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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755290/retromer-dysfunction-and-neurodegenerative-disease
#1
REVIEW
Christiane Reitz
In recent years, genomic, animal and cell biology studies have implicated deficiencies in retromer-mediated trafficking of proteins in an increasing number of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Parkinson's Disease (PD) and Frontotemporal Lobar Degener-ation (FTLD). The retromer complex, which is highly conserved across all eukaryotes, regulates the sorting of transmembrane proteins out of endo-somes to the cell surface or to the trans-Golgi network. Within retromer, cargo selection and binding are performed by a trimer of the Vps26, Vps29 and Vps35 proteins, named the "Cargo-Selective Complex (CSC)"...
May 2018: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743203/the-parkinson-s-disease-vps35-d620n-mutation-enhances-lrrk2-mediated-rab-protein-phosphorylation-in-mouse-and-human
#2
Rafeeq Mir, Francesca Tonelli, Pawel Lis, Thomas Macartney, Nicole K Polinski, Terina N Martinez, Meng-Yun Chou, Andrew J M Howden, Theresa König, Christoph Hotzy, Ivan Milenkovic, Thomas Brücke, Alexander Zimprich, Esther Sammler, Dario R Alessi
Missense mutations in the LRRK2 and VPS35 genes result in autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease. The VPS35 gene encodes for the cargo-binding component of the retromer complex, while LRRK2 modulates vesicular trafficking by phosphorylating a subgroup of Rab proteins. Pathogenic mutations in LRRK2 increase its kinase activity. It is not known how the only thus far described pathogenic VPS35 mutation, [D620N] exerts its effects. We reveal that the VPS35[D620N] knock-in mutation, strikingly elevates LRRK2 mediated phosphorylation of Rab8A, Rab10 and Rab12 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts...
May 9, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724910/retromer-associates-with-the-cytoplasmic-amino-terminus-of-polycystin-2
#3
Frances C Tilley, Matthew Gallon, Chong Luo, Chris M Danson, Jing Zhou, Peter J Cullen
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic human disease, with around 12.5 million people affected worldwide. ADPKD results from mutations in either PKD1 or PKD2 , which encode the atypical G-protein coupled receptor polycystin-1 (PC1) and the transient receptor potential channel polycystin-2 (PC2) respectively. Although altered intracellular trafficking of PC1 and PC2 appear as an underlying feature of ADPKD, the mechanisms which govern vesicular transport of the polycystins through the biosynthetic and endosomal membrane networks remain to be fully elucidated...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703496/emerging-role-of-retromer-in-modulating-pathogen-growth
#4
REVIEW
Cherilyn Elwell, Joanne Engel
Intracellular pathogens have developed elegant mechanisms to modulate host endosomal trafficking. The highly conserved retromer pathway has emerged as an important target of viruses and intravacuolar bacteria. Some pathogens require retromer function to survive. For others, retromer activity restricts intracellular growth; these pathogens must disrupt retromer function to survive. In this review, we discuss recent paradigm changes to the current model for retromer assembly and cargo selection. We highlight how the study of pathogen effectors has contributed to these fundamental insights, with a special focus on the biology and structure of two recently described bacterial effectors, Chlamydia trachomatis IncE and Legionella pneumophila RidL...
April 24, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668757/actin-polymerization-in-the-endosomal-pathway-but-not-on-the-coxiella-containing-vacuole-is-essential-for-pathogen-growth
#5
Heather E Miller, Charles L Larson, Robert A Heinzen
Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterium that replicates within an expansive phagolysosome-like vacuole. Fusion between the Coxiella-containing vacuole (CCV) and late endosomes/multivesicular bodies requires Rab7, the HOPS tethering complex, and SNARE proteins, with actin also speculated to play a role. Here, we investigated the importance of actin in CCV fusion. Filamentous actin patches formed around the CCV membrane that were preferred sites of vesicular fusion. Accordingly, the mediators of endolysosomal fusion Rab7, VAMP7, and syntaxin 8 were concentrated in CCV actin patches...
April 18, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667289/endosomal-receptor-trafficking-retromer-and-beyond
#6
REVIEW
Jing Wang, Alina Fedoseienko, Bayou Chen, Ezra Burstein, Da Jia, Daniel D Billadeau
The tubular endolysosomal network is a quality control system that ensures the proper delivery of internalized receptors to specific subcellular destinations in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. Although retromer was originally described in yeast as a regulator of endosome-to-Golgi receptor recycling, mammalian retromer has emerged as a central player in endosome-to-plasma membrane recycling of a variety of receptors. Over the past decade, information regarding the mechanism by which retromer facilitates receptor trafficking has emerged, as has the identification of numerous retromer-associated molecules including the WASH complex, sorting nexins and TBC1d5...
April 18, 2018: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663589/tying-trafficking-to-fusion-and-fission-at-the-mighty-mitochondria
#7
REVIEW
Trey Farmer, Naava Naslavsky, Steve Caplan
The mitochondrion is a unique organelle that serves as the main site of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation needed for energy in the cell. However, mitochondria also play essential roles in cell death through apoptosis and necrosis, as well as a variety of crucial functions related to stress regulation, autophagy, lipid synthesis, and calcium storage. There is a growing appreciation that mitochondrial function is regulated by the dynamics of its membrane fusion and fission; longer, fused mitochondria are optimal for ATP generation, whereas fission of mitochondria facilitates mitophagy and cell division...
April 16, 2018: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602783/quantitative-imaging-flow-cytometry-of-legionella-infected-dictyostelium-reveals-the-impact-of-retrograde-trafficking-on-pathogen-vacuole-composition
#8
Amanda Welin, Stephen Weber, Hubert Hilbi
The ubiquitous environmental bacterium Legionella pneumophila survives and replicates within amoebae and human macrophages by forming a Legionella -containing vacuole (LCV). In an intricate process governed by the bacterial Icm/Dot type IV secretion system and a plethora of "effector proteins" the nascent LCV interferes with a number of intracellular trafficking pathways, including retrograde transport from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus. Conserved retrograde trafficking components such as the retromer coat complex or the phosphoinositide (PI) 5-phosphatase Dd5P4/OCRL restrict intracellular replication of L...
March 30, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569114/the-phox-homology-px-domain
#9
Mintu Chandra, Brett M Collins
The phox-homology (PX) domain is a phosphoinositide-binding domain conserved in all eukaryotes and present in 49 human proteins. Proteins containing PX domains, many of which are also known as sorting nexins (SNXs), have a large variety of functions in membrane trafficking, cell signaling, and lipid metabolism in association with membranes of the secretory and endocytic system. In this review we discuss the structural basis for both canonical lipid interactions with the endosome-enriched lipid phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) as well as non-canonical lipids that promote membrane association...
March 23, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560581/the-endo-lysosomal-system-of-brain-endothelial-cells-is-influenced-by-astrocytes-in-vitro
#10
Andrea E Toth, Piotr Siupka, Thomas J P Augustine, Susanne T Venø, Louiza B Thomsen, Torben Moos, Hannes T Lohi, Peder Madsen, Karin Lykke-Hartmann, Morten S Nielsen
Receptor- and adsorptive-mediated transport through brain endothelial cells (BEC) of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) involves a complex array of subcellular vesicular structures, the endo-lysosomal system. It consists of several types of vesicles, such as early, recycling, and late endosomes, retromer-positive structures, and lysosomes. Since this system is important for receptor-mediated transcytosis of drugs across brain capillaries, our aim was to characterise the endo-lysosomal system in BEC with emphasis on their interactions with astrocytes...
March 20, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552544/-acanthamoeba-and-dictyostelium-as-cellular-models-for-legionella-infection
#11
REVIEW
A Leoni Swart, Christopher F Harrison, Ludwig Eichinger, Michael Steinert, Hubert Hilbi
Environmental bacteria of the genus Legionella naturally parasitize free-living amoebae. Upon inhalation of bacteria-laden aerosols, the opportunistic pathogens grow intracellularly in alveolar macrophages and can cause a life-threatening pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. Intracellular replication in amoebae and macrophages takes place in a unique membrane-bound compartment, the Legionella -containing vacuole (LCV). LCV formation requires the bacterial Icm/Dot type IV secretion system, which translocates literally hundreds of "effector" proteins into host cells, where they modulate crucial cellular processes for the pathogen's benefit...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530981/the-proximity-labeling-technique-bioid-identifies-sorting-nexin-6-as-a-member-of-the-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-igf1-igf1-receptor-pathway
#12
Akshay Bareja, Conrad P Hodgkinson, Erik Soderblom, Greg Waitt, Victor J Dzau
The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) is a receptor tyrosine kinase with critical roles in various biological processes. Recent results from clinical trials targeting IGF1R indicate that IGF1R signaling pathways are more complex than previously thought. Moreover, it has become increasingly clear that the function of many proteins can be understood only in the context of a network of interactions. To that end, we sought to profile IGF1R-protein interactions with the proximity-labeling technique BioID...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520003/phosphorylation-of-conserved-phosphoinositide-binding-pocket-regulates-sorting-nexin-membrane-targeting
#13
Marc Lenoir, Cansel Ustunel, Sandya Rajesh, Jaswant Kaur, Dimitri Moreau, Jean Gruenberg, Michael Overduin
Sorting nexins anchor trafficking machines to membranes by binding phospholipids. The paradigm of the superfamily is sorting nexin 3 (SNX3), which localizes to early endosomes by recognizing phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) to initiate retromer-mediated segregation of cargoes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Here we report the solution structure of full length human SNX3, and show that PI3P recognition is accompanied by bilayer insertion of a proximal loop in its extended Phox homology (PX) domain. Phosphoinositide (PIP) binding is completely blocked by cancer-linked phosphorylation of a conserved serine beside the stereospecific PI3P pocket...
March 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511122/membrane-protein-recycling-from-the-vacuole-lysosome-membrane
#14
Sho W Suzuki, Scott D Emr
The lysosome (or vacuole in yeast) is the central organelle responsible for cellular degradation and nutrient storage. Lysosomes receive cargo from the secretory, endocytic, and autophagy pathways. Many of these proteins and lipids are delivered to the lysosome membrane, and some are degraded in the lysosome lumen, whereas others appear to be recycled through unknown pathways. In this study, we identify the transmembrane autophagy protein Atg27 as a physiological cargo recycled from the vacuole. We reveal that Atg27 is delivered to the vacuole membrane and then recycled using a two-step recycling process...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503090/stabilizing-the-retromer-complex-in-a-human-stem-cell-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-reduces-tau-phosphorylation-independently-of-amyloid-precursor-protein
#15
Jessica E Young, Lauren K Fong, Harald Frankowski, Gregory A Petsko, Scott A Small, Lawrence S B Goldstein
Developing effective therapeutics for complex diseases such as late-onset, sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD) is difficult due to genetic and environmental heterogeneity in the human population and the limitations of existing animal models. Here, we used hiPSC-derived neurons to test a compound that stabilizes the retromer, a highly conserved multiprotein assembly that plays a pivotal role in trafficking molecules through the endosomal network. Using this human-specific system, we have confirmed previous data generated in murine models and show that retromer stabilization has a potentially beneficial effect on amyloid beta generation from human stem cell-derived neurons...
March 13, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495075/vacuolar-protein-sorting-26c-encodes-an-evolutionarily-conserved-large-retromer-subunit-in-eukaryotes-that-is-important-for-root-hair-growth-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#16
Suryatapa Ghosh Jha, Emily R Larson, Jordan Humble, David S Domozych, David S Barrington, Mary L Tierney
The large retromer complex participates in diverse endosomal trafficking pathways and is essential for plant developmental programs, including cell polarity, programmed cell death and shoot gravitropism in Arabidopsis. Here we demonstrate that an evolutionarily conserved VPS26 protein (VPS26C; At1G48550) functions in a complex with VPS35A and VPS29 necessary for root hair growth in Arabidopsis. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation showed that VPS26C forms a complex with VPS35A in the presence of VPS29, and this is supported by genetic studies showing that vps29 and vps35a mutants exhibit altered root hair growth...
May 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463731/gibberellin-della-signaling-targets-the-retromer-complex-to-redirect-protein-trafficking-to-the-plasma-membrane
#17
Yuliya Salanenka, Inge Verstraeten, Christian Löfke, Kaori Tabata, Satoshi Naramoto, Matouš Glanc, Jiří Friml
The plant hormone gibberellic acid (GA) is a crucial regulator of growth and development. The main paradigm of GA signaling puts forward transcriptional regulation via the degradation of DELLA transcriptional repressors. GA has also been shown to regulate tropic responses by modulation of the plasma membrane incidence of PIN auxin transporters by an unclear mechanism. Here we uncovered the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which GA redirects protein trafficking and thus regulates cell surface functionality...
April 3, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452354/alpha-synuclein-inhibits-snx3-retromer-mediated-retrograde-recycling-of-iron-transporters-in-s-cerevisiae-and-c-elegans-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Dhaval Patel, Chuan Xu, Sureshbabu Nagarajan, Zhengchang Liu, Wayne O Hemphill, Runhua Shi, Vladimir N Uversky, Guy A Caldwell, Kim A Caldwell, Stephan N Witt
We probed the role of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) in modulating sorting nexin 3 (Snx3)-retromer-mediated recycling of iron transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans. In yeast, the membrane-bound heterodimer Fet3/Ftr1 is the high affinity iron importer. Fet3 is a membrane-bound multicopper ferroxidase, whose ferroxidase domain is orthologous to human ceruloplasmin (Cp), that oxidizes external Fe+2 to Fe+3; the Fe+3 ions then channel through the Ftr1 permease into the cell. When the concentration of external iron is low (<1 µM), Fet3/Ftr1 is maintained on the plasma membrane by retrograde endocytic-recycling; whereas, when the concentration of external iron is high (>10 µM), Fet3/Ftr1 is endocytosed and shunted to the vacuole for degradation...
May 1, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445238/vps35-depletion-does-not-impair-presynaptic-structure-and-function
#19
Sonia Vazquez-Sanchez, Sander Bobeldijk, Marien P Dekker, Linda van Keimpema, Jan R T van Weering
The endosomal system is proposed as a mediator of synaptic vesicle recycling, but the molecular recycling mechanism remains largely unknown. Retromer is a key protein complex which mediates endosomal recycling in eukaryotic cells, including neurons. Retromer is important for brain function and mutations in retromer genes are linked to neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of retromer in presynaptic structure and function. We assessed the role of retromer by knocking down VPS35, the core subunit of retromer, in primary hippocampal mouse neurons...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444945/interaction-of-human-cytomegalovirus-tegument-proteins-ppul35-and-ppul35a-with-sorting-nexin-5-regulates-glycoprotein-b-gpul55-localization
#20
Gregor Maschkowitz, Sabine Gärtner, Heike Hofmann-Winkler, Helmut Fickenscher, Michael Winkler
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a widespread human pathogen that causes asymptomatic infection in healthy individuals but poses a serious threat to immunocompromised patients. During the late phase of HCMV infection, the viral capsid is transported to the cytoplasmic viral assembly center (cVAC), where it is enclosed by the tegument protein layer and the viral envelope. The cVAC consists of circularly arranged vesicles from the trans -Golgi and endosomal networks. The HCMV gene UL35 encodes ppUL35 and its shorter form, ppUL35A...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Virology
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