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Da Li, Yu-Ming Jiao, Liang Wang, Fu-Xin Lin, Jun Wu, Xian-Zeng Tong, Shuo Wang, Yong Cao
OBJECTIVE Surgical management of brainstem lesions is challenging due to the highly compact, eloquent anatomy of the brainstem. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of preoperative diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) in brainstem cavernous malformations (CMs). METHODS A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was performed by using stratified blocked randomization. The primary eligibility criterion of the study was being a surgical candidate for brainstem CMs (with informed consent)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Laura Lopez-Sanz, Susana Bernal, Carlota Recio, Iolanda Lazaro, Ainhoa Oguiza, Ana Melgar, Luna Jimenez-Castilla, Jesus Egido, Carmen Gomez-Guerrero
Oxidative stress resulting from excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or impaired antioxidant defenses is closely related to the development of diabetic vascular complications, including nephropathy and atherosclerosis. Chronic activation of Janus kinase/Signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway contributes to diabetic complications by inducing expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, fibrosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family of endogenous JAK/STAT regulators is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention...
March 14, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Homero San-Juan-Vergara, Eduardo Zurek, Nadim J Ajami, Christian Mogollon, Mario Peña, Ivan Portnoy, Jorge I Vélez, Christian Cadena-Cruz, Yirys Diaz-Olmos, Leidy Hurtado-Gómez, Silvana Sanchez-Sit, Danitza Hernández, Irina Urruchurtu, Pierina Di-Ruggiero, Ella Guardo-García, Nury Torres, Oscar Vidal-Orjuela, Diego Viasus, Joseph F Petrosino, Guillermo Cervantes-Acosta
HIV infection has a tremendous impact on the immune system's proper functioning. The mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is significantly disarrayed during HIV infection. Compositional changes in the gut microbiota might contribute to the mucosal barrier disruption, and consequently to microbial translocation. We performed an observational, cross-sectional study aimed at evaluating changes in the fecal microbiota of HIV-infected individuals from Colombia. We analyzed the fecal microbiota of 37 individuals via 16S rRNA gene sequencing; 25 HIV-infected patients and 12 control (non-infected) individuals, which were similar in body mass index, age, gender balance and socioeconomic status...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mei Wang, Vijayasankar Raman, Jianping Zhao, Bharathi Avula, Yan-Hong Wang, Philip L Wylie, Ikhlas A Khan
Correct identification of the true bay leaf ( Laurus nobilis ) and its substitutes is important not only for the quality control of the products, but also for the safety of the consumers. L. nobilis is often substituted or confused with other species, such as Cinnamomum tamala, Pimenta racemosa, Syzygium polyanthum , and Umbellularia californica. In the present study, the potential of gas chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the profiling of various bay leaf products was evaluated for the first time...
March 14, 2018: Planta Medica
Selma Sassi, Christophe Candolfi, Christine Gendarme, Anne Dauscher, Bertrand Lenoir
The crystal structure and transport properties (2-723 K) of the homologous compound Pb5 Bi6 Se14 with partial substitution of Te for Se are studied by means of powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, electrical resistivity, thermopower, thermal conductivity and Hall effect measurements. Polycrystalline samples of Pb5 Bi6 Se14-x Tex (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) were prepared by a two-step synthesis method based on the pseudo-binary PbSe-Bi2 Se3 phase diagram combined with Te substitution in the PbSe precursor...
March 14, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Ragesh Kumar T P, Paul Weirich, Lukas Hrachowina, Marc Hanefeld, Ragnar Bjornsson, Helgi Rafn Hrodmarsson, Sven Barth, D Howard Fairbrother, Michael Huth, Oddur Ingólfsson
In the current contribution we present a comprehensive study on the heteronuclear carbonyl complex H2 FeRu3 (CO)13 covering its low energy electron induced fragmentation in the gas phase through dissociative electron attachment (DEA) and dissociative ionization (DI), its decomposition when adsorbed on a surface under controlled ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions and exposed to irradiation with 500 eV electrons, and its performance in focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) at room temperature under HV conditions...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Elisabetta Nucleo, Mariasofia Caltagirone, Vittoria Mattioni Marchetti, Roberto D'Angelo, Elena Fogato, Massimo Confalonieri, Camilla Reboli, Albert March, Ferisa Sleghel, Gertrud Soelva, Elisabetta Pagani, Richard Aschbacher, Roberta Migliavacca, Laura Pagani
Background: Rationale and aims of the study were to compare colonization frequencies with MDR bacteria isolated from LTCF residents in three different Northern Italian regions, to investigate risk factors for colonization and the genotypic characteristics of isolates. The screening included Enterobacteriaceae expressing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESβLs) and high-level AmpC cephalosporinases, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae , Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Acinetobacter baumannii , methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE)...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Juliana Harumi Arita, Mário H Barros, Felipe Gustavo Ravagnani, Marcello Ziosi, Lívia Rentas Sanches, Fabíola Rosa Picosse, Tania Oliveira Lopes, Patrícia de Carvalho Aguiar, Carolina Habermann Macabelli, Marcos Chiaratti, José Luiz Pedroso, Catarina M Quinzi, Orlando Graziani Póvoas Barsottini, Claudia Cristina Ferreiro-Barros
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates many different metabolic pathways in eukaryote cells including mitochondria biogenesis and energy homeostasis. Here we identify a patient with hypotonia, weakness, delayed milestones and neurological impairment since birth harbouring a novel homozygous mutation in the AMPK catalytic α-subunit 1, encoded by the PRKAA1 gene. The homozygous mutation p.S487 L in isoform 1 present in the patient is in a cryptic residue for AMPK activity. In the present study, we performed the characterization of mitochondrial respiratory properties of the patient, in comparison to healthy controls, through the culture of skin fibroblasts in order to understand some of the cellular consequences of the PRKAA1 mutation...
March 8, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Ling Shih Quek, Nicolas Grasset, Joanita Binte Jasmen, Kim S Robinson, Sophie Bellanger
Cdc20 and Cdh1 activate the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C), a master cell cycle regulator. Although cell cycle modifications occur during differentiation of stem cells, a role for the APC/C on stem cell fate has not been established in embryonic or adult human tissues. We found that differentiated human primary keratinocytes (HPKs) from the skin express extremely low levels of Cdc20 compared to HPK stem cells (holoclones). In agreement with this, staining of human skin biopsies showed that Cdc20 is expressed in occasional cells from the basal and epibasal layers of the epidermis and is absent from the differentiated layers...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
J Peña, N Ibarretxe-Bilbao, P Sánchez, J J Uriarte, E Elizagarate, M Gutierrez, N Ojeda
Whereas the efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia is widely known, studies examining mechanisms for functional improvement are still scarce. The aim of the study was to examine the mediational mechanisms through which cognitive rehabilitation improves functioning in schizophrenia. One hundred and eleven schizophrenia patients were randomly assigned to either a 4-month cognitive rehabilitation group or an active control group. Patients underwent a neurocognitive battery (including processing speed, verbal memory, working memory and executive functioning) and social cognition assessment (emotion perception, theory of mind and social perception)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Ya-Lan Wang, Quan-Fei Zhu, Li-Ming Cheng, Shao-Ting Wang, Shan-Shan Qin, Shu-Jian Zheng, Hua-Ming Xiao, Juan-Juan Li, Song-Mei Liu, Bi-Feng Yuan, Yu-Qi Feng
Low-molecular-weight thiols play important roles in a variety of pathological processes and are closely associated with a wide range of diseases. In this study, a selective and sensitive method was developed for the simultaneous determination of all the 7 thiols occurring in the transsulfuration pathway (Cysteine (Cys), homocysteine (Hcys), glutathione (GSH), N-acetylcysteine (Nac), cysteinylglycine (CysGly), glutamylcysteine (GluCys) and cysteamine (CA)) in human serum by in-vitro stable isotope labeling - dispersive solid phase extraction - liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry analysis (IL-DSPE-LC-MS/MS)...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Jorge David Rojas Márquez, Yamile Ana, Ruth Eliana Baigorrí, Cinthia Carolina Stempin, Fabio Marcelo Cerban
The causative agent of Chagas' disease, Trypanosoma cruzi , affects approximately 10 million people living mainly in Latin America, with macrophages being one of the first cellular actors confronting the invasion during T. cruzi infection and their function depending on their proper activation and polarization into distinct M1 and M2 subtypes. Macrophage polarization is thought to be regulated not only by cytokines and growth factors but also by environmental signals. The metabolic checkpoint kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-mediated sensing of environmental and metabolic cues influences macrophage polarization in a complex and as of yet incompletely understood manner...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Emmanuel O Olawode, Roman Tandlich, Garth Cambray
Honey is the natural sweet substance produced by honeybee from nectar or honeydew, exhibiting several nutritional and health benefits. It contains a complex mixture of compounds in different proportions, with sugars being the main component. The physicochemical characteristics of ten honeys were evaluated; represented by five, three, and two from South Africa, Slovakia, and Zambia, respectively. The range of values for the pH (3.75-4.38), electrical conductivity (99-659 µS/cm), and moisture content (14.2-17...
March 5, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Simona Rimoldi, Genciana Terova, Chiara Ascione, Riccardo Giannico, Fabio Brambilla
Animal by-product meals from the rendering industry could provide a sustainable and commercially viable alternative to fishmeal (FM) in aquaculture, as they are rich in most essential amino acids and contain important amounts of water-soluble proteins that improve feed digestibility and palatability. Among them, poultry by-product meal (PBM) have given encouraging results in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). However, the introduction of new ingredients in the diet needs to be carefully evaluated since diet is one of the main factors affecting the gut microbiota, which is a complex community that contributes to host metabolism, nutrition, growth, and disease resistance...
2018: PloS One
Kenta Sasaki, Mana Ono, Kaori Takabe, Atsushi Suzuki, Yasuyuki Kurihara
DAZAP1 is an evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding protein expressed in many tissues in mice and humans. DAZAP1-knockout mice carrying a partial loss-of-function (hypomorphic) allele exhibited severe deficiencies in spermatogenesis and cell growth, indicating that DAZAP1 plays a pivotal role in the development of germ and somatic cells. We have identified cox6c mRNA, which encodes a subunit of complex IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, as a target transcript regulated by DAZAP1. We found that DAZAP1 bound to cox6c mRNA derived from either the genomic DNA or a genome-type expression vector in cells, but not to cox6c mRNA derived from an intronless expression vector...
March 2, 2018: Gene
Vjekoslav Kokoric, Johannes Theisen, Andreas Wilk, Christophe Penisson, Gabriel Bernard, Boris Mizaikoff, Jean-Christophe Paul Gabriel
A microfluidic system combined with substrate-integrated hollow waveguide (iHWG) vapor phase infrared spectroscopy has been developed for evaluating the chemical activity of volatile compounds dissolved in complex fluids. Chemical activity is an im-portant yet rarely exploited parameter in process analysis and control. Access to chemical activity parameters enables systematic studies on phase diagrams of complex fluids, the detection of aggregation processes, etc.. The instrumental approach developed herein uniquely enables controlled evaporation/permeation from a sample solution into a hollow waveguide structure, and analyz-ing the partial pressures of volatile constituents...
March 5, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
John S Lomas
Density functional theory calculations are used to compute proton NMR chemical shifts, interatomic distances, atom-atom interaction energies and atomic charges for partial structures and conformers of α-D-glucopyranose, β-D-glucopyranose and α-D-galactopyranose built up by introducing OH groups into 2-methyltetrahydropyran stepwisely. For the counter-clockwise conformers the most marked effects on the NMR shift and the charge on the OH1 proton are produced by OH2, those of OH3 and OH4 being somewhat smaller...
March 1, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
Seiji Torii, Chisato Kubota, Naoya Saito, Ayumi Kawano, Ni Hou, Masaki Kobayashi, Ryoko Torii, Masahiro Hosaka, Tadahiro Kitamura, Toshiyuki Takeuchi, Hiroshi Gomi
Autocrine insulin signaling is critical for pancreatic β-cell growth and activity and is at least partially controlled by protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) that act on insulin receptors (IRs). The receptor-type PTP phogrin primarily localizes on insulin secretory granules in pancreatic β cells. We recently reported that phogrin knockdown decreases the protein levels of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), whereas high glucose stimulation promotes formation of a phogrin-IR complex that stabilizes IRS2. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which phogrin affects IRS2 levels are unclear...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Wojciech Wieclawek
BACKGROUND: Image segmentation is an essential and non trivial task in computer vision and medical image analysis. Computed tomography (CT) is one of the most accessible medical examination techniques to visualize the interior of a patient's body. Among different computer-aided diagnostic systems, the applications dedicated to kidney segmentation represent a relatively small group. In addition, literature solutions are verified on relatively small databases. The goal of this research is to develop a novel algorithm for fully automated kidney segmentation...
February 27, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
K M Frizzell, M J Jendral, I M Maclean, W T Dixon, C T Putman
1. Post-mortem decline in muscle pH ([H+ ]) is controlled by complex physicochemical relationships encapsulated in the Stewart Model of acid-base chemistry and is determined by three systems-independent variables - strong ion difference([SID]), total concentration of weak acids([Atot ]) and partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2 ). 2. This study investigated these systems-independent variables in post-mortem pectoralis major muscles of Shaver White (SH), Lohmann Lite (LL) and Lohmann Brown (LB) laying hens housed in conventional cages (CC) or furnished cages (FC), and evaluated the Model by comparing calculated [H+ ] with previously measured [H+ ] values (Frizzell et al...
February 26, 2018: British Poultry Science
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