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Jinjin Wang, Xibai Zeng, Hao Zhang, Yongtao Li, Shizhen Zhao, Shiming Su, Lingyu Bai, Yanan Wang, Tuo Zhang
The effect of exogenous phosphate (P, 200 mg⋅kg-1 soil) on the lability and phytoavailability of arsenic (As) was studied using the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique. Lettuce were grown on the As-amended soils following the stabilization of soil labile As after 90 days incubation. Phosphate (P) application generally facilitated plant growth except one grown on P-sufficient soil. Soil labile As concentration increased in all the soils after P application due to a competition effect. Plant As concentration increased in red soils collected from Hunan Province, while decreases were observed in the other soils...
December 30, 2017: Chemosphere
Maressa Maria de Melo Santos, Marta Maria Menezes Bezerra Duarte, Graziele Elisandra do Nascimento, Natalya Barbosa Guedes de Souza, Otidene Rossiter Sá da Rocha
This work proposes the use of plastic residues, more specifically polystyrene packaging, to support TiO2, used as a photocatalyst in the degradation of erythrosine and Brilliant Blue food dyes. The scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses exhibited the surface coating and the presence of TiO2 in the material, respectively. The UV/H2O2/TiO2((SP)supported) process was used in the preliminary study, given the high percentage of degradation, operational advantages and greater reductions in peaks related to the aromatic rings when compared to the other processes studied...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Technology
Carlos A Gómez-Aldapa, Esmeralda Rangel-Vargas, Ma Refugio Torres-Vitela, Angélica Villarruel-López, Otilio A Acevedo-Sandoval, Alberto J Gordillo-Martínez, Angélica Godínez-Oviedo, Javier Castro-Rosas
Leafy greens have been associated with foodborne disease outbreaks in different countries. To decrease microbial contamination of leafy greens, chemical agents are commonly used; however, a number of studies have shown these agents to have limited antimicrobial effect against pathogenic bacteria on vegetables. The objective of this study was to compare the antibacterial effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extracts (water, methanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate), sodium hypochlorite, acetic acid, and colloidal silver against foodborne bacteria on leafy greens...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Amir Mokhtari, David Oryang, Yuhuan Chen, Regis Pouillot, Jane Van Doren
We developed a probabilistic mathematical model for the postharvest processing of leafy greens focusing on Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of fresh-cut romaine lettuce as the case study. Our model can (i) support the investigation of cross-contamination scenarios, and (ii) evaluate and compare different risk mitigation options. We used an agent-based modeling framework to predict the pathogen prevalence and levels in bags of fresh-cut lettuce and quantify spread of E. coli O157:H7 from contaminated lettuce to surface areas of processing equipment...
January 8, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Elena Arco-Lázaro, Tania Pardo, Rafael Clemente, Ma Pilar Bernal
The use of As-rich water for irrigation in agricultural soils may result in As accumulation in soil and crops, with the consequent risk of its entry into the food chain. The effectiveness of three different Fe-based materials (a commercial iron oxide (Bayoxide®), lamination slag (a by-product of the hot rolling of steel) and a commercial red mud derivative (ViroBind™)) used as soil amendments to minimise the impact of irrigation with As-rich water in an agricultural soil-plant system was evaluated in a pot experiment...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Shuai Wei, Ramachandran Chelliah, Byung-Jae Park, Joong-Hyun Park, Fereidoun Forghani, Youn-Seo Park, Min-Seok Cho, Dong-Suk Park, Deog-Hwan Oh
The aim of the study was to identify and evaluate specific biomarkers to differentiate within Bacillus cereus group species from contaminated food samples with the use of real-time PCR. A total of 120 strains, comprising of 28 reference, 2 type, 78 wild strains of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis along with 12 strains representing 2 bacterial groups - B. mycoides, B. pseudomycoides, B. weihenstephanensis (B. cereus group); B. amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes (non-Bacillus sp...
January 3, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Maheswor Gautam, Mohamed Elhiti, Inge S Fomsgaard
Hairy roots induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes are well established models to study the metabolism of xenobiotics in plants for phytoremediation purposes. However, the model requires special skills and resources for growing and is a time-consuming process. The roots induction process alters the genetic construct of a plant and is known to express genes that are normally absent from the non-transgenic plants. In this study, we propose and establish a non-transgenic maize root model to study xenobiotic metabolism in plants for phytoremediation purpose using azoxystrobin as a xenobiotic compound...
December 26, 2017: Chemosphere
Kaoru Hida, Efstathia Papafragkou, Michael Kulka
The development of rapid and sensitive detection methods for human noroviruses (HuNoV) in produce items is critical, especially with the recent rise in outbreaks associated with this food commodity. In this study, 50-g portions of various produce items linked to a norovirus outbreak (celery, cucumber, lettuce, grapes, and radish) were artificially inoculated with murine norovirus (MNV-1) and concentrated either by ultracentrifugation or polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation after elution with an alkaline Tris-glycine-beef extract buffer supplemented with pectinase...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Bart Verwaaijen, Daniel Wibberg, Johanna Nelkner, Miriam Gordin, Oliver Rupp, Anika Winkler, Andreas Bremges, Jochen Blom, Rita Grosch, Alfred Pühler, Andreas Schlüter
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) is an important annual plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae). The commercial lettuce cultivar Tizian has been used in various scientific studies investigating the interaction of the plant with phytopathogens or biological control agents. Here, we present the de novo draft genome sequencing and gene prediction for this specific cultivar derived from transcriptome sequence data. The assembled scaffolds amount to a size of 2.22 Gb. Based on RNAseq data, 31,112 transcript isoforms were identified...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
A B Martínez-Piernas, M I Polo-López, P Fernández-Ibáñez, A Agüera
Reuse of treated wastewater for agricultural purposes can mitigate water stress in some regions where the lack of water is an extended problem. However, the environmental long-term consequences of this practice are still unknown. It is demonstrated that using reclaimed water for irrigation lead to accumulation and translocation of some microcontaminants (MCs) in soil and crops. However, so far, only a small group of contaminants has been investigated. This study aims to develop and validate a simple and efficient multiresidue method based on QuEChERs (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective and Rugged) extraction coupled to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Russell A Scott, Roger Thilmony, Leslie A Harden, Yaguang Zhou, Maria T Brandl
Plant injury is inherent to the production and processing of fruit and vegetables. The opportunistic colonization of damaged plant tissue by human enteric pathogens may contribute to the occurrence of outbreaks of foodborne illness linked to produce. Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) responds to physicochemical stresses in cut lettuce and lettuce lysates by upregulation of several stress response pathways. We investigated the tolerance of EcO157 to osmotic stress imposed by the leakage of osmolytes from injured lettuce leaf tissue...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lei Zhang, Wenqing Su, Rong Tao, Weiyi Zhang, Jiongjiong Chen, Peiyao Wu, Chenghuan Yan, Yue Jia, Robert M Larkin, Dean Lavelle, Maria-Jose Truco, Sebastian Reyes Chin-Wo, Richard W Michelmore, Hanhui Kuang
Different horticultural types of lettuce exhibit tremendous morphological variation. However, the molecular basis for domestication and divergence among the different horticultural types of lettuce remains unknown. Here, we report the RNA sequencing of 240 lettuce accessions sampled from the major horticultural types and wild relatives, generating 1.1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Demographic modeling indicates that there was a single domestication event for lettuce. We identify a list of regions as putative selective sweeps that occurred during domestication and divergence, respectively...
December 22, 2017: Nature Communications
Mahboobeh Ghoochani, Noushin Rastkari, Masud Yunesian, Ramin Nabizadeh Nodehi, Alireza Mesdaghinia, Anahita Houshiarrad, Mansour Shamsipour, Mohammad Hadi Dehghani
Cadmium is an important environmental contaminant. High consumption of chemical fertilizers and industrial activities in recent decades has caused people to be worried about exposure to cadmium. There is no policy for environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to cadmium in the general population in Iran. This study was aimed to review cadmium content in consuming foods and biological samples in Iran, systematically. We developed a comprehensive search strategy and used it to search on Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, and Scientific Information Database until 28 December 2016...
December 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Shubhangi Sharma, Pankaj Kumar, Geetika Gambhir, Ramesh Kumar, D K Srivastava
The importance of germplasm characterization is an important link between the conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources in various breeding programmes. In the present study, genetic variability and relationships among 25 Lactuca sativa L. genotypes were tested using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular markers. A total of 45 random decamer oligonucleotide primers were examined to generate RAPD profiles, out of these reproducible patterns were obtained with 22 primers. A total of 87 amplicon were obtained, out of which all were polymorphic and 7 were unique bands...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Chuan Wan, Mingan Wang, Dongyan Yang, Xiaoqiang Han, Chuanliang Che, Shanshan Ding, Yumei Xiao, Zhaohai Qin
2',3'-iso-Benzoabscisic acid (iso-PhABA), an excellent selective abscisic acid (ABA) analog, was developed in our previous work. In order to find its more structure-activity information, some structural modifications were completed in this paper, including the substitution of phenyl ring and replacing the ring with heterocycles. Thus, 16 novel analogs of iso-PhABA were synthesized and screened with three bioassays, Arabidopsis and lettuce seed germination and rice seedling elongation. Some of them, i.e., 2',3'-iso-pyridoabscisic acid (iso-PyABA) and 2',3'-iso-franoabscisic acid (iso-FrABA), displayed good bioactivities that closed to iso-PhABA and natural (+)-ABA...
December 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Naiyi Yin, Xiaolin Cai, Xiaochen Chen, Huili Du, Jiayan Xu, Lihong Wang, Guoxin Sun, Yanshan Cui
The in vitro bioaccessibility of trace metals associated with oral ingestion of market vegetables (lettuce, pak choi, cole, and leaf lettuce) of Beijing, China was studied. The physiologically based extraction test (PBET) combined with the Simulator of Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME) was applied to simulate stomach, small intestine, and colon of human. In the gastro-intestinal phases, the bioaccessibility of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn varied within 5.7-75.5%, 17.3-50.4%, 13.3-49.1%, and 19.9-63.7%, respectively...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jiangbing Xu, Xiaosan Luo, Yanling Wang, Youzhi Feng
The wide spread of nanoparticles (NPs) has caused tremendous concerns on agricultural ecosystem. Some metallic NPs, such as zinc oxide (ZnO), can be utilized as a nano-fertilizer when used at optimal doses. However, little is known about the responses of plant development and concomitant soil bacteria community to ZnO NPs. The present pot experiment studied the impacts of different doses of ZnO NPs and bulk ZnO (0, 1, 10, 100 mg ZnO/kg), on the growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and the associated rhizospheric soil bacterial community...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Tomohiro Jishi, Ryo Matsuda, Kazuhiro Fujiwara
Square-wave pulsed light is characterized by three parameters, namely average photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), pulsed-light frequency, and duty ratio (the ratio of light-period duration to that of the light-dark cycle). In addition, the light-period PPFD is determined by the averaged PPFD and duty ratio. We investigated the effects of these parameters and their interactions on net photosynthetic rate (P n) of cos lettuce leaves for every combination of parameters. Averaged PPFD values were 0-500 µmol m-2 s-1...
December 13, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
Wakana Harigaya, Hidenori Takahashi
Root hair formation occurs in lettuce seedlings after transfer to an acidic medium (pH 4.0). This process requires cortical microtubule (CMT) randomization in root epidermal cells and the plant hormone ethylene. We investigated the interaction between ethylene and glucose, a new signaling molecule in plants, in lettuce root development, with an emphasis on root hair formation. Dark-grown seedlings were used to exclude the effect of photosynthetically produced glucose. In the dark, neither root hair formation nor the CMT randomization preceding it occurred, even after transfer to the acidic medium (pH 4...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Uri Keshet, Paulina Goldshlag, Aviv Amirav
We explored the use of pulsed flow modulation (PFM) two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography (GCxGC) mass spectrometry with supersonic molecular beams (SMB) (also named Cold electron ionization (EI)) for achieving universal pesticide analysis in agricultural products. The use of GCxGC serves as an alternative to MS-MS in the needed reduction of matrix interference while enabling full-scan MS operation for universal pesticide analysis with reduced number of false negatives. Matrix interference is further reduced with Cold EI in view of the enhancement of the molecular ions...
December 13, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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