estimation-of-health-risks-caused-by-exposure-to-enteroviruses-from-agricultural-application-of-wastewater-effluents
#18
Malihe Moazeni, Mahnaz Nikaeen, Mahdi Hadi, Sharareh Moghim, Leili Mouhebat, Maryam Hatamzadeh, Akbar Hassanzadeh
Agricultural reuse of wastewater is a common practice worldwide, especially in arid and semiarid area due to the freshwater scarcity. Wastewater irrigation in the Middle East, one of the most water-stressed regions in the world, could be a key factor for socio-economic development, but the microbial contamination of untreated or partially treated wastewater is a serious public health concern. Potential transmission of enteric viral infections through wastewater reuse in agricultural activities represents a true health risk for exposed individuals...
August 12, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834621/isolation-of-a-phytotoxic-isocoumarin-from-diaporthe-eres-infected-hedera-helix-english-ivy-and-synthesis-of-its-phytotoxic-analogs
#19
Kumudini M Meepagala, William E Briscoe, Natascha Techen, Robert D Johnson, Brandon M Clausen, Stephen O Duke
BACKGROUND: The fungus Diaporthe eres was isolated from a fungal pathogen-infected leaf of Hedera helix (English Ivy) exhibiting necrosis. It is hypothesized that the causative fungus produces phytotoxins as evidenced by necrotic lesions on the leaves. RESULTS: The fungus was isolated and grown in Czapek Dox broth culture medium and potato dextrose broth culture medium and identified as Diaporthe eres. The ethyl acetate extracts of the culture broths were phytotoxic to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera)...
August 23, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833875/characterization-of-phenolic-compounds-in-green-and-red-oak-leaf-lettuce-cultivars-by-uhplc-dad-esi-qtof-ms-using-ms-e-scan-mode
#20
Gabriela E Viacava, Sara I Roura, Luis A Berrueta, Carmen Iriondo, Blanca Gallo, Rosa M Alonso-Salces
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the most popular leafy vegetables in the world and constitutes a major dietary source of phenolic compounds with health promoting properties. In particular, the demand for green and red oak-leaf lettuces have considerably increased in the last years but few data on their polyphenol composition is available. Moreover, the utilization of analytical edge technology can provide new structural information and allow the identification of unknown polyphenols. In the present study the phenolic profiles of green and red oak-leaf lettuce cultivars were exhaustively characterized by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled online to diode array detection (DAD), electrospray ionization (ESI) and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QToF/MS), using the MS(E) instrument acquisition mode for recording simultaneously exact masses of precursor and fragment ions...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
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