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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739679/two-populations-of-cytoplasmic-dynein-contribute-to-spindle-positioning-in-c-elegans-embryos
#1
Ruben Schmidt, Lars-Eric Fielmich, Ilya Grigoriev, Eugene A Katrukha, Anna Akhmanova, Sander van den Heuvel
The position of the mitotic spindle is tightly controlled in animal cells as it determines the plane and orientation of cell division. Contacts between cytoplasmic dynein and astral microtubules (MTs) at the cell cortex generate pulling forces that position the spindle. An evolutionarily conserved Gα-GPR-1/2(Pins/LGN)-LIN-5(Mud/NuMA) cortical complex interacts with dynein and is required for pulling force generation, but the dynamics of this process remain unclear. In this study, by fluorescently labeling endogenous proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, we show that dynein exists in two distinct cortical populations...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720279/metabolomic-analysis-identifies-altered-metabolic-pathways-in-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Simone Poddighe, Federica Murgia, Lorena Lorefice, Sonia Liggi, Eleonora Cocco, Maria Giovanna Marrosu, Luigi Atzori
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, demyelinating disease that affects the central nervous system and is characterized by a complex pathogenesis and difficult management. The identification of new biomarkers would be clinically useful for more accurate diagnoses and disease monitoring. Metabolomics, the identification of small endogenous molecules in, offers an instantaneous molecular snapshot of the MS phenotype. Here the metabolomic profiles (utilizing plasma from patients with MS) were characterized with a Gas cromatography-mass spectrometry-based platform followed by a multivariate statistical analysis and comparison with a healthy control (HC) population...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719317/climate-influence-on-emerging-risk-areas-for-rift-valley-fever-epidemics-in-tanzania
#3
Clement N Mweya, Leonard E G Mboera, Sharadhuli I Kimera
Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a climate-related arboviral infection of animals and humans. Climate is thought to represent a threat toward emerging risk areas for RVF epidemics globally. The objective of this study was to evaluate influence of climate on distribution of suitable breeding habitats for Culex pipiens complex, potential mosquito vector responsible for transmission and distribution of disease epidemics risk areas in Tanzania. We used ecological niche models to estimate potential distribution of disease risk areas based on vectors and disease co-occurrence data approach...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716499/fracture-risk-assessment-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#4
Catalina Poiana, Cristina Capatina
Diabetes mellitus, both type 1 and type 2 (T2DM), is associated with decreased bone strength as well as increased fracture risk. Bone mineral density is decreased in type 1 diabetes but increased in T2DM, compared with controls. This suggests alterations in bone quality are a major player in the pathogenesis of fragility fractures in patients with diabetes. The link between diabetes and bone appears to be mediated by complex pathways, including the insulin-insulin growth factors system, accumulation of advanced glycation end-products in bone collagen, microangiopathy, and increased bone marrow fat content...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710948/brainstem-auditory-evoked-potentials-for-diagnosing-autism-spectrum-disorder-adhd-and-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-in-adults-a-blinded-study
#5
Irina Manouilenko, Mats B Humble, Jeanette Georgieva, Susanne Bejerot
The aim of the present study was to examine the clinical utility of complex auditory brainstem response (c-ABR) and investigate if c-ABR is helpful in the diagnostic procedure. Thirty-one adult psychiatric patients, thoroughly diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n=16), ADHD (n=8), or schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) (n=7) and 15 healthy controls (HC), were blindly assessed with SensoDetect BERA. This c-ABR correctly identified psychiatric diagnoses in 4 patients (13%) and provided partially correct diagnoses in 11 more patients...
July 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709674/accuracy-of-cad-cam-fabricated-removable-partial-dentures
#6
Christin Arnold, Jeremias Hey, Ramona Schweyen, Jürgen M Setz
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The conventional fabrication of removable partial dentures (RPDs) is a complex, error-prone, time-consuming, and expensive process. The use of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) techniques, especially rapid prototyping, promises a more effective method for fabricating RPD frameworks. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the fit of RPD clasps fabricated by means of 4 different CAD-CAM-systems and to compare those fittings with that of the conventional lost-wax casting technique (LWT)...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708842/evaluating-whole-genome-sequence-data-from-the-genetic-absence-epilepsy-rat-from-strasbourg-and-its-related-non-epileptic-strain
#7
Pablo M Casillas-Espinosa, Kim L Powell, Mingfu Zhu, C Ryan Campbell, Jessica M Maia, Zhong Ren, Nigel C Jones, Terence J O'Brien, Slavé Petrovski
OBJECTIVE: The Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) are an inbreed Wistar rat strain widely used as a model of genetic generalised epilepsy with absence seizures. As in humans, the genetic architecture that results in genetic generalized epilepsy in GAERS is poorly understood. Here we present the strain-specific variants found among the epileptic GAERS and their related Non-Epileptic Control (NEC) strain. The GAERS and NEC represent a powerful opportunity to identify neurobiological factors that are associated with the genetic generalised epilepsy phenotype...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699639/loss-of-mtorc1-signalling-impairs-%C3%AE-cell-homeostasis-and-insulin-processing
#8
Manuel Blandino-Rosano, Rebecca Barbaresso, Margarita Jimenez-Palomares, Nadejda Bozadjieva, Joao Pedro Werneck-de-Castro, Masayuki Hatanaka, Raghavendra G Mirmira, Nahum Sonenberg, Ming Liu, Markus A Rüegg, Michael N Hall, Ernesto Bernal-Mizrachi
Deregulation of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signalling increases the risk for metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes. Here we show that β-cell-specific loss of mTORC1 causes diabetes and β-cell failure due to defects in proliferation, autophagy, apoptosis and insulin secretion by using mice with conditional (βraKO) and inducible (MIP-βraKO(f/f)) raptor deletion. Through genetic reconstitution of mTORC1 downstream targets, we identify mTORC1/S6K pathway as the mechanism by which mTORC1 regulates β-cell apoptosis, size and autophagy, whereas mTORC1/4E-BP2-eIF4E pathway regulates β-cell proliferation...
July 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698761/vagus-nerve-stimulation
#9
REVIEW
Hakan Ekmekçi, Hülagu Kaptan
BACKGROUND: The vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an approach mainly used in cases of intractable epilepsy despite all the efforts. Also, its benefits have been shown in severe cases of depression resistant to typical treatment. AIM: The aim of this study was to present current knowledge of vagus nerve stimulation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A new value has emerged just at this stage: VNS aiming the ideal treatment with new hopes. It is based on the placement of a programmable generator on the chest wall...
June 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697467/smoking-prevalence-and-seizure-control-in-chinese-males-with-epilepsy
#10
Hui Gao, Josemir W Sander, Xudong Du, Jiani Chen, Cairong Zhu, Dong Zhou
Smoking has a negative effect on most diseases, yet it is under-investigated in people with epilepsy; thus its role is not clear in the general population with epilepsy. We performed a retrospective pilot study on males with epilepsy to determine the smoking rate and its relationship with seizure control using univariate analysis to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and also used a multi-variate logistic regression model. The smoking rate in our sample of 278 individuals was 25.5%, which is lower than the general Chinese population smoking rate among males of 52...
July 7, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692686/neuronal-correlates-of-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-childhood-cerebellar-tumor-lesions
#11
Johanna L Reichert, Monika Chocholous, Ulrike Leiss, Thomas Pletschko, Gregor Kasprian, Julia Furtner, Kathrin Kollndorfer, Jacqueline Krajnik, Irene Slavc, Daniela Prayer, Thomas Czech, Veronika Schöpf, Christian Dorfer
While it has been shown that cerebellar tumor lesions have an impact on cognitive functions, the extent to which they shape distant neuronal pathways is still largely undescribed. Thus, the present neuroimaging study was designed to investigate different aspects of cognitive function and their neuronal correlates in patients after childhood cerebellar tumor surgery. An alertness task, a working memory task and an incompatibility task were performed by 11 patients after childhood cerebellar tumor surgery and 17 healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689825/biomechanical-analysis-of-anterior-bone-graft-augmentation-with-reversed-shoulder-arthroplasty-in-large-combined-glenoid-defects-compared-with-total-bony-joint-line-reconstruction-modified-bony-increased-offset-reversed-shoulder-arthroplasty
#12
Matthias Königshausen, Nina Sverdlova, Corinna Mersmann, Christoph Ehlert, Birger Jettkant, Rolf Dermietzel, Thomas Armin Schildhauer, Dominik Seybold
BACKGROUND: The aim of this biomechanical study was to compare 2 surgical techniques for the reconstruction of large, combined, uncontained glenoid defects with reversed shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). METHODS: Three groups of scapulae with RSA were tested by the application of a physiological combination of compressive/shear loads in Sawbones (Pacific Research Laboratories, Inc., Vashon Island, WA, USA) and cadavers. Two of the groups (both Sawbones and cadaveric specimens) consisted of anterior combined defects (14 mm in depth), and the third group served as a control group (only Sawbones specimens)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683937/demonstration-of-the-safety-and-feasibility-of-robotically-assisted-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-in%C3%A2-complex-coronary-lesions-results-of-the-cora-pci-study-complex-robotically-assisted%C3%A2-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#13
Ehtisham Mahmud, Jesse Naghi, Lawrence Ang, Jonathan Harrison, Omid Behnamfar, Ali Pourdjabbar, Ryan Reeves, Mitul Patel
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the feasibility and technical success of robotically assisted percutaneous coronary intervention (R-PCI) for the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) in clinical practice, especially in complex lesions, and to determine the safety and clinical success of R-PCI compared with manual percutaneous coronary intervention (M-PCI). BACKGROUND: R-PCI is safe and feasible for simple coronary lesions. The utility of R-PCI for complex coronary lesions is unknown...
July 10, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682259/inverse-diffusion-curves-using-shape-optimization
#14
Shuang Zhao, Fredo Durand, Changxi Zheng
The inverse diffusion curve problem focuses on automatic creation of diffusion curve images that resemble user provided color fields. This problem is challenging since the 1D curves have a nonlinear and global impact on resulting color fields via a partial differential equation (PDE). We introduce a new approach complementary to previous methods by optimizing curve geometry. In particular, we propose a novel iterative algorithm based on the theory of shape derivatives. The resulting diffusion curves are clean and well-shaped, and the final image closely approximates the input...
June 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680294/carcinoma-ex-pleomorphic-adenoma-case-report-and-options-for-systemic-therapy
#15
N Chooback, Y Shen, M Jones, K Kasaian, M Martin, T Ng, T Thomson, M Marra, J Laskin, C Ho
The most common benign salivary tumour is a pleomorphic adenoma. Transformation to malignancy, carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (cxpa), occurs in 6% of cases. Management focuses on surgical resection and radiotherapy; however, rare cases require systemic management. We present the case of a 60-year-old woman with a cxpa of the left parotid gland who required systemic therapy for locally recurrent disease. Treatment options were guided by the literature concerning malignant salivary gland tumour and by whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing of the tumour...
June 2017: Current Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679588/adipocyte-mtorc1-deficiency-promotes-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-via-oxidative-stress-and-de-novo-ceramide-synthesis
#16
Patricia Chimin, Maynara L Andrade, Thiago Belchior, Vivian A Paschoal, Juliana Magdalon, Alex S Yamashita, Erique Castro, Angela Castoldi, Adriano B Chaves-Filho, Marcos Y Yoshinaga, Sayuri Miyamoto, Niels O Camara, William T Festuccia
Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity is increased in adipose tissue of obese, insulin resistant mice, but its role in the regulation of tissue inflammation is unknown. We investigated herein the effects of adipocyte mTORC1 deficiency on adipose tissue inflammation and glucose homeostasis. For this, mice with adipocyte raptor deletion and controls fed a chow or a high-fat diet were evaluated for body mass, adiposity, glucose homeostasis and adipose tissue inflammation. Despite reducing adiposity, adipocyte mTORC1 deficiency promoted hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation (increased infiltration of macrophages, neutrophils and B lymphocytes, crown-like structure density, TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP1 expression, IL-1β protein content, lipid peroxidation and de novo ceramide synthesis)...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678347/trap1-controls-cell-cycle-g2-m-transition-through-the-regulation-of-cdk1-and-mad2-expression-ubiquitination
#17
Lorenza Sisinni, Francesca Maddalena, Valentina Condelli, Giuseppe Pannone, Vittorio Simeon, Valeria Li Bergolis, Elvira Lopes, Annamaria Piscazzi, Danilo Swann Matassa, Carmela Mazzoccoli, Filomena Nozza, Giacomo Lettini, Maria Rosaria Amoroso, Pantaleo Bufo, Franca Esposito, Matteo Landriscina
Regulation of tumor cell proliferation by molecular chaperones is still a complex issue. Here, the role of the HSP90 molecular chaperone TRAP1 in cell cycle regulation was investigated in a wide range of human breast, colorectal and lung carcinoma cell lines and tumor specimens. TRAP1 modulates the expression and/or the ubiquitination of key cell cycle regulators through a dual mechanism: i) a transcriptional regulation of CDK1, CYCLIN B1 and MAD2, as suggested by a gene expression profiling of TRAP1-silenced breast carcinoma cells, and ii) a post-transcriptional quality control of CDK1 and MAD2, being the ubiquitination of these two proteins enhanced upon TRAP1 downregulation...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677803/grape-seed-procyanidin-b2-ameliorates-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-disorders-in-db-db-mice
#18
Mei Yin, Pei Zhang, Fei Yu, Zhen Zhang, Qian Cai, Weida Lu, Baoying Li, Weidong Qin, Mei Cheng, Hao Wang, Haiqing Gao
Diabetes is commonly associated with liver lipid metabolism disorders. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has a key role in regulating lipid metabolism. Grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2), a natural polyphenol polymer, ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibits oxidative stress or apoptosis via AMPK pathways. In the present study, the hypothesis that GSPB2 treatment may ameliorate liver lipid metabolic disorders by activating AMPK and downstream pathways was tested in diabetic mice. Db/m mice were used as controls, and diabetic db/db mice were randomly divided into 2 groups for treatment: Vehicle and GSPB2 (30 mg/kg/day for 10 weeks)...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676255/an-ontology-based-approach-to-patient-follow-up-assessment-for-continuous-and-personalized-chronic-disease-management
#19
Yi-Fan Zhang, Ling Gou, Tian-Shu Zhou, De-Nan Lin, Jing Zheng, Ye Li, Jing-Song Li
OBJECTIVE: Chronic diseases are complex and persistent clinical conditions that require close collaboration among patients and health care providers in the implementation of long-term and integrated care programs. However, current solutions focus partially on intensive interventions at hospitals rather than on continuous and personalized chronic disease management. This study aims to fill this gap by providing computerized clinical decision support during follow-up assessments of chronically ill patients at home...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668627/vigabatrin-lacks-proarrhythmic-potential-results-from-a-thorough-qt-qtc-study-in-healthy-volunteers
#20
Dwain Tolbert, Susan Reid, Stuart Harris, Ihor Bekersky
PURPOSE: A thorough QT study was performed to assess the proarrhythmic potential of vigabatrin, an antiepileptic drug approved in the United States for the treatment of infantile spasms and refractory complex partial seizures. METHODS: In this Phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled (moxifloxacin), 4-sequence, crossover study conducted at a single center, healthy participants received 1 of 4 randomly assigned treatments: 3.0g vigabatrin solution (therapeutic dose) and 1 moxifloxacin placebo tablet; 6...
June 28, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
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