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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511359/occurrence-of-chemical-contaminants-in-peri-urban-agricultural-irrigation-waters-and-assessment-of-their-phytotoxicity-and-crop-productivity
#1
Anna Margenat, Víctor Matamoros, Sergi Díez, Núria Cañameras, Jordi Comas, Josep M Bayona
Water scarcity and water pollution have increased the pressure on water resources worldwide. This pressure is particularly important in highly populated areas where water demand exceeds the available natural resources. In this regard, water reuse has emerged as an excellent water source alternative for peri-urban agriculture. Nevertheless, it must cope with the occurrence of chemical contaminants, ranging from trace elements (TEs) to organic microcontaminants. In this study, chemical contaminants (i.e., 15 TEs, 34 contaminants of emerging concern (CECs)), bulk parameters, and nutrients from irrigation waters and crop productivity (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill...
May 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511109/sensitive-detection-of-viable-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-from-foods-using-a-luciferase-reporter-phage-phiv10lux
#2
Jinwoo Kim, Minsik Kim, Seongmi Kim, Sangryeol Ryu
Escherichia coli O157:H7, a major foodborne pathogen, is a major public health concern associated with life-threatening diseases such as hemolytic uremic syndrome. To alleviate this burden, a sensitive and rapid system is required to detect this pathogen in various kinds of foods. Herein, we propose a phage-based pathogen detection method to replace laborious and time-consuming conventional methods. We engineered an E. coli O157:H7-specific phage phiV10 to rapidly and sensitively detect this notorious pathogen...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508923/biomarkers-of-oxidative-damage-in-bacteria-for-the-assessment-of-sanitation-efficacy-in-lettuce-wash-water
#3
Andrea Cossu, Fang Dou, Glenn M Young, Nitin Nitin
In the fresh produce industry, validation of sanitation efficacy is critical to prevent cross-contamination of produce. The current validation approaches are either based on time-consuming plate counting assays or indirect measurements of chemical properties of wash water. In the study, the focus was to identify biomarkers that can provide direct assessment of oxidative damage in bacteria upon exposure to sanitizers in the presence of fresh produce and correlation of these oxidative biomarkers with logarithmic inactivation of bacteria...
May 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506062/lc-ms-untargeted-metabolomics-to-explain-the-signal-metabolites-inducing-browning-in-fresh-cut-lettuce
#4
Carlos J Garcia, Rocio Garcia-Villalba, Maria I Gil, Francisco A Tomas-Barberan
Enzymatic browning is one of the main causes of quality loss in lettuce as a prepared and ready to eat cut salad. An untargeted metabolomics approach using UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS was performed to explain the wound response of lettuce after cutting and to identify the metabolites responsible of browning. Two cultivars of Romaine lettuce with different browning susceptibility were studied at short time intervals after cutting. From the total 5975 entities obtained from the raw data after alignment, filtration reduced the number of features to 2959, and the statistical analysis found that only 1132 entities were significantly different...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505879/nitrogen-utilization-and-environmental-losses-in-organic-greenhouse-lettuce-amended-with-two-distinct-biochars
#5
Engil Isadora Pujol Pereira, Rafaela Feola Conz, Johan Six
The potential of biochar to prevent nitrogen (N) losses and improve plant performance were studied across various levels of N input for two growing seasons in mesocosms simulating an organic lettuce production system. A silt loam soil was amended with pine chip (PC) and walnut shell (WS) biochar (10tha(-1)) in combination with five organic N fertilization rates (0, 56, 112, 168, and 225kgNha(-1)). The N output through harvest, leachate, and N2O emissions were measured to assess N utilization and environmental losses of biochar-amended soils...
May 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504573/human-norovirus-and-its-surrogates-induce-plant-immune-response-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-and-lactuca-sativa
#6
Sarah M Markland, Harsh Bais, Kalmia E Kniel
Human norovirus is the leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide with the majority of outbreaks linked to fresh produce and leafy greens. It is essential that we thoroughly understand the type of relationship and interactions that take place between plants and human norovirus to better utilize control strategies to reduce transmission of norovirus in the field onto plants harvested for human consumption. In this study the expression of gene markers for the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) plant defense pathways was measured and compared in romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 plants that were inoculated with Murine Norovirus-1, Tulane Virus, human norovirus GII...
May 15, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503776/differences-in-dietary-and-lifestyle-habits-between-pregnant-women-with-small-fetuses-and-appropriate-for-gestational-age-fetuses
#7
Maria Dolores Gómez Roig, Edurne Mazarico, Silvia Ferrero, Rocío Montejo, Lourdes Ibáñez, Francisco Grima, Antonio Vela
AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine differences in lifestyle and dietary habits between pregnant women with small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses and those appropriate for gestational age (AGA). METHODS: This cross-sectional, prospective study was conducted over 14 months and included 46 mothers with SGA and 81 with AGA fetuses. Fetal growth was assessed by a routine third trimester scan. Participants completed questionnaires regarding dietary habits, lifestyle behavior and sociodemographic characteristics during the third trimester...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503171/persistence-of-salmonella-typhimurium-lt2-in-soil-enhanced-after-growth-in-lettuce-medium
#8
Eva Fornefeld, Jasper Schierstaedt, Sven Jechalke, Rita Grosch, Adam Schikora, Kornelia Smalla
The persistence of Salmonella in the environment is influenced by a multitude of biotic and abiotic factors. In addition, its persistence can be influenced by preadaptation before the introduction into the environment. In order to study how preadaptation changes the survival of Salmonella in soil and therefore its potential to colonize the phytosphere, we developed a new medium based on lettuce material [lettuce medium (LM)]. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain LT2 was used as a model for Salmonella in this study...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500949/human-health-risks-for-legionella-and-mycobacterium-avium-complex-mac-from-potable-and-non-potable-uses-of-roof-harvested-rainwater
#9
Kerry A Hamilton, Warish Ahmed, Simon Toze, Charles N Haas
A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of opportunistic pathogens Legionella pneumophila (LP) and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) was undertaken for various uses of roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW) reported in Queensland, Australia to identify appropriate usages and guide risk management practices. Risks from inhalation of aerosols due to showering, swimming in pools topped up with RHRW, use of a garden hose, car washing, and toilet flushing with RHRW were considered for LP while both ingestion (drinking, produce consumption, and accidental ingestion from various activities) and inhalation risks were considered for MAC...
April 5, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493052/development-of-a-colorimetric-reverse-transcription-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay-for-the-detection-of-mirafiori-lettuce-big-vein-virus
#10
Mohammad Amin Almasi
An RT-LAMP assay was developed to detect Mirafiori lettuce big vein virus (MiLBVV) and was compared with DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR. All primers were designed on the basis of the coat protein gene of the virus. In addition, a novel immunocapture (IC) RT-LAMP assay for rapid and easy detection of MiLBVV was developed, and factors such as safety, simplicity, cost, user-friendliness and safety were compared with those of DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR and RT-LAMP assays. Compared with DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR, RT-LAMP and IC-RT-LAMP had higher sensitivity (100-fold) but similar specificity, with the advantage of a shorter assay time and no need for RNA extraction (in IC-RT-LAMP)...
May 10, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493020/development-and-validation-of-an-analytical-method-based-on-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-detection-for-the-simultaneous-determination-of-13-relevant-wastewater-derived-contaminants-in-lettuce
#11
Nicola Montemurro, Cristina Postigo, Antonio Lonigro, Sandra Perez, Damià Barceló
We present an analytical method developed and validated to study the potential uptake of 13 selected drugs (ten pharmaceuticals, one illicit drug, and two transformation products) into lettuce plants from contaminated water and soil. Some of the selected drugs (i.e., cocaine, methadone, cis-diltiazem, valsartan, and valsartan acid), which are commonly present in treated wastewater, were investigated for the first time in plant tissues. The method is based on ultrasonic solvent extraction with acetonitrile-methanol (1:1, v/v) and subsequent automated extract cleanup and analysis by means of online solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
May 11, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490064/thymol-nanoemulsions-formed-via-spontaneous-emulsification-physical-and-antimicrobial-properties
#12
Jianming Li, Jun Won Chang, Megan Saenger, Amanda Deering
In this work, we prepared various sub-micron thymol emulsions with high hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) surfactants via spontaneous emulsification. Emulsion properties, such as size, polydispersity and charge, were assessed for each surfactant type and mass fraction. Emulsion stability was characterized by monitoring droplet size following exposure to physical (centrifugation) and thermal stressors (freeze, thaw cycling). Emulsions were subsequently screened against several challenge pathogens to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486484/the-rhizoctonia-solani-ag1-ib-isolate-7-3-14-transcriptome-during-interaction-with-the-host-plant-lettuce-lactuca-sativa-l
#13
Bart Verwaaijen, Daniel Wibberg, Magdalena Kröber, Anika Winkler, Rita Zrenner, Hanna Bednarz, Karsten Niehaus, Rita Grosch, Alfred Pühler, Andreas Schlüter
The necrotrophic pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most economically important soil-borne pathogens of crop plants. Isolates of R. solani AG1-IB are the major pathogens responsible for bottom-rot of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and are also responsible for diseases in other plant species. Currently, there is lack of information regarding the molecular responses in R. solani during the pathogenic interaction between the necrotrophic soil-borne pathogen and its host plant. The genome of R. solani AG1-IB (isolate 7/3/14) was recently established to obtain insights into its putative pathogenicity determinants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484233/mercury-pollution-in-vegetables-grains-and-soils-from-areas-surrounding-coal-fired-power-plants
#14
Rui Li, Han Wu, Jing Ding, Weimin Fu, Lijun Gan, Yi Li
Mercury contamination in food can pose serious health risks to consumers and coal-fired power plants have been identified as the major source of mercury emissions. To assess the current state of mercury pollution in food crops grown near coal-fired power plants, we measured the total mercury concentration in vegetables and grain crops collected from farms located near two coal-fired power plants. We found that 79% of vegetable samples and 67% of grain samples exceeded the PTWI's food safety standards. The mercury concentrations of soil samples were negatively correlated with distances from the studied coal-fired power plants, and the mercury contents in lettuce, amaranth, water spinach, cowpea and rice samples were correlated with the mercury contents in soil samples, respectively...
May 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480414/nitrate-in-leafy-green-vegetables-and-estimated-intake
#15
Danijel Brkić, Jasna Bošnir, Martina Bevardi, Andrea Gross Bošković, Sanja Miloš, Dario Lasić, Adela Krivohlavek, Aleksandar Racz, Ana Mojsović Ćuić, Natalija Uršulin Trstenjak
BACKGROUND: Vegetarian diets are rich in vegetables. Green leafy vegetables are foods that contain considerable amounts of nitrate, which can have both positive and negative effects on the human body. Their potential carcinogenicity and toxicity have been proven, particularly after the reduction of nitrate to nitrite itself or just serving as a reactant with amines and/or amides in the formation of N-nitroso compounds -N-nitrosamines and other nitrogen compounds which may have high levels of nitrate...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469451/pesticide-residues-in-commercial-lettuce-onion-and-potato-samples-from-bolivia-a-threat-to-public-health
#16
REVIEW
Marlene Skovgaard, Susana Renjel Encinas, Olaf Chresten Jensen, Jens Hinge Andersen, Guido Condarco, Erik Jørs
Bolivia does not have a surveillance program for pesticide residues in food. The few published studies have suggested that pesticide contamination in food may present a public health problem. Data are lacking for all foods except tomatoes and breast milk. In this study 10 potato, 10 onion, and 10 lettuce samples from La Paz were sampled on August 15, 2015 at a local market and screened for 283 pesticides. Residues of cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, difenoconazol, or/and λ-cyhalothrin were detected in 50% of the lettuce samples, whereas no pesticides were found in potatoes and onions...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467185/copper-and-zinc-tolerance-in-bacteria-isolated-from-fresh-produce
#17
Ismael Cidre, Rubén Pérez Pulido, Maria José Grande Burgos, Antonio Gálvez, Rosario Lucas
The continued agricultural exposure of bacteria to metals such as copper and zinc may result in an increased copper tolerance through the food chain. The aim of this study was to determine the Cu and Zn tolerance of bacteria from fresh produce (cucumber, zucchini, green pepper, tomato, lettuce, vegetable salad, broccoli, cabbage, carrot, green onion, onion, and mango). Isolates (506 aerobic mesophiles) from 12 different food produce products were tested for growth in a range of Cu and Zn concentrations. Selected isolates were identified using 16S rDNA sequencing, and the presence of metal resistance genes was studied using PCR amplification...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460896/folates-chemistry-analysis-occurrence-biofortification-and-bioavailability
#18
REVIEW
Ramesh Kumar Saini, Shivraj Hariram Nile, Young-Soo Keum
Folates (Vitamin B9) include both naturally occurring folates and synthetic folic acid used in fortified foods and dietary supplements. Folate deficiency causes severe abnormalities in one-carbon metabolism can result chronic diseases and developmental disorders, including neural tube defects. Mammalian cells cannot synthesize folates de novo; therefore, diet and dietary supplements are the only way to attain daily folate requirements. In the last decade, significant advancements have been made to enhance the folate content of rice, tomato, common bean and lettuce by using genetic engineering approaches...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457732/causal-inference-between-bioavailability-of-heavy-metals-and-environmental-factors-in-a-large-scale-region
#19
Yuqiong Liu, Qingyun Du, Qi Wang, Huanyun Yu, Jianfeng Liu, Yu Tian, Chunying Chang, Jing Lei
The causation between bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors are generally obtained from field experiments at local scales at present, and lack sufficient evidence from large scales. However, inferring causation between bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors across large-scale regions is challenging. Because the conventional correlation-based approaches used for causation assessments across large-scale regions, at the expense of actual causation, can result in spurious insights...
April 27, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452009/detection-of-potential-infectious-enteric-viruses-in-fresh-produce-by-rt-qpcr-preceded-by-nuclease-treatment
#20
Elisabet Marti, Monique Ferrary-Américo, Célia Regina Monte Barardi
Foodborne illnesses associated with contaminated fresh produce are a common public health problem and there is an upward trend of outbreaks caused by enteric viruses, especially human noroviruses (HNoVs) and hepatitis A virus (HAV). This study aimed to assess the use of DNase and RNase coupled to qPCR and RT-qPCR, respectively, to detect intact particles of human adenoviruses (HAdVs), HNoV GI and GII and HAV in fresh produce. Different concentrations of DNase and RNase were tested to optimize the degradation of free DNA and RNA from inactivated HAdV and murine norovirus (MNV), respectively...
April 27, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
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