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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732010/biofilm-imaging-in-porous-media-by-laboratory-x-ray-tomography-combining-a-non-destructive-contrast-agent-with-propagation-based-phase-contrast-imaging-tools
#1
Maxence Carrel, Mario A Beltran, Verónica L Morales, Nicolas Derlon, Eberhard Morgenroth, Rolf Kaufmann, Markus Holzner
X-ray tomography is a powerful tool giving access to the morphology of biofilms, in 3D porous media, at the mesoscale. Due to the high water content of biofilms, the attenuation coefficient of biofilms and water are very close, hindering the distinction between biofilms and water without the use of contrast agents. Until now, the use of contrast agents such as barium sulfate, silver-coated micro-particles or 1-chloronaphtalene added to the liquid phase allowed imaging the biofilm 3D morphology. However, these contrast agents are not passive and potentially interact with the biofilm when injected into the sample...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731736/enhancing-entropy-and-enthalpy-fluctuations-to-drive-crystallization-in-atomistic-simulations
#2
Pablo M Piaggi, Omar Valsson, Michele Parrinello
Crystallization is a process of great practical relevance in which rare but crucial fluctuations lead to the formation of a solid phase starting from the liquid. As in all first order first transitions, there is an interplay between enthalpy and entropy. Based on this idea, in order to drive crystallization in molecular simulations, we introduce two collective variables, one enthalpic and the other entropic. Defined in this way, these collective variables do not prejudge the structure into which the system is going to crystallize...
July 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731579/residual-dynamic-and-risk-assessment-of-dimethomorph-in-swiss-chard-grown-in-two-different-sites
#3
Md Humayun Kabir, A M Abd El-Aty, Md Musfiqur Rahman, Hyung Suk Chung, Han Sol Lee, Mi-Ra Kim, Byung-Joon Chang, Jing Wang, Ho-Chul Shin, Jae-Han Shim
Residue analysis of dimethomorph in Swiss chard cultivated at two different locations under greenhouse conditions was conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UVD) and confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The randomly collected samples (over 14 days) were extracted with acetonitrile and purified using a Florisil solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. Linearity over a concentration range of 0.05-50.0 mg/L had an excellent coefficient of determination (R(2) ) = 0...
July 21, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731318/ultrafast-ionic-liquid-assisted-microwave-synthesis-of-sno-microflowers-and-their-superior-sodium-ion-storage-performance
#4
Bingsheng Qin, Huang Zhang, Thomas Diemant, Dorin Geiger, Rinaldo Raccichini, R Jürgen Behm, Ute Kaiser, Alberto Varzi, Stefano Passerini
Tin oxide (SnO) is considered one of the most promising metal oxides for utilization as anode material in sodium ion batteries (SIBs), due to its ease of synthesis, high specific gravimetric capacity and satisfactory cycling performance. However, to aim at practical applications, the coulombic efficiency during cycling needs to be further improved, which requires a deeper knowledge of its working mechanism. Here, a microflower-shaped SnO material is synthesized by means of an ultrafast ionic liquid-assisted microwave method...
July 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730961/novel-fluorinated-porphyrins-sensitize-tumor-cells-to-photodamage-in-normoxia-and-hypoxia-synthesis-and-biocompatible-formulations
#5
Elizaveta V Belyaeva, Alina A Markova, Dmitry N Kaluzhnyb, Andrei L Sigan, Lev L Gervitz, Aida N Ataeva, Nikolai D Chkanikov, Alexander A Shtil
: Background. Hypoxia renders tumor cells refractory to treatment. One way to overcome this problem is the design of drug delivery systems that contain the antitumor agent within an oxygen supply medium. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate whether the perfluorocarbon liquids (capable of retaining up to 50% v/v amounts of O2 gas) can be tools for delivery of photosensitizers to hypoxic tumors. METHOD: We synthesized a series of compounds in which fluoroaliphatic or fluoroaromatic moieties were conjugated to the porphyrin ring in meso-positions...
July 19, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727460/2d-organic-superlattice-promoted-via-combined-action-of-%C3%AF-%C3%AF-stacking-and-dipole-dipole-interaction-in-discotic-liquid-crystals
#6
Wanying Zhang, Shuai-Feng Zhang, Zhenhu Zhang, Huanzhi Yang, Ao Zhang, Xingtian Hao, Jianchuang Wang, Chunxiu Zhang, Jialing Pu
A series of discotic liquid crystals based on hexapentyloxytriphenylene (HAT5) have been investigated where one out of the six ether side chains of a triphenylene core was replaced by an ester side chain and named for 5a-5h. During the process of studying these compounds, the characteristic straight line defect of ordered columnar structure was identified by polarizing optical microscopy (POM) and liquid crystal state over a wide temperature range was obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Basic phase structure and molecular arrangement were assigned by one-dimensional wide-angle X-ray diffraction (1D WAXD), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), two-dimensional wide-angle X-ray diffraction (2D WAXD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM)...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725887/photoresponsive-ionic-liquid-crystals-assembled-via-halogen-bond-en-route-towards-light-controllable-ion-transporters
#7
Marco Saccone, Francisco Fernandez Palacio, Gabriella Cavallo, Valentina Dichiarante, Matti Virkki, Giancarlo Terraneo, Arri Priimagi, Pierangelo Metrangolo
We demonstrate that halogen bonding (XB) can offer a novel approach for the construction of photoresponsive ionic liquid crystals. In particular, we assembled two new supramolecular complexes based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium iodides and azobenzene derivatives containing an iodotetrafluoro-benzene ring as XB donor, where the iodide anion acted as an XB acceptor. DSC and X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the preferred stoichiometry between the XB donors and acceptors is 2 : 1, and that the iodide anions act as bidentate XB-acceptors, binding two azobenzene derivatives...
July 20, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725176/a-potential-animal-model-of-maladaptive-palatable-food-consumption-followed-by-delayed-discomfort
#8
Lital Moshe, Liza Bekker, Aron Weller
Introduction: Binging is the consumption of larger amounts of food in a briefer period of time than would normally be consumed under similar circumstances. Binging requires palatable food (PF) to trigger abnormal eating, probably reflecting gene × environment interactions. In this study we examined the impact of trait binge eating (BE) and its compulsive nature on the conflict between hedonic eating of PF and anticipation of a delayed aversive effect. We used female rats as an animal model similar to other models of BE...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725083/estimation-of-nonlinear-adsorption-isotherms-in-gradient-elution-rp-lc-of-peptides-in-the-presence-of-an-adsorbing-additive
#9
Dennis Åsberg, Marek Leśko, Tomas Leek, Jörgen Samuelsson, Krzysztof Kaczmarski, Torgny Fornstedt
ABSTRACT: In electrostatic repulsive interaction chromatography, using a charged surface hybrid sorbent carrying positive charges can improve the peak shape of peptides in reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC), especially in overloaded conditions, compared with standard C18 sorbents. However, the positive surface charges can interact with anionic additives commonly used in peptide separations, e.g., trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), complicating adsorption isotherm estimation. We investigated how the competition for available adsorption sites between TFA and two peptides influenced the adsorption isotherm in gradient elution...
2017: Chromatographia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723222/extraction-of-2-phenylethanol-pea-from-aqueous-solution-using-ionic-liquids-synthesis-phase-equilibrium-investigation-selectivity-in-separation-and-thermodynamic-models
#10
Urszula Maria Domanska, Patrycja Okuniewska, Kamil Paduszyński, Marta Królikowska, Maciej Zawadzki, Mikolaj Wieckowski
This work presents some important issues and topics related to possible extraction of 2-phenylethanol (PEA) from aqueous phase "in situ" during the biosynthesis. It consist of a series of experimental phase equilibrium measurements in binary and ternary systems. Ionic liquids (ILs) are an important new media for imaging and sensing applications because of their solvation property, thermal stability and negligible vapor pressure. However, complex procedures and non-miscibility with water are often required in PEA extraction...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723191/highly-enriched-controllable-continuous-aerosol-sampling-using-inertial-microfluidics-and-its-application-to-real-time-detection-of-airborne-bacteria
#11
Jeongan Choi, Seung Chan Hong, Woojin Kim, Jae Hee Jung
We report a novel microfluidic technique for sampling of aerosols into liquids. The two-phase fluid, sampling air and collecting liquid, forms a stratified flow in the curved microchannel. By passing fluids through the curved region, the particles are transferred from air into the liquid phase by the particle centrifugal and drag forces. This microfluidic-based aerosol-into-liquid sampling system, called the MicroSampler, is driven by particle inertial differences. To evaluate the physical particle collection efficiency of the MicroSampler, we used standard polystyrene-latex (PSL) particles ranging in size from 0...
April 28, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723129/carbon-dioxide-in-a-supported-ionic-liquid-membrane-structural-and-rotational-dynamics-measured-with-2d-ir-and-pump-probe-experiments
#12
Jae Yoon Shin, Steven A Yamada, Michael D Fayer
Supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) are porous membranes impregnated with ionic liquids (ILs) and used as advanced carbon capture materials. Here, two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) and IR polarization selective pump-probe (PSPP) spectroscopies were used to investigate CO2 reorientation and spectral diffusion dynamics in SILMs. The SILM contained 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonly)imide in the poly(ether sulfone) membrane with average pore size of ~350 nm. Two ensembles of CO2 were observed in the SILM, one in the IL phase in the membrane pores and the other in the supporting membrane polymer...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722395/salt-removal-from-microliter-sample-volumes-by-multiple-phase-micro-electromembrane-extractions-across-free-liquid-membranes
#13
Pavel Kuban
A new concept for rapid and efficient salt removal from minute volumes of saline samples is presented by using multiple phase micro-electromembrane extraction (μ-EME). Disposable μ-EME unit is filled with five consecutive plugs of immiscible aqueous and organic solutions; the aqueous sample forms the central phase and is encompassed by two free liquid membranes (FLMs) and two extraction solutions. Salt cations and anions migrate in opposite directions from the sample solution on application of 300 V d.c. electric potential, cross the neighboring FLM and are transferred to the corresponding extraction solution...
July 19, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721722/pillar-5-arene-based-supramolecular-plasmonic-thin-films-for-label-free-quantitative-and-multiplex-sers-detection
#14
Verónica Montes García, Borja Gómez-González, Diego M Solís, Jose M Taboada, Norman Jiménez Otero, Jacobo de Uña-Álvarez, Fernando Obelleiro, Luis García-Río, Jorge Perez-Juste, Isabel Pastoriza-Santos
Novel plasmonic thin films based on electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of citrate-stabilized Au nanoparticles (NPs) and ammonium pillar[5]arene (AP[5]A) has been developed. The supramolecular-induced LbL assembly of the plasmonic nanoparticles yields to the formation of controlled hot-spots with uniform interparticle distances. At the same time this strategy allows to modulate the density and dimensions of the Au aggregates, and therefore the optical response, on the thin film with the number of AuNP-AP[5]A deposition cycles...
July 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720773/local-structure-of-liquid-gallium-under-pressure
#15
Renfeng Li, Luhong Wang, Liangliang Li, Tony Yu, Haiyan Zhao, Karena W Chapman, Yanbin Wang, Mark L Rivers, Peter J Chupas, Ho-Kwang Mao, Haozhe Liu
In situ high energy X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) measurements, microtomography and reverse Monte Carlo simulations were used to characterize the local structure of liquid gallium up to 1.9 GPa. This pressure range includes the well-known solid-solid phase transition from Ga-I to Ga-II at low temperature. In term of previous research, the local structure of liquid gallium within this domain was suggested a mixture of two local structures, Ga I and Ga II, based on fitting experimental PDF to known crystal structure, with a controversy...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719082/determination-of-seven-drugs-of-abuse-and-their-metabolites-in-surface-and-waste-water-using-solid-phase-extraction-coupled-to-liquid-chromatography-with-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#16
Helena Prosen, Núria Fontanals, Francesc Borrull, Rosa Maria Marcé
A method based on liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (Exactive Orbitrap) combined with solid-phase extraction using a strong cationic exchange mixed-mode sorbent has been developed for the determination of seven drugs of abuse, including two synthetic cathinones, as well as some of their metabolites in environmental water samples. The method provides low detection limits and a high confirmation power thanks to the diagnostic and two fragment ions monitored for each compound in high-resolution mass spectrometry, providing six identification points for each analyte...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718465/structure-and-molecular-packing-in-smectic-bcr-and-ad-phases-of-schiff-base-liquid-crystal-compounds-through-the-analyses-of-layer-spacing-entropy-and-crystal-structure
#17
Yasuhisa Yamamura, Takahito Murakoshi, Sakiko Iwagaki, Natalia Osiecka, Hideki Saitoh, Mafumi Hishida, Zbigniew Galewski, Maria Massalska-Arodź, Kazuya Saito
Single-crystal structural analyses and heat capacity measurements were performed on two Schiff base liquid crystal compounds, 5CBAA (4-chlorobenzylidene-4'-pentyloxyaniline) and 5ABCA (4-pentyloxybenzylidene-4'-chloroaniline). The alkyloxy-chain of a 5CBAA molecule was conformationally ordered in the crystal at room temperature. While that of 5ABCA was partially disordered in the room temperature phase but ordered in a low-temperature phase at 100 K. The structural phase transition involving the disordering of the conformation was observed at 107 K in the heat capacity of 5ABCA...
July 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718026/solid-phase-extraction-of-multi-class-pharmaceuticals-from-environmental-water-samples-onto-modified-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes-followed-by-lc-ms-ms
#18
Bojana Lalović, Tatjana Đurkić, Marija Vukčević, Ivona Janković-Častvan, Ana Kalijadis, Zoran Laušević, Mila Laušević
In this paper, pristine and chemically treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were employed as solid-phase extraction sorbents for the isolation and enrichment of multi-class pharmaceuticals from the surface water and groundwater, prior to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Thirteen pharmaceuticals that belong to different therapeutical classes (erythromycin, azithromycin, sulfamethoxazole, diazepam, lorazepam, carbamazepine, metoprolol, bisoprolol, enalapril, cilazapril, simvastatin, clopidogrel, diclofenac) and two metabolites of metamizole (4-acetylaminoantipyrine and 4-formylaminoantipyrine) were selected for this study...
July 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718023/two-year-survey-of-specific-hospital-wastewater-treatment-and-its-impact-on-pharmaceutical-discharges
#19
Laure Wiest, Teofana Chonova, Alexandre Bergé, Robert Baudot, Frédérique Bessueille-Barbier, Linda Ayouni-Derouiche, Emmanuelle Vulliet
It is well known that pharmaceuticals are not completely removed by conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. Hospital effluents are of major concern, as they present high concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds. Despite this, these specific effluents are usually co-treated with domestic wastewaters. Separate treatment has been recommended. However, there is a lack of information concerning the efficiency of separate hospital wastewater treatment by activated sludge, especially on the removal of pharmaceuticals...
July 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716502/crystalline-polymorphism-emerging-from-a-milling-induced-amorphous-form-the-case-of-chlorhexidine-dihydrochloride
#20
E Elisei, J F Willart, F Danède, J Siepmann, F Siepmann, M Descamps
In this paper, solid state amorphization induced by mechanical milling is shown to be a useful tool to explore the polymorphism of drugs and their mechanism of devitrification. We show in particular how the recrystallization of amorphous chlorhexidine dihydrochloride obtained by milling reveals a complex polymorphism that involves several polymorphic forms. Two new crystalline forms are identified, one of them appearing as a highly disordered precursor state which however clearly differs from the amorphous one...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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