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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149646/dependence-of-growth-inhibiting-action-of-increased-planting-density-on-capacity-of-lettuce-plants-to-synthesize-aba
#1
Lidiya B Vysotskaya, Tatyana N Arkhipova, Guzel R Kudoyarova, Stanislav Yu Veselov
Inhibition of lettuce plant growth under increased planting density was accompanied by accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) in the shoots of competing plants. To check causal relationship between these responses we studied the effect of decreased synthesis of ABA on growth indexes and hormonal balance of lettuce plants under elevated density of their planting (one (single) or three (competing) plants per pot). Herbicide fluridone was used to inhibit ABA synthesis. Preliminary experiments with single plants showed that presence of fluridone in the soil solution at rather low concentration (0...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149486/discovery-of-vg-and-vgr-gene-expression-profiles-related-to-host-plant-suitability-of-spodoptera-exigua
#2
Jing Zhao, Yang Sun, Liubin Xiao, Yongan Tan, Yiping Jiang, Lixin Bai
BACKGROUND: Spodoptera exigua, a worldwide phytophagous pest, causes considerable economic agricultural losses. Understanding the relationship between its fecundity and host plant is a basic and important component of early forecasting of beet armyworm. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism by which distinct hosts affect S. exigua fecundity. RESULTS: In this study, the key parameters of S. exigua grown on distinct hosts were investigated; host plants could be ranked as lettuce >shallot > tomato > celery in their order of suitability...
November 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141131/simultaneous-detection-of-four-foodborne-viruses-in-food-samples-using-a-one-step-multiplex-reverse-transcription-pcr
#3
Shin-Young Lee, Mi-Ju Kim, Hyun-Joong Kim, KwangCheol Casey Jeong, Hae-Yeong Kim
A one-step multiplex reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) method comprising six primer sets (for the detection of norovirus GI and GII, hepatitis A virus, rotavirus, and astrovirus) was developed to simultaneously detect four kinds of pathogenic viruses. The size of the PCR products for norovirus GI and GII, hepatitis A virus (VP3/VP1 and P2A regions), rotavirus, and astrovirus were 330, 164, 244, 198, 629, and 449 bp, respectively. The RT-PCR with the six primer sets showed specificity for the pathogenic viruses...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134675/analytical-approach-dissipation-pattern-and-risk-assessment-of-pesticide-residue-in-green-leafy-vegetables-a-comprehensive-review
#4
REVIEW
Waziha Farha, A M Abd El-Aty, Md Musfiqur Rahman, Ji Hoon Jeong, Ho-Chul Shin, Jing Wang, Sung Shik Shin, Jae-Han Shim
The category of "leafy vegetables" comprises a wide range of plants, including cabbage, lettuce, leeks, spinach, Swiss chard, and kale, and it forms a significant component of the human diet. Typically, leafy vegetables are low in calories and fat, are great sources of vitamins, protein, dietary fibre, minerals (including iron, calcium, and nitrates), and are rich in phytochemicals. To counter the impact of pests on vegetables, a broad variety of pesticides is used. Because of their large surface areas, leafy vegetables are expected to have high residual pesticide levels...
November 14, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127920/uptake-and-phytotoxic-effect-of-benzalkonium-chlorides-in-lepidium-sativum-and-lactuca-sativa
#5
Adnan Hossain Khan, Mark Libby, Daniel Winnick, John Palmer, Mark Sumarah, Madhumita B Ray, Sheila M Macfie
Cationic surfactants such as benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) are used extensively as biocides in hospitals, food processing industries, and personal care products. BACs have the potential to reach the rooting zone of crop plants and BACs might thereby enter the food chain. The two most commonly used BACs, benzyl dimethyl dodecyl ammonium chloride (BDDA) and benzyl dimethyl tetradecyl ammonium chloride (BDTA), were tested in a hydroponic system to assess the uptake by and phytotoxicity to lettuce (Lactuca sativa L...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126240/sampling-plans-for-the-thrips-frankliniella-schultzei-thysanoptera-thripidae-in-three-lettuce-varieties
#6
Alisson R Silva, Nilson Rodrigues-Silva, Poliana S Pereira, Renato A Sarmento, Thiago L Costa, Tarcísio V S Galdino, Marcelo C Picanço
The common blossom thrips, Frankliniella schultzei Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important lettuce pest worldwide. Conventional sampling plans are the first step in implementing decision-making systems into integrated pest management programs. However, this tool is not available for F. schultzei infesting lettuce crops. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a conventional sampling plan for F. schultzei in lettuce crops. Two sampling techniques (direct counting and leaf beating on a white plastic tray) were compared in crisphead, looseleaf, and Boston lettuce varieties before and during head formation...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123942/mode-of-managing-nutrient-solution-based-on-n-use-efficiency-for-lettuce-lactuca-sativa-l
#7
Ibraimo Teleha Chabite, Zhang Lei, Yao Ningning, Fu Qiang, Yu Haiye
In aeroponic cultivation the nutrient solution is an essential component to achieve good production results. And nitrogen is the main constituent element of the nutrient solution and essential element in plant nutrition. Therefore, the management and monitoring nutrient solution and existing nitrogen is fundamental. The experiment shows that three modes of replacing the nutrient solution and three initial pH values and their interaction significantly influenced the fresh weight and dry matter of lettuce. The highest values of fresh and dry weight were recorded in the fifth treatment where there is an interaction between pH 6 and the mode of replacing half of the nutrient solution...
2017: J Food Sci Eng
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116456/soil-plant-transfer-models-for-metals-to-improve-soil-screening-value-guidelines-valid-for-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#8
Sabrina N Dos Santos-Araujo, Frank A Swartjes, Kees W Versluijs, Fabio Netto Moreno, Luís R F Alleoni
In Brazil, there is a lack of combined soil-plant data attempting to explain the influence of specific climate, soil conditions, and crop management on heavy metal uptake and accumulation by plants. As a consequence, soil-plant relationships to be used in risk assessments or for derivation of soil screening values are not available. Our objective in this study was to develop empirical soil-plant models for Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn, in order to derive appropriate soil screening values representative of humid tropical regions such as the state of São Paulo (SP), Brazil...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111101/multiresidue-determination-of-pesticides-in-crop-plants-by-the-quick-easy-cheap-effective-rugged-and-safe-method-and-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-using-a-calibration-based-on-a-single-level-standard-addition-in-the-sample
#9
Mariela S Viera, Tiele M Rizzetti, Maiara P de Souza, Manoel L Martins, Osmar D Prestes, Martha B Adaime, Renato Zanella
In this study, a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method, optimized by a 2(3) full factorial design, was developed for the determination of 72 pesticides in plant parts of carrot, corn, melon, rice, soy, silage, tobacco, cassava, lettuce and wheat by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Considering the complexity of these matrices and the need of use calibration in matrix, a new calibration approach based on single level standard addition in the sample (SLSAS) was proposed in this work and compared with the matrix-matched calibration (MMC), the procedural standard calibration (PSC) and the diluted standard addition calibration (DSAC)...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108741/the-role-of-smell-taste-flavour-and-texture-cues-in-the-identification-of-vegetables
#10
V L van Stokkom, A E Blok, O van Kooten, C de Graaf, M Stieger
It has been shown that the identification of many foods including vegetables based on flavour cues is often difficult. The effect of providing texture cues in addition to flavour cues on the identification of foods and the effect of providing taste cues only on the identification of foods have not been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the role of smell, taste, flavour and texture cues in the identification of ten vegetables commonly consumed in The Netherlands (broccoli, cauliflower, French bean, leek, bell pepper, carrot, cucumber, iceberg lettuce, onion and tomato)...
November 8, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106782/expression-and-assembly-of-largest-foreign-protein-in-chloroplasts-oral-delivery-of-human-fviii-made-in-lettuce-chloroplasts-robustly-suppresses-inhibitor-formation-in-hemophilia-a-mice
#11
Kwang-Chul Kwon, Alexandra Sherman, Wan-Jung Chang, Aditya Kamesh, Moanaro Biswas, Roland W Herzog, Henry Daniell
Inhibitor formation is a serious complication of factor VIII (FVIII) replacement therapy for the X-linked bleeding disorder hemophilia A and occurs in 20-30% of patients. No prophylactic tolerance protocol currently exists. Although we reported oral tolerance induction using FVIII domains expressed in tobacco chloroplasts, significant challenges in clinical advancement include expression of the full-length CTB-FVIII sequence to cover the entire patient population, regardless of individual CD4(+) T cell epitope responses...
November 6, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105723/new-horizons-in-microbiological-food-safety-photodynamic-decontamination-based-on-a-curcumin-derivative
#12
Michael Glueck, Barbara Schamberger, Peter Eckl, Kristjan Plaetzer
Outbreaks of foodborne diseases are regularly reported worldwide. In particular, uncooked plant food is considered risky in terms of microbiological safety. Food is also the most important transmission route for resistant microorganisms from animals to humans. Photodynamic Decontamination (PDc) of foodstuff was recently introduced as a novel approach for increasing microbiological food safety. We investigated the efficiency of PDc on plant food with different geometries (flat, spherical and complex) using a two-dimensional LED array as a light source (435 nm, 33...
November 6, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103171/complete-genome-sequence-of-a-lettuce-chlorosis-virus-isolate-from-china-and-genome-recombination-rearrangement-analysis
#13
Xiaohui Zhao, Min Zhu, Qian Wu, Jing Zhang, Yi Xu, Xiaorong Tao
We determined the complete genome sequence of a lettuce chlorosis crinivirus (LCV) from China (LCV-NJ). The bipartite genome of LCV-NJ consists of RNA1 and RNA2 which are 8165 and 8454 nucleotides (nt) in length, respectively. The genomic structure of LCV-NJ RNA1 resembles that of LCV-California, an isolate with four open reading frames (ORFs) in RNA1. Although the amino acid sequences of ORF 1a and 1b have 92 and 99% identity between LCV-NJ and LCV-California, ORF 2 and ORF3 of LCV-NJ share only 63 and 71% identity with those of LCV-California, respectively...
November 4, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102904/root-uptake-and-shoot-accumulation-of-cadmium-by-lettuce-at-various-cd-zn-ratios-in-nutrient-solution
#14
A A Zare, A H Khoshgoftarmanesh, M J Malakouti, H A Bahrami, R L Chaney
Cadmium (Cd) is toxic to animals and humans after it accumulates over decades in the kidney cortex. Food crops grown in Cd-contaminated soils are the primary sources of excessive Cd entry into humans. Although plant available Zn concentration in soil is an important factor which can greatly reduce Cd uptake by plant roots and its translocation into the edible parts, Cd:Zn ratio is suggested to be a more important factor in comparison with Zn concentration alone in determining Cd uptake by plants. In the present study, the physiological mechanisms of Cd absorption by roots and its translocation to leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L...
November 2, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100695/dynamics-of-multiple-elements-in-fast-decomposing-vegetable-residues
#15
Chun Cao, Si-Qi Liu, Zhen-Bang Ma, Yun Lin, Qiong Su, Huan Chen, Jun-Jian Wang
Litter decomposition regulates the cycling of nutrients and toxicants but is poorly studied in farmlands. To understand the unavoidable in-situ decomposition process, we quantified the dynamics of C, H, N, As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, and Zn during a 180-d decomposition study in leafy lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifoliaf) and rape (Brassica chinensis) residues in a wastewater-irrigated farmland in northwestern China. Different from most studied natural ecosystems, the managed vegetable farmland had a much faster litter decomposition rate (half-life of 18-60d), and interestingly, faster decomposition of roots relative to leaves for both the vegetables...
October 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093281/the-effects-of-essential-oil-povidone-iodine-and-chlorhexidine-mouthwash-on-salivary-nitrate-nitrite-and-nitrate-reducing-bacteria
#16
Takahiro Mitsui, Ryô Harasawa
Dietary nitrate is reduced to nitrite and nitric oxide by microbial flora, and this activity is beneficial to vascular health. It has been reported that this bacterial process is inhibited by chlorhexidine mouthwash, although the effects of other products are largely unknown. This study examined the effects of several treatments on salivary nitrate/nitrite and nitrate-reducing bacteria. Twelve university staff and students performed mouth-washing with water (control), essential oil, 0.35% povidone-iodine, or 0...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084346/comparative-genomics-reveals-cotton-specific-virulence-factors-in-flexible-genomic-regions-in-verticillium-dahliae-and-evidence-of-horizontal-gene-transfer-from-fusarium
#17
Jie-Yin Chen, Chun Liu, Yue-Jing Gui, Kai-Wei Si, Dan-Dan Zhang, Jie Wang, Dylan P G Short, Jin-Qun Huang, Nan-Yang Li, Yong Liang, Wen-Qi Zhang, Lin Yang, Xue-Feng Ma, Ting-Gang Li, Lei Zhou, Bao-Li Wang, Yu-Ming Bao, Krishna V Subbarao, Geng-Yun Zhang, Xiao-Feng Dai
Verticillium dahliae isolates are most virulent on the host from which they were originally isolated. Mechanisms underlying these dominant host adaptations are currently unknown. We sequenced the genome of V. dahliae Vd991, which is highly virulent on its original host, cotton, and performed comparisons with the reference genomes of JR2 (from tomato) and VdLs.17 (from lettuce). Pathogenicity-related factor prediction, orthology and multigene family classification, transcriptome analyses, phylogenetic analyses, and pathogenicity experiments were performed...
October 30, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079622/fate-of-salmonella-enterica-and-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-cells-artificially-internalized-into-vegetable-seeds-during-germination
#18
Da Liu, Yue Cui, Ronald Walcott, Jinru Chen
Vegetable seeds contaminated with bacterial pathogens have been linked to fresh produce-associated outbreaks of gastrointestinal infections. This study was undertaken to observe the physiological behavior of Salmonella enterica and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) cells, artificially internalized into vegetable seeds during the germination process. Surface-decontaminated seeds of alfalfa, fenugreek, lettuce, and tomato were vacuum-infiltrated with four individual strains of Salmonella or EHEC. Contaminated seeds were germinated at 25°C for 9 days and different sprout/seedling tissues were microbiologically analyzed every other day...
October 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069139/elemental-composition-of-vegetables-cultivated-over-coal-mining-waste
#19
Jairo J Zocche, Paula Rohr, Adriani P Damiani, Daniela D Leffa, Miriam C Martins, Caroline M Zocche, Karina O Teixeira, Gabriela D Borges, Maiellen M DE Jesus, Carla E I Dos Santos, Johnny F Dias, Vanessa M DE Andrade
We assessed elemental composition of the liver in mice subjected to one-time or chronic consumption of the juice of vegetables cultivated in a vegetable garden built over deposits of coal waste. Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce), Beta vulgaris L. (beet), Brassica oleracea L. var. italica (broccoli) and Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala (kale) were collected from the coal-mining area and from a certified organic farm (control). Elemental composition was analyzed by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method. Concentrations of Mg, S, and Ca of mice subjected to one-time consumption of broccoli and concentrations of these same elements plus Si of mice receiving kale were higher in the coal-mining area...
October 23, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068710/efficacy-of-combination-treatment-with-sodium-metasilicate-and-sodium-hypochlorite-for-inactivation-of-norovirus-on-fresh-vegetables
#20
Ji-Hyoung Ha, Sung Hyun Kim, Hee-Min Lee, Su-Ji Kim, Hae-Won Lee
In recent years, fresh vegetables have frequently been associated with the foodborne transmission of enteric viruses, such as human norovirus (NoV). Therefore, several studies have focused on developing methods to inactivate foodborne viruses for preventing outbreaks of foodborne illnesses. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is commonly used as a disinfectant, but results in undesirable effects on the appearance and taste of foods and can generate toxic byproducts when it exceeds the allowable concentration. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of a range of NaOCl concentrations (50-1000 ppm) for reducing the amounts of human NoV (NoV GII...
October 25, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
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