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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712067/rnai-mediated-resistance-to-whitefly-bemisia-tabaci-in-genetically-engineered-lettuce-lactuca-sativa
#1
Abdulrazak B Ibrahim, Tatiane R Monteiro, Glaucia B Cabral, Francisco J L Aragão
RNA interference (RNAi)-based transgenic technologies have evolved as potent biochemical tools for silencing specific genes of plant pathogens and pests. The approach has been demonstrated to be useful in silencing genes in insect species. Here, we report on the successful construction of RNAi-based plasmid containing an interfering cassette designed to generate dsRNAs that target a novel v-ATPase transcript in whitefly (Bemisia tabaci), an important agricultural pest in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The presence of the transgene was confirmed in T0 and T1 generations of transgenic lettuce lines, segregating in a Mendelian fashion...
July 15, 2017: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707593/effects-of-some-indigenous-plants-of-north-karnataka-india-on-cardiovascular-and-glucose-regulatory-systems-in-diabetic-rats
#2
Kusal K Das, Kailash S Chadchan, R Chandramouli Reddy, M S Biradar, Pallavi S Kanthe, Bheemshetty S Pati, Jeevan G Ambekar, Ishwar B Bagoji, Swastika Das
BACKGROUND: The medicinal plants of north Karnataka, India are always researchers delight as many of these plants are rarely found in elsewhere other than this part of India. Kenaf leaves (Hibiscus cannabinus Linn, Pundi), Chick pea leaves (Cicer arietinum Linn, Chana) and Prickly lettuce leaves (Lactuca scariola Linn, Hattaraki.) are a few of these indigenous plants which are routinely consumed by the people as diet in this part of India. Various studies were done on these plants to find out some potential anti diabetic efficacies but reports are still not encouraging...
July 12, 2017: Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703041/a-review-of-control-options-and-externalities-for-verticillium-wilts
#3
Christine L Carroll, Colin A Carter, Rachael E Goodhue, C-Y Cynthia Lin Lawell, Krishna V Subbarao
Plant pathogens migrate to new regions through human activities such as trade, where they may establish themselves and cause disease on agriculturally important crops. Verticillium wilt of lettuce, caused by Verticillium dahliae, is a soilborne fungus that was introduced to coastal California via infested spinach seeds. It has caused significant losses for lettuce growers. Once introduced, Verticillium wilt could be managed by fumigating with methyl bromide and chloropicrin, but this option is no longer available...
July 13, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695191/simultaneous-determination-of-fluoroquinolones-and-sulfonamides-originating-from-sewage-sludge-compost
#4
K Kipper, M Lillenberg, K Herodes, L Nei, E Haiba
A simultaneous method for quantitative determination of traces of fluoroquinolones (FQs) and sulfonamides (SAs) in edible plants fertilized with sewage sludge was developed. The compounds were extracted from the plants by rapid and simple liquid extraction followed by extracts clean-up using solid phase extraction. The eluent additive 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol was used for liquid chromatographic detection to achieve separation of structurally similar antimicrobials like ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688330/low-energy-biomass-pretreatment-with-deep-eutectic-solvents-for-bio-butanol-production
#5
Alessandra Procentese, Francesca Raganati, Giuseppe Olivieri, Maria Elena Russo, Lars Rehmann, Antonio Marzocchella
Waste lettuce leaves - from the "fresh cut vegetable" industry - were pretreated with the deep eutectic solvent (DES) made of choline chloride - glycerol. Reaction time (3-16h) and the operation temperature (80-150°C) were investigated. Enzymatic glucose and xylose yields of 94.9% and 75.0%, respectively were obtained when the biomass was pretreated at 150°C for 16h. Sugars contained in the biomass hydrolysate were fermented in batch cultures of Clostridium acetobutylicum DSMZ 792. The energy consumption and the energy efficiency related to the DES pretreatment were calculated and compared to the most common lignocellulosic pretreatment processes reported in the literature...
June 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681699/expression-analysis-of-polyphenol-oxidase-isozymes-by-active-staining-method-and-tissue-browning-of-head-lettuce-lactuca-sativa-l
#6
Takahiro Noda, Kazuhiko Iimure, Shunsuke Okamoto, Akira Saito
Browning of plant tissue is generally considered attributable to enzymatic oxidation by polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Electrophoresis followed by activity staining has been used as an effective procedure to visually detect and isolate isozymes; however, it has not been applied for examination of various PPO isozymes in lettuce. Our study demonstrated that different lettuce PPO isozymes could be detected at different pH in active staining, and multiple isozymes were detected only under alkaline conditions. As a result, we concluded that activity staining with approximately pH 8 enabled to detect various PPO isozymes in lettuce...
August 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677320/whitefly-feeding-behavior-and-retention-of-a-foregut-borne-crinivirus-exposed-to-artificial-diets-with-different-ph-values
#7
Jaclyn S Zhou, Angel Y S Chen, Martin Drucker, Nicole H Lopez, Alyssa Carpenter, James C K Ng
Transmission of plant viruses by phytophagous hemipteran insects encompasses complex interactions underlying a continuum of processes involved in virus acquisition, retention and inoculation combined with vector feeding behavior. Here, we investigated the effects of dietary pH on whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) feeding behavior and release of Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV) virions retained in the vector's foregut. Electrical penetration graph analysis revealed that variables associated with whitefly probing and ingestion did not differ significantly in pH (4, 7...
July 5, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675971/effects-of-natural-antimicrobials-on-prevention-and-reduction-of-bacterial-cross-contamination-during-the-washing-of-ready-to-eat-fresh-cut-lettuce
#8
Cristina Pablos, Alba Fernández, Alison Thackeray, Javier Marugán
Microbiological safety of the fresh-cut produce may not be guaranteed if the quality of wash water is not maintained. The use of natural antimicrobials as alternative to chlorine may offer interesting possibilities for disinfecting wash water. Antimicrobial properties of allyl- and benzyl-isothiocyanates, respectively, and chitosan against Salmonella spp. were evaluated by standard plate count. Minimal inhibitory concentration values were observed for benzyl-isothiocyanate and chitosan, corresponding to 50 and 1000 mgl(-1), respectively...
July 2017: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675480/omics-approaches-on-fresh-cut-lettuce-reveal-global-molecular-responses-to-sodium-hypochlorite-and-peracetic-acid-treatment
#9
Loretta Daddiego, Linda Bianco, Cristina Capodicasa, Fabrizio Carbone, Claudia Dalmastri, Lorenza Daroda, Antonella Del Fiore, Patrizia De Rossi, Mariasole Di Carli, Marcello Donini, Loredana Lopez, Alessio Mengoni, Patrizia Paganin, Gaetano Perrotta, Annamaria Bevivino
BACKGROUND: Lettuce is a leafy vegetables that are extensively commercialized as ready-to-eat product because of its widespread use in human nutrition as salad. It is well-known that washing treatments can severely affect the quality and shelf-life of ready-to-eat vegetables. The study presented here evaluated the effect of two washing procedures on fresh-cut lettuce during storage. RESULTS: We applied omics approach to reveal global changes at the molecular level induced by peracetic acid washing in comparison with sodium hypochlorite treatment...
July 4, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670637/serotyping-and-antimicrobial-drug-resistance-of-salmonella-isolated-from-lettuce-and-human-diarrhea-samples-in-burkina-faso
#10
Somda Namwin Siourimè, Bonkoungou Ouindgueta Juste Isidore, Traoré Oumar, Bassolé Ismael Henri Nestor, Traoré Yves, Barro Nicolas, Savadogo Aly
BACKGROUND: In Burkina Faso dirty water in particular those of the stoppings and the gutter ones are used for vegetables irrigation in the gardens. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella serotypes from humans and lettuce samples inBurkina Faso. Materials and Methods:Salmonella strains isolated from patients in 2009 to 2015 and lettuce samples in 2014 in Burkina Faso were serotyped using specific antisera. All strains were subjected to a set of 14 antibiotics to study their antibiogram by using Baeur-Kirby disk diffusion method...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656639/comparison-of-immunomagnetic-separation-beads-for-detection-of-six-non-o157-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-serogroups-in-different-matrices
#11
Autumn L Kraft, David W Lacher, Weilin L Shelver, Julie S Sherwood, Teresa M Bergholz
Immunomagnetic separation used with culture based methods has been a useful technique in the detection of pathogens. However, previous studies have not answered many of the necessary questions for real world applications. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of different IMS bead types in recovery of the correct serogroup from a mixture of big six non-O157 STEC strains. To determine the impact of different matrices on recovery, samples of sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS), sterile and non-sterile cattle feces, ground beef, and lettuce were inoculated with 10 CFU ml(-1) mixture of isolates representing the six serogroups...
June 28, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653580/short-term-host-selection-pressure-has-little-effect-on-the-evolution-of-a-monoclonal-population-of-verticillium-dahliae-race-1
#12
Krishna D Puri, Suraj Gurung, Dylan Pg Short, Zahi Atallah, German Sandoya, Mike Davis, Ryan J Hayes, Krishna V Subbarao
Understanding pathogen evolution over time is vital for plant breeding and deployment of host resistance. In the context of a soilborne pathogen, the potential of host-directed evolution of a Verticillium dahliae race 1 isolate and genotypic variation of V. dahliae associated with two major hosts (lettuce and tomato) were determined. A total of 427 isolates were recovered over six years from a resistance screening nursery infested with a single V. dahliae race 1 isolate. In a separate study, an additional 207 isolates representing 163 and 43 isolates from commercial lettuce and tomato fields were collected, respectively...
June 27, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651076/application-of-water-assisted-ultraviolet-light-in-combination-of-chlorine-and-hydrogen-peroxide-to-inactivate-salmonella-on-fresh-produce
#13
Shuanghuan Guo, Runze Huang, Haiqiang Chen
With the demand for fresh produce increases in recent decades, concerns for microbiological safety of fresh produce are also raised. To identify effective ultraviolet (UV) light treatment for fresh produce decontamination, we first determined the effect of three forms of UV treatment, dry UV (samples were treated by UV directly), wet UV (samples were dipped in water briefly and then exposed to UV), and water-assisted UV (samples were treated by UV while being immersed in agitated water) on inactivation of Salmonella inoculated on tomatoes and fresh-cut lettuce...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649706/improving-efficiency-of-viability-qpcr-for-selective-detection-of-infectious-hav-in-food-and-water-samples
#14
W Randazzo, Joaquín Piqueras, Jesús Rodríguez-Díaz, R Aznar, G Sánchez
AIM: To improve the efficacy of intercalating dyes to distinguishing between infectious and inactivated hepatitis A virus (HAV) in food. METHODS AND RESULTS: Different intercalating dyes were evaluated for the discrimination between infectious and thermally-inactivated HAV suspensions combining with the RT-qPCR proposed in the ISO 15216. Among them, PMAxx was the best dye in removing the RT-qPCR signal from inactivated HAV. Applied to lettuce and spinach, PMAxx-Triton pretreatment resulted in complete removal of the RT-qPCR signal from inactivated HAV...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646571/comparison-of-reed-water-lettuce-in-constructed-wetland-for-sewage-water-treatment
#15
Abdullah Yasar, Ayesha Zaheer, Amtul Bari Tabinda, Marryam Khan Yusra Mahfooz
In the present study two designs Vertical and Horizontal system were used and two different plant species, water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) and reed plant (Phragmites karka) were compared for their removal efficiency. Vertical system appeared to be more stable and efficient for almost all the parameters. Vertical planted with water lettuce showed % removal efficiency for BOD, phosphate and chloride as 82, 95.4 and 51 respectively while turbidity and total suspended solids (TSS) removal efficiency was almost same...
June 21, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638392/evaluation-of-borage-extracts-as-potential-biostimulant-using-a-phenomic-agronomic-physiological-and-biochemical-approach
#16
Roberta Bulgari, Silvia Morgutti, Giacomo Cocetta, Noemi Negrini, Stefano Farris, Aldo Calcante, Anna Spinardi, Enrico Ferrari, Ilaria Mignani, Roberto Oberti, Antonio Ferrante
Biostimulants are substances able to improve water and nutrient use efficiency and counteract stress factors by enhancing primary and secondary metabolism. Premise of the work was to exploit raw extracts from leaves (LE) or flowers (FE) of Borago officinalis L., to enhance yield and quality of Lactuca sativa 'Longifolia,' and to set up a protocol to assess their effects. To this aim, an integrated study on agronomic, physiological and biochemical aspects, including also a phenomic approach, has been adopted...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632416/survival-of-escherichia-coli-on-lettuce-under-field-conditions-encountered-in-the-northeastern-united-states
#17
Daniel L Weller, Jasna Kovac, Sherry Roof, David J Kent, Jeffrey I Tokman, Barbara Kowalcyk, David Oryang, Renata Ivanek, Anna Aceituno, Christopher Sroka, Martin Wiedmann
Although wildlife intrusion and untreated manure have been associated with microbial contamination of produce, relatively few studies have examined the survival of Escherichia coli on produce under field conditions following contamination (e.g., via splash from wildlife feces). This experimental study was performed to estimate the die-off rate of E. coli on preharvest lettuce following contamination with a fecal slurry. During August 2015, field-grown lettuce was inoculated via pipette with a fecal slurry that was spiked with a three-strain cocktail of rifampin-resistant nonpathogenic E...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613869/effect-of-different-elicitors-and-preharvest-day-application-on-the-content-of-phytochemicals-and-antioxidant-activity-of-butterhead-lettuce-lactuca-sativa-var-capitata-produced-under-hydroponic-conditions
#18
Jesús Omar Moreno-Escamilla, Emilio Alvarez-Parrilla, Laura A de la Rosa, José Alberto Núñez-Gastélum, Gustavo A González-Aguilar, Joaquín Rodrigo-García
The effect of four elicitors on phytochemical content in two varieties of lettuce was evaluated. The best preharvest day for application of each elicitor was chosen. Solutions of arachidonic acid (AA), salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MJ), and Harpin protein (HP) were applied by foliar aspersion on lettuce leaves while cultivating under hydroponic conditions. Application of elicitors was done at 15, 7, 5, 3, or 1 day before harvest. Green lettuce showed the highest increase in phytochemical content when elicitors (AA, SA, and HP) were applied on day 7 before harvest...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613108/a-novel-phylogroup-of-pseudomonas-cichorii-identified-following-an-unusual-disease-outbreak-on-tomato
#19
Sujan Timilsina, Heather Adkison, Anna Louise Testen, Eric A Newberry, Sally A Miller, Mathews Lal Paret, Gerald V Minsavage, Erica M Goss, Jeffrey B Jones, Gary E Vallad
Recently, in Central Florida tomato production fields, tomato foliage and fruit were observed with symptoms similar to bacterial speck. Fluorescent pseudomonads were consistently isolated and the strains were characterized by standard LOPAT tests, pathogenicity tests and genetic characterization using 16S rRNA sequences and multilocus sequence analysis of conserved housekeeping genes. LOPAT test results indicated the strains were likely P. cichorii. These strains were pathogenic on tomato and were also pathogenic on lettuce, the host for the type strain of P...
June 14, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612389/biochar-potential-in-intensive-cultivation-of-capsicum-anuum-l-sweet-pepper-crop-yield-and-plant-protection
#20
Abhay Kumar, Yigal Elad, Ludmila Tsechansky, Vikas Abrol, Beni Lew, Rivka Offenbach, Ellen R Graber
BACKGROUND: The influence of various biochars on crop yield and disease resistance of Capsicum anuum L. (sweet pepper) under modern, high-input, intensive net house cultivation was tested over the course of 2011 to 2014 in the Arava desert region of Israel. A pot experiment with Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) grown in the absence of fertilizer employed the 3-year old field trial soils to determine if biochar treatments contributed to soil intrinsic fertility. RESULTS: Biochar amendments resulted in a significant increase in number and weight of pepper fruits over three years...
June 14, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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