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Yanhong Sun, Chaohong Guo, Yuyan Jiang, Tao Wang, Lei Zhang
This paper demonstrates an online measurement technique which can measure both surface tension and viscosity for confined fluids in microfluidic systems. The surface tension and viscosity are determined by monitoring the liquid film thickness deposited in a microchannel based on the hydrodynamics of Taylor flow. Measurements were carried out for pure liquids and binary aqueous liquid mixtures. The results agreed well with reference data and theoretical models. This novel method has considerable potential for measuring dynamic interfacial tension of complex mixtures...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Anthony S Fargnoli, Michael G Katz, Charles R Bridges
Fundamentally, cardiac gene therapy clinical trials have demonstrated that route efficiency is paramount in achieving maximum myocardial expression within safety limits. Gene transfer phenomena are largely influenced by physical transport principles (i.e., pressure, residence time, dispersion trafficking, mechanical resistance) that are independent of therapeutic characteristics. An alternative to intracoronary infusion methods, in an effort to improve efficiency in terms of cardiac specificity, is direct myocardial delivery via surgical injection...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jinyou Zhuang, Satish Kumar, Abu Rustum
Afoxolaner is a new antiparasitic molecule from the isoxazoline family that acts on the insect acarine gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate receptors. Isoxazoline family of compounds has been employed as active pharmaceutical ingredient in drug products prescribed for control of fleas and ticks in dogs. Afoxolaner with a chiral center at isoxazoline ring exists as a racemic mixture. A normal phase chiral high performance liquid chromatography analytical method has been developed to verify that afoxolaner is a racemic mixture as demonstrated by specific rotation, as well as to determine enantiomeric purity of single enantiomer samples...
November 2016: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Michael Storch, Yogeshwar Nath Mishra, Matthias Koegl, Elias Kristensson, Stefan Will, Lars Zigan, Edouard Berrocal
We report in this Letter a two-phase structured laser illumination planar imaging [two-pulse SLIPI (2p-SLIPI)] optical setup where the "lines structure" is spatially shifted by exploiting the birefringence property of a calcite crystal. By using this optical component and two cross-polarized laser pulses, the shift of the modulated pattern is not "time-limited" anymore. Consequently, two sub-images with spatially mismatched phases can be recorded within a few hundred of nanoseconds only, freezing the motion of the illuminated transient flow...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Sajal Kanti Dutta, Saikat Chakraborty
Hemicelluloses are the earth's second most abundant structural polymers, found in lignocellulosic biomass. Efficient enzymatic depolymerization of xylans by cleaving their β-(1 → 4)-glycosidic bonds to produce soluble sugars is instrumental to the cost-effective production of liquid biofuels. Here we show that the multi-scale two-phase process of enzymatic hydrolysis of amorphous hemicelluloses is dominated by its smallest scale-the pores. In the crucial first five hours, two to fourfold swelling of the xylan particles allow the enzymes to enter the pores and undergo rapid non-equilibrium adsorption on the pore surface before they hydrolyze the solid polymers, albeit non-competitively inhibited by the products xylose and xylobiose...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shigeyuki Yamada, Yuki Rokusha, Ryo Kawano, Kaori Fujisawa, Osamu Tsutsumi
Mesogenic Au complexes with a biphenyl core were synthesized as new AIEgens, and their thermodynamic and photophysical properties were discussed. Similar to Au complexes with a phenyl core which have been reported previously, the complexes with a short alkoxy chain formed dimers in the crystal form. However, the complexes with a long alkoxy chain formed two-dimensional layer structures through multiple intermolecular interactions in both the crystalline and liquid-crystalline (LC) phases. The present Au complexes showed a high thermochemical stability against thermal decomposition and a high thermodynamic stability of the LC phase...
November 30, 2016: Faraday Discussions
G Zhang, F H Stillinger, S Torquato
Rapid cooling of liquids below a certain temperature range can result in a transition to glassy states. The traditional understanding of glasses includes their thermodynamic metastability with respect to crystals. However, here we present specific examples of interactions that eliminate the possibilities of crystalline and quasicrystalline phases, while creating mechanically stable amorphous glasses down to absolute zero temperature. We show that this can be accomplished by introducing a new ideal state of matter called a "perfect glass"...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kazufusa Shinomiya, Motoki Umezawa, Manami Seki, Jun Nitta, Kazumasa Zaima, Naoki Harikai, Yoichiro Ito
1 BACKGROUND: Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is liquid-liquid partition chromatography without using a solid support matrix. This technique requires further improvement of partition efficiency and shortening theseparation time. 2 METHODS: The locular multilayer coils modified with and without mixer glass beads were developed for the separation of proteins and 4-methylumbelliferyl (MU) sugar derivatives using the small-scale cross-axis coil planet centrifuge...
December 2016: Separations
Jugesh Chhatwal, Sanjay Lalwani, Emmanuel Vidor
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a fully liquid, hexavalent diphtheria tetanus acellular pertussis inactivated poliovirus hepatitis B Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP IPV HB PRPT) vaccine in Indian infants. DESIGN: Phase III, single-arm study. SETTING: Two tertiary care hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: 177 healthy, 6-week-old infants. INTERVENTION: All participants received HB and OPV vaccines at birth and DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP~T at 6, 10, 14 weeks of age...
November 5, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Kasper Wigh Lipsø, Sean Bowen, Oleksandr Rybalko, Jan Henrik Ardenkjær-Larsen
We demonstrate a method for the preparation of hyperpolarized water by dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization at high magnetic field. Protons were polarized at 6.7T and 1.1K to >70% with frequency modulated microwave irradiation at 188GHz. 97.2±0.7% of the radical was extracted from the sample in the dissolution in a two-phase system. 16±1mL of 5.0M (1)H in D2O with a polarization of 13.0±0.9% in the liquid state was obtained, corresponding to an enhancement factor of 4000±300 compared to the thermal equilibrium at 9...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Guizhen Li, Tao Zhu, Kyung Ho Row
Deep eutectic solvents were used in both dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and solid-phase extraction for the purification of chloromycetin and thiamphenicol from milk. In the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure, deep eutectic solvents mixed with chloroform at different ratios (0:1-5:1, v/v) were used as the extraction agent to optimize the procedure, and the ratio of 2:1 v/v was found to be the best extraction agent with 87.23 and 83.17% recoveries of chloromycetin and thiamphenicol, respectively...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Maykel Hernández-Mesa, Carmen Cruces-Blanco, Ana M García-Campaña
A novel capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry approach is proposed for the determination of eleven 5-nitroimidazoles in urine samples for therapeutical drug monitoring purposes. A comparison between two separation modes, namely micellar electrokinetic chromatography and capillary zone electrophoresis was carried out, obtaining higher selectivity when 1M formic acid (pH 1.8) was selected as background electrolyte. 5-Nitroimidazoles were hydrodynamically injected in water for 40s at 50mbar and their separation was performed at 28kV and 25°C...
January 15, 2017: Talanta
Xiaoli Li, Rui Zhao, Xiaoying Tang, Yanyan Shi, Chunyi Li, Yong Wang
A 'two birds, one stone' strategy was developed via a one-pot click reaction to simultaneously prepare a novel cyclodextrin (CD) dimer based aggregation induced emission (AIE) sensor (AIE-DCD) and a monomer based chiral stationary phase (CSP-MCD) for chiral high performance liquid chromatography (CHPLC). AIE-DCD was found to afford satisfactory AIE response for specific detection of Zn(2+) with a detection limit of 50 nM. CSP-MCD exhibits excellent enantioseparation ability toward dansyl amino acids, where the resolution of dansyl amino leucine reaches 5...
November 24, 2016: Sensors
K G Wang
A novel multiphase fluid-solid coupled computational framework is applied to investigate the interaction of a kidney stone immersed in liquid with a lithotripsy shock wave (LSW) and a gas bubble near the stone. The main objective is to elucidate the effects of a bubble in the shock path to the elastic and fracture behaviors of the stone. The computational framework couples a finite volume two-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver with a finite element (FE) computational solid dynamics (CSD) solver...
November 24, 2016: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
Mir Ali Farajzadeh, Elahe Behboudi Khiavi, Parisa Khorram, Mohammad Reza Afshar Mogaddam
In the present study a simple and rapid method for the extraction and preconcentration of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples has been developed. In this method two sample preparation methods were combined to obtain high extraction recoveries and enrichment factors for sensitive analysis of the selected analytes. In the first stage of the method, a homogeneous solution containing an aqueous solution and cyclohexyl amine is broken by addition of a salt. After centrifugation, the upper collected phase containing the extracted analytes is subjected to the following dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Tao Dai, Changzhi Li, Bo Zhang, Haiwei Guo, Xiaoli Pan, Lin Li, Aiqin Wang, Tao Zhang
Toluene is a basic chemical that is currently produced from petroleum resources. In this paper, we report a new route for the effective synthesis of toluene from isoprene and acrolein, two reactants readily available from biomass, through a simple two-step reaction. The process includes Diels-Alder cycloaddition of isoprene and acrolein in a Zn-containing ionic liquid at room temperature to produce methylcyclohex-3-enecarbaldehydes (MCHCAs) as intermediates, followed by M (M=Pt, Pd, Rh)/Al2 O3 -catalyzed consecutive dehydrogenation-decarbonylation of the MCHCAs at 573 K to generate toluene with an overall yield up to 90...
November 25, 2016: ChemSusChem
Petr Česla, Jana Křenková
Two-dimensional liquid-phase separations have gained increasing attention for its ability to separate complex sample mixtures. Among the experimental setups used, on-line approach is preferred for reduction of the probability of sample contamination, for easier automation and high-sample throughput. The interfacing of the separation techniques in the on-line mode brings additional demands on proper optimization of the two-dimensional system. In this review, the possibilities of the on-line coupling of liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography with capillary electrophoresis in two-dimensional systems are discussed...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Jian Li, Tian Chen, Yuwei Wang, Zhixiong Shi, Xianqing Zhou, Zhiwei Sun, Dejun Wang, Yongning Wu
Two simplified sample preparation procedures for simultaneous extraction and clean-up of tetrabromobisphenol A, α-, β- and γ-hexabromocyclododecane and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human serum were developed and validated. The first procedure was based on solid-phase extraction. Sample extraction, purification and lipid removal were carried out directly on an Oasis HLB cartridge. The second procedure was a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe based approach using octadecyl-modified silica particles as a sorbent...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
F Ibrahim, M E K Wahba
Ebastine (EBS) has been assayed in its laboratory-prepared co-formulated tablets with either pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PSU) or phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHR) using isocratic reversed-phase chromatography. Separation was conducted using a 50 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., Chromolith(®) SpeedROD RP-18 end-capped column at ambient temperature. A mobile phase composed of water:acetonitrile in a ratio of 25:75 having a pH of 3.2, has been utilized at 1 mL/min with UV detection at 254 nm for both EBS and PSU and 274 nm for PHR which in turn increased the sensitivity of the proposed method significantly...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Marvin Kadisch, Mattijs K Julsing, Manfred Schrewe, Nico Jehmlich, Benjamin Scheer, Martin von Bergen, Andreas Schmid, Bruno Bühler
It is a common misconception in whole-cell biocatalysis to refer to an enzyme as the biocatalyst, thereby neglecting the structural and metabolic framework provided by the cell. Here, the low whole-cell biocatalyst stability, that is, the stability of specific biocatalyst activity, in a process for the terminal oxyfunctionalization of renewable fatty acid methyl esters was investigated. This reaction, which is difficult to achieve by chemical means, is catalyzed by Escherichia coli featuring the monooxygenase system AlkBGT and the uptake facilitator AlkL from Pseudomonas putida GPo1...
November 7, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
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