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Isabelle Yang, Guddadarangavvanahal Jayaprakasha, Bhimanagouda S Patil
In the present study, we tested the bile acid binding capacity of red leaf lettuce, red cabbage, red kale, green kale, and Brussels sprouts in vitro digestion process by simulating mouth, gastric, and intestinal digestion using six bile acids at physiological pH. Green and red kale exhibited significantly higher (86.5±2.9 and 89.7±0.9%) bile acid binding capacity compared with the other samples. Further, three different compositions of bile acids were tested to understand the effect on different health conditions...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
M Li, Y Zhang, W Ding, J Luo, S Li, Q Zhang
This study aimed to evaluate the acaricidal activity of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) extracts against carmine spider mites (Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisd.) and isolate the acaricidal components. Acaricidal activities of lettuce extracts isolated from different parts (the leaf, root and seed) using various solvents (petroleum ether, acetone and methanol) were evaluated with slide-dip bioassay and relatively high median lethal concentration (LC50) values were detected. Acetone extracts of lettuce leaves harvested in July and September were fractionated and isolated with silica gel and thin-layer chromatography...
August 14, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Lorenzo Siroli, Francesca Patrignani, Diana I Serrazanetti, Pamela Vernocchi, Federica Del Chierico, Alessandra Russo, Sandra Torriani, Lorenza Putignani, Fausto Gardini, Rosalba Lanciotti
The main aim of this work was to evaluate, at pilot scale in an industrial environment, the effects of the biocontrol agent Lactococcus lactis CBM21 and thyme essential oil compared to chlorine, used in the washing step of fresh-cut lamb's lettuce, on the microbiota and its changes in relation to the time of storage. The modification of the microbial population was studied through pyrosequencing in addition to the traditional plate counts. In addition, the volatile molecule and sensory profiles were evaluated during the storage...
December 2017: Food Microbiology
Daniel L Weller, Jasna Kovac, David J Kent, Sherry Roof, Jeffrey I Tokman, Erika Mudrak, Barbara Kowalcyk, David Oryang, Anna Aceituno, Martin Wiedmann
Wildlife intrusion has been associated with pathogen contamination of produce. However, few studies have examined pathogen transfer from wildlife feces to pre-harvest produce. This study was performed to calculate transfer coefficients for Escherichia coli from simulated wildlife feces to field-grown lettuce during irrigation. Rabbit feces inoculated with a 3-strain cocktail of non-pathogenic E. coli were placed in a lettuce field 2.5-72 h before irrigation. Following irrigation, the E. coli concentration on the lettuce was determined...
December 2017: Food Microbiology
Sepo Nyambe, Catherine Burgess, Paul Whyte, Declan Bolton
This study investigated bacteriophage (phage) mediated transfer of the vtx2 gene from a donor Escherichia coli (C600φ3538(Δvtx2::cat)) to enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enteroaggregative (EAEC), enteroinvasive (EIEC) and diffusely adherent (DAEC) E. coli strains in LB broth, milk, ground beef and lettuce. Two bacterial concentrations for both the E. coli donor and recipient strains, 3 and 5 log10 CFU/ml (LB broth and milk)/g (beef) or/cm(2) (lettuce), were used. When transductants were obtained, the location of insertion of the phage (insertion sites wrbA, yehA, sbcB, yecE and/or Z2577) in the E...
December 2017: Food Microbiology
Zhongxiang Xiao, Zhenghao Xu, Zhefeng Gu, Junfei Lv, Imran Haider Shamsi
Leaching of allelochemicals in soil is one of the fundamental processes that determine the allelopathic activities, but is often overlooked. In the present study, the vertical leaching of seven putative allelochemicals, as well as one pesticide and one herbicide, was investigated by using polyvinyl chloride columns combined with bioassay approach. The results indicated that the leachability of pretilachlor and imidacloprid were the best (Lƒ>0.8), followed by vanillin and coumarin (Lƒ>0.6). The leachability of daidzein, menthol and m-tyrosine were medium (0...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Pablo Quirós, Maite Muniesa
A growing interest in healthy eating has lead to an increase in the consumption of vegetables, associated with a rising number of bacterial outbreaks related to fresh produce. This is the case of the outbreak in Germany, caused by a O104:H4 enteroaggregative E. coli strain lysogenic for a Stx phage. Temperate Stx phages released from their hosts occur as free particles in various environments. This study reports the occurrence of Stx phages in vegetables (lettuce, cucumber, and spinach) and cropland soil samples...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Guo-Yi Tang, Xiao Meng, Ya Li, Cai-Ning Zhao, Qing Liu, Hua-Bin Li
Epidemiological studies have shown that vegetable consumption is inversely related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, research has indicated that many vegetables like potatoes, soybeans, sesame, tomatoes, dioscorea, onions, celery, broccoli, lettuce and asparagus showed great potential in preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases, and vitamins, essential elements, dietary fibers, botanic proteins and phytochemicals were bioactive components. The cardioprotective effects of vegetables might involve antioxidation; anti-inflammation; anti-platelet; regulating blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profile; attenuating myocardial damage; and modulating relevant enzyme activities, gene expression, and signaling pathways as well as some other biomarkers associated to cardiovascular diseases...
August 10, 2017: Nutrients
M Jongman, L Chidamba, L Korsten
AIMS: To investigate the influence of irrigation water microbial quality on leafy green vegetables produced in commercial and small-scale farms as well as homestead gardens using pyrosequencing. METHODS AND RESULTS: Next generation sequencing analysis of the V1-V3 hypervariable region of bacterial 16S rDNA was used to compare bacterial diversity in irrigation water sources and on leafy vegetables. In all samples (12) analyzed, the phylum Proteobacteria (64.5%), class Gammaproteobacteria (56...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Apostolos Kalivas, Ioannis Ganopoulos, Fotis Psomopoulos, Ioannis Grigoriadis, Aliki Xanthopoulou, Evangelos Hatzigiannakis, Maslin Osathanunkul, Athanasios Tsaftaris, Panagiotis Madesis
Nutrients in the form of fertilizers and/or other additives such as amino acids, dramatically influence plant development and growth, plant nutrient composition and the level of soil pollution. Moreover, the treatment of soil microbiota is emerging as a new strategy in plant breeding to achieve desirable traits. Thus, integrated study of fertilizer application and soil microbiota might lead to a better understanding of soil-plant interactions and inform the design of novel ways to fertilize plants. Herein we report metagenomics data for soil microbiota in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) treated with fertilizer, amino acids or their combinations as follows: N-fertilizer + Amino16®, Amino16®, N-fertilizer and no treatment control...
December 2017: Genomics Data
Adrian L D Paul, Rufus L Chaney
Cadmium (Cd)-mineralized soils occur in many nations. When these soils are noncalcareous, crops and especially leafy vegetables such as lettuce ( L.) and spinach ( L.) may accumulate levels of Cd in their edible portions that exceed international standards. Vegetable crops grown on Lockwood loam from Monterey County, CA, absorb an excessive amount of Cd into their edible portions. Agronomic or genetic management alternatives are needed to allow the use of these otherwise highly productive soils for spinach...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Chiun-Kang Hsu, Shirley A Micallef
Reducing Salmonella enterica association with plants during crop production could reduce risks of fresh produce-borne salmonellosis. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) colonizing plant roots are capable of promoting plant growth and boosting resistance to disease, but the effects of PGPR on human pathogen-plant associations are not known. Two root-colonizing Pseudomonas strains S2 and S4 were investigated in spinach, lettuce and tomato for their plant growth-promoting properties and their influence on leaf populations of S...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Matsutake Higa, Yuji Takashima, Hiroto Yokaryo, Yuta Harie, Toshimasa Suzuka, Kazuhito Ogihara
From the chloroform extract of the fresh fruits of Diospyros maritima BLUME (Ebenaceae), five new naphthoquinone derivatives, 2,7'-dimethyl-2',3-bijuglone (27), 2,7'-dimethyl-3,3'-bijuglone (28), 2,7'-dimethyl-6,8'-bijuglone (29), 7,7'-dimethyl-3,3'-ethylidenebijuglone (30), and 2',7-dimethyl-3,6'-ethylidenebijuglone (31), were isolated, in addition to twenty-one known naphthoquinone derivatives: plumbagin (4), droserone (5), 2,3-epoxyplumbagin (8), 3,3'-biplumbagin (9), chitranone (10), 3,8'-biplumbagin (11), elliptinone (12), maritinone (13), isozeylanone (14), methylene-3,3'-biplumbagin (15), ethylidene-3,3'-biplumbagin (16), ethylidene-3,6'-biplumbagin (17), ethylidene-6,6'-biplumbagin (18), 7-methyl-β-dihydrojuglone (19), 7-methyljuglone (20), 2,3-epoxy-7-methyljuglone (21), neodiospyrin (22), mamegakinone (23), ehretione (24), isoxylospyrin (25) and β-dihydroplumbagin (26)...
2017: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Norma S Pano-Farias, Silvia G Ceballos-Magaña, Roberto Muñiz-Valencia, Jose M Jurado, Ángela Alcázar, Ismael A Aguayo-Villarreal
Due the negative effects of pesticides on environment and human health, more efficient and environmentally friendly methods are needed. In this sense, a simple, fast, free from memory effects and economical direct-immersion single drop micro-extraction (SDME) method and GC-MS for multi-class pesticides determination in mango samples was developed. Sample pre-treatment using ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction and factors affecting the SDME procedure (extractant solvent, drop volume, stirring rate, ionic strength, time, pH and temperature) were optimized using factorial experimental design...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Zohreh Dahaghin, Hassan Zavvar Mousavi, S Maryam Sajjadi
In this work, a magnetic ion-imprinted polymer (Fe3O4@SiO2@IIP) as a novel and selective nanosorbent for selective extraction of Pb(II) ions from various agricultural products is presented. The novel lead magnetic ion-imprinted polymer was synthesized by imidazole as a new ligand and grafted onto the surface of Fe3O4@SiO2 NPs. A Box-Behnken (BBD) design was used for optimization of the extraction and elution steps. In the selected conditions, the limit of detection was 0.48ngmL(-1), preconcentration factor was 300, the sorption capacity of this new magnetic ion-imprinted polymer was 105mgg(-1), and the precision of the method (RSD%) for six replicate measurements was found 3...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Lixiang Pan, Xiaoxiao Feng, Hongyan Zhang
Pyrethrins are nowadays widely used for prevention and control of insects in leaf lettuce. However, there is a concern about the pesticide residue in leaf lettuce. A reliable analytical method for determination of pyrethrins (pyrethrin-and П, cinerin І and П, and jasmolin І and П) in leaf lettuce was developed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries of pyrethrins in leaf lettuce at three spiking levels were 99.4-104.0% with relative standard deviations of 0.9-3.1% (n = 5). Evaluation of dissipation and final residues of pyrethrins in leaf lettuce were determined at six different locations, including the open field, as well as under greenhouse conditions...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Carlos Hurtado, Hadi Parastar, Víctor Matamoros, Benjamín Piña, Romà Tauler, Josep M Bayona
The occurrence of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in irrigation waters (up to low μg L(-1)) and irrigated crops (ng g(-1) in dry weight) has been reported, but the linkage between plant morphological changes and plant metabolomic response has not yet been addressed. In this study, a non-targeted metabolomic analysis was performed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) exposed to 11 CECs (pharmaceuticals, personal care products, anticorrosive agents and surfactants) by irrigation. The plants were watered with different CEC concentrations (0-50 µg L(-1)) for 34 days under controlled conditions and then harvested, extracted, derivatised and analysed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC × GC-TOFMS)...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Chenzhipeng Nie, Peilei Zhu, Mingchun Wang, Shuping Ma, Zihao Wei
Stem lettuce is widely consumed as a vegetable in China. It is also used as a traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. Up to now, no information is available for stem lettuce polysaccharide (SLP). In this study, extraction optimization, characterization, and antioxidant activity of SLP was investigated.The maximum SLP yield of 20.89% was obtained under the optimal extraction conditions as follows: extraction temperature 95°C, extraction time 3.3h and ratio of water to material 25mL/g. The sulfate content of SLP was 5...
July 22, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Juan Luo, Xu Yao, Luchao Lv, Yohei Doi, Xiuyu Huang, Sicheng Huang, Jian-Hua Liu
The presence of mcr-1 among Enterobacteriaceae isolates collected from retail vegetables in China between 2015 and 2016 were investigated. Two Raoultella ornithinolytica and seven Escherichia coli strains recovered from lettuce and tomato samples were identified as MCR-1-producers. Similar to isolates from animals and humans, the mcr-1 gene was located on the IncHI2/ST3, IncI2 or IncX4 plasmids. The presence of MCR-1-producing organisms in ready-to-eat food samples represents a serious risk for human health...
July 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Isabel Armas, Natalia Pogrebnyak, Ilya Raskin
BACKGROUND: Successful biotechnological improvement of crop plants requires a reliable and efficient in vitro regeneration system. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), one the most important vegetable crops worldwide, is strongly genotype-dependent in terms of regeneration capacity, limiting the potential for biotechnological improvement of cultivars which show recalcitrance under currently available protocols. The effect of different nutrient sources, plant hormone combinations and activated charcoal supplementation on shoot induction efficiency was evaluated on the cultivar 'RSL NFR', which had previously shown poor regeneration efficiency...
2017: Plant Methods
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