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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504581/bacillus-coagulans-gbi-30-6086-increases-plant-protein-digestion-in-a-dynamic-computer-controlled-in-vitro-model-of-the-small-intestine-tim-1
#1
D Keller, R Van Dinter, H Cash, S Farmer, K Venema
The aim of this study was to assess the potential of the probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 [GanedenBC(30)] (BC30) to aid in protein digestion of alimentary plant proteins. To test this, three plant proteins, from pea, soy and rice, were digested in a validated in vitro model of the stomach and small intestine (TIM-1) in the absence and in the presence of BC30. Samples were taken from the TIM-1 fractions that mimic uptake of amino acids by the host and analysed for α-amino nitrogen (AAN) and total nitrogen (TN)...
May 15, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502169/direct-conjugation-of-emerging-contaminants-in-arabidopsis-indication-for-an-overlooked-risk-in-plants
#2
Qiuguo Fu, Jianbo Zhang, Dan Borchardt, Daniel Schlenk, Jay J Gan
Agricultural use of treated wastewater, biosolids and animal wastes introduces a multitude of contaminants of emerging concerns (CECs) into the soil-plant system. The potential for food crops to accumulate CECs depends largely on their metabolism in plants, which at present is poorly understood. Here we evaluated the metabolism of naproxen and ibuprofen, two of the most used human drugs from the profen family, in Arabidopsis thaliana cells and Arabidopsis plant. The complementary use of high-resolution mass spectrometry and 14C labeling allowed characterization of both free and conjugated metabolites, as well as non-extractable residues...
May 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500593/assessment-of-protein-carbonylation-and-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-ptp-oxidation-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-vsmcs-using-immunoblotting-approaches
#3
Sofia Tsiropoulou, Rhian M Touyz
Post-translational modification of proteins, such as phosphorylation and oxidation, plays a major role in cellular signaling by influencing protein structure and function. In vascular cells, in addition to influencing phosphorylation, angiotensin II (Ang II) induces oxidation of proteins, important in redox signaling in the cardiovascular and renal systems. The present chapter describes immunoblotting approaches to assess irreversible protein carbonylation and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPs) oxidation status in the proteome of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496969/synthetic-approaches-to-nucleopeptides-containing-all-four-nucleobases-and-nucleic-acid-binding-studies-on-a-mixed-sequence-nucleo-oligolysine
#4
Giovanni N Roviello, Domenica Musumeci
In this article we describe two solid-phase synthetic routes to obtain a nucleo-oligolysine α-peptide containing all four natural nucleobases. The first one is based on the oligomerization of the nucleobase-containing monomers, easily synthesized as herein described. The second strategy has the advantage of avoiding the solution synthesis of the monomeric building blocks, leading to the final nucleopeptide by direct solid-phase couplings of the suitably protected nucleobases with the free amino groups on the growing peptide chain still anchored to the resin...
July 16, 2016: RSC Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496122/structural-insights-into-a-20-8-kda-tegumental-allergen-like-tal-protein-from-clonorchis-sinensis
#5
Chang Hwa Jo, Jonghyeon Son, Sulhee Kim, Takashi Oda, Jaehoon Kim, Myoung-Ro Lee, Mamoru Sato, Hyun Tae Kim, Satoru Unzai, Sam-Yong Park, Kwang Yeon Hwang
Survival of Clonorchis sinensis, a cause of human clonorchiasis, requires tegument proteins, which are localized to the tegumental outer surface membrane. These proteins play an important role in a host response and parasite survival. Thus, these proteins are interesting molecular targets for vaccine and drug development. Here, we have determined two crystal structures of the calmodulin like domain (amino acid [aa] positions 1-81) and dynein light chain (DLC)-like domain (aa 83-177) of a 20.8-kDa tegumental-allergen-like protein from Clonorchis sinensis (CsTAL3)...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489381/molecular-mechanism-of-the-reaction-specificity-in-threonine-synthase-importance-of-the-substrate-conformations
#6
Yuzuru Ujiie, Wataru Tanaka, Kyohei Hanaoka, Ryuhei Harada, Megumi Kayanuma, Mitsuo Shoji, Takeshi Murakawa, Toyokazu Ishida, Yasuteru Shigeta, Hideyuki Hayashi
Threonine synthase (ThrS) catalyzes the final chemical reaction of l-threonine biosynthesis from its precursor, O-phospho-l-homoserine. As the phosphate ion generated in its former half reaction assists its latter reaction, ThrS is recognized as one of the best examples of product-assisted catalysis. In our previous QM/MM study, the chemical reactions for the latter half reactions, which are critical for the product-assisted catalysis, were revealed. However, accurate free energy changes caused by the conformational ensembles and entrance of water molecules into the active site are unknown...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487079/d-aspartic-acid-ameliorates-painful-and-neuropsychiatric-changes-and-reduces-%C3%AE-amyloid-a%C3%AE-1-42-peptide-in-a-long-lasting-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#7
Antimo D'Aniello, Livio Luongo, Rosaria Romano, Monica Iannotta, Ida Marabese, Serena Boccella, Carmela Belardo, Vito de Novellis, Claudio Arra, Antonio Barbieri, Biagio D'Aniello, Anna Scandurra, Laura Migliozzi, George Fisher, Francesca Guida, Sabatino Maione
Depressive symptoms and other neuropsychiatric dysfunctions are common in neurodegenerative disorders, including chronic pain and dementia. A correlation between the β-amyloid protein accumulation and the development of depression has been suggested, however the underlying mechanisms are unknown. d-Aspartate (d-Asp) is a free d-amino acid found in the mammalian brain and involved in neurological and psychiatric processes, such as cognition and affective disorders. In this study we have investigated the effects of a repeated treatment with d-Asp in a long-lasting (12 months) model of neuropathic pain, the spared nerve injury (SNI), in mice...
May 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482109/organic-and-inorganic-nitrogen-uptake-by-21-dominant-tree-species-in-temperate-and-tropical-forests
#8
Min Liu, Changcheng Li, Xingliang Xu, Wolfgang Wanek, Ning Jiang, Huimin Wang, Xiaodong Yang
Evidence shows that many tree species can take up organic nitrogen (N) in the form of free amino acids from soils, but few studies have been conducted to compare organic and inorganic N uptake patterns in temperate and tropical tree species in relation to mycorrhizal status and successional state. We labeled intact tree roots by brief 15N exposures using field hydroponic experiments in a temperate forest and a tropical forest in China. A total of 21 dominant tree species were investigated, 8 in the temperate forest and 13 in the tropical forest...
May 8, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480401/prospective-effect-of-red-algae-actinotrichia-fragilis-against-some-osteoarthritis-aetiology
#9
Amany A Sayed, Shimaa A Sadek, Amel M Solimán, Mohamed Marzouk
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive disease characterized by joints pain and articular cartilage destruction. Most of the current treatment strategies for OA are effective for symptoms relief but are accompanied with adverse side effect. Thus, the present investigation aims to evaluate the potential influence of red algae, Actinotrichia fragilis, in the dry powder form (AFP) or gel form (AFG) on some relevant factors of OA progression as well as assess its safety through in vitro and in vivo experiments...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476562/a-novel-alignment-free-method-to-classify-protein-folding-types-by-combining-spectral-graph-clustering-with-chou-s-pseudo-amino-acid-composition
#10
Pooja Tripathi, Paras N Pandey
The present work employs pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC) for encoding the protein sequences in their numeric form. Later this will be arranged in the similarity matrix, which serves as input for spectral graph clustering method. Spectral methods are used previously also for clustering of protein sequences, but they uses pair wise alignment scores of protein sequences, in similarity matrix. The alignment score depends on the length of sequences, so clustering short and long sequences together may not good idea...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462956/experimental-and-theoretical-investigations-of-infrared-multiple-photon-dissociation-spectra-of-glutamic-acid-complexes-with-zn-2-and-cd-2
#11
Georgia C Boles, Cameron J Owen, Giel Berden, Jos Oomens, P B Armentrout
Complexes of glutamic acid (Glu) cationized with Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) were examined by infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy using light generated from a free electron laser. Complexes of deprotonated Glu with Zn(2+), [Zn(Glu-H)ACN](+) (where ACN = acetonitrile, CH3CN), and intact Glu with CdCl(+), CdCl(+)(Glu) were formed. Notably, photodissociation induces Glu fragmentation rather than ACN loss in the Zn(2+) complex. In order to identify the structures formed experimentally, the experimentally obtained spectra were compared to those calculated from optimized structures at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level for [Zn(Glu-H)ACN](+) and B3LYP/def2-TZVP level with an SDD effective core potential on cadmium for the CdCl(+)(Glu) system...
May 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460977/aseptic-artificial-fermentation-of-cocoa-beans-can-be-fashioned-to-replicate-the-peptide-profile-of-commercial-cocoa-bean-fermentations
#12
Warren A John, Neha Kumari, Nina L Böttcher, Kouame Jean Koffi, Sergio Grimbs, Gino Vrancken, Roy N D'Souza, Nikolai Kuhnert, Matthias S Ullrich
The fermentation of cocoa beans is essential for the generation of flavour precursors that are required later on to form the flavour components of chocolate. From the many different precursors that are generated, oligopeptides and free amino acids comprise a significant proportion as some of them form Maillard reaction products during the roasting process. Therefore, the diversity of peptides is an important contributing factor to the quality of a fermentation which is in turn controlled by proteolytic activity within the cocoa bean, and is driven by changes in the presence of fermentation by-products as a result of microbial activity outside the bean...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453657/comparative-ileal-digestibility-of-amino-acids-in-00-rapeseed-meal-and-rapeseed-meal-fed-to-growing-male-broilers
#13
Zafar Ullah, Zaib Ur Rehman, Yulong Yin, H Hans, Stein, Zafar Hayat, Gulraiz Ahmed, Mahr Un Nisa, Muhammad Akhtar, Muhammad Sarwar
Rapeseed meal (RSM) is a commonly used protein source in poultry diet but its usage is limited due to antinutritional factors, the glucosinolates (GLS) and erucic acid. The 00-rapeseed meal (00-RSM) is the developed variety of rapeseed with reduced GLS and erucic acid content through genetic selection. The present study was conducted with the objective of comparing the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in 00-RSM and RSM when fed to growing broilers. Three samples of each ingredient were collected from different sources...
April 26, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442765/the-gpr139-reference-agonists-1a-and-7c-and-tryptophan-and-phenylalanine-share-a-common-binding-site
#14
Anne Cathrine Nøhr, Willem Jespers, Mohamed A Shehata, Leonard Floryan, Vignir Isberg, Kirsten Bayer Andersen, Johan Åqvist, Hugo Gutiérrez-de-Terán, Hans Bräuner-Osborne, David E Gloriam
GPR139 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor expressed in the brain, in particular in the habenula, hypothalamus and striatum. It has therefore been suggested that GPR139 is a possible target for metabolic disorders and Parkinson's disease. Several surrogate agonist series have been published for GPR139. Two series published by Shi et al. and Dvorak et al. included agonists 1a and 7c respectively, with potencies in the ten-nanomolar range. Furthermore, Isberg et al. and Liu et al. have previously shown that tryptophan (Trp) and phenylalanine (Phe) can activate GPR139 in the hundred-micromolar range...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442389/gene-identification-and-characterization-of-fucoidan-deacetylase-for-potential-application-to-fucoidan-degradation-and-diversification
#15
Tatsuhiko Nagao, Ayako Kumabe, Fumika Komatsu, Hisashi Yagi, Hirokazu Suzuki, Takashi Ohshiro
Fucoidan is an α-l-fucopyranosyl polymer found in seaweeds with forms that have acetyl and sulfuric modifications and derivatives that are lower and/or diversified, with modifications that have attracted interest as potential bioactive substances. We identified the gene for a fucoidan deacetylase that cleaves acetyl moieties from fucoidan and thereby contributes to fucoidan utilization in the marine bacterium Luteolibacter algae H18. Fucoidan deacetylase was purified to homogeneity from a cell-free extract of L...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437605/aqueously-released-graphene-oxide-embedded-in-epoxy-resin-exhibits-different-characteristics-and-phytotoxicity-of-chlorella-vulgaris-from-the-pristine-form
#16
Xiangang Hu, Weilu Kang, Li Mu
The environmental release of nanoparticles is attracting increasing attention. Graphene oxide (GO) embedded in epoxy resin (ER) is a popular composite that has been used in various fields, but the environmental release of GO-ER composites and the effects on organisms in the environment remain unknown. The present work found that GO-ER composites in water for 2-7 days resulted in the release of 0.3-2.1% GO-ER at nanoscale (2-3 nm thickness and approximately 70-130 nm lateral length). Interestingly, pristine GO quenched 30-45% hydroxyl and 12% nitroxide free radicals, whereas this capacity was not observed for the released particles from GO-ER...
May 1, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435010/ribotypes-associated-with-clostridium-difficile-outbreaks-in-brazil-display-distinct-surface-protein-profiles
#17
Thais Gonçalves Ferreira, Hercules Moura, John R Barr, Regina M C Pilotto Domingues, Eliane de Oliveira Ferreira
Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming anaerobic intestinal pathogen that causes Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). C. difficile is the leading cause of toxin-mediated nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The pathogenesis of CDI is attributed to two major virulence factors, TcdA and TcdB toxins, that cause the symptomatic infection. C. difficile also expresses a number of key proteins, including cell wall proteins (CWPs). S-layer proteins (SLPs) are CWPs that form a paracrystalline surface array that coats the surface of the bacterium...
April 20, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429501/formation-of-macromolecules-in-wheat-gluten-starch-mixtures-during-twin-screw-extrusion-effect-of-different-additives
#18
Kaiqiang Wang, Cheng Li, Bingzhi Wang, Wen Yang, Shuizhong Luo, Yanyan Zhao, Shaotong Jiang, Dongdong Mu, Zhi Zheng
BACKGROUND: Wheat gluten comprises a good quality and inexpensive vegetable protein with an ideal amino acid composition. To expand the potential application of wheat gluten in the food industry, the effect of different additives on the physicochemical and structural properties of wheat gluten/starch mixtures during twin-screw extrusion was investigated. RESULTS: Macromolecules were observed to form in wheat gluten/starch mixtures during twin-screw extrusion, which may be ascribed to the formation of new disulfide bonds and non-covalent interactions, as well as Maillard reaction products...
April 21, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428069/assessment-of-non-derivatized-%C3%AE-n-methylamino-l-alanine-bmaa-neurotoxin-in-free-form-in-urine-of-patients-with-nonspecific-neurological-symptoms
#19
L Bláhová, J Kohoutek, E Kadlecová, L Kozáková, L Bláha
The beta-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) is a non-proteinogenic amino acid discussed to be produced by cyanobacteria forming harmful blooms. Since BMAA is suspected etiological agent in neurodegenerative diseases, there is a need to study and validate whether and in what concentrations can BMAA be present in human tissues. The aim of the present study was to validate analytical and extraction procedures for quantification of non-derivatized BMAA in the urine using liquid chromatography and commercial ELISA Kit...
April 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412901/an-analysis-of-central-residues-between-ligand-bound-and-ligand-free-protein-structures-based-on-network-approach
#20
Amala Arumugam, Arnold Emerson Isacc
Depiction of protein structures as networks of interacting residues has enabled us to understand the structure and function of the protein. Previous investigations on closeness centrality have identified protein functional sites from three- dimensional structures. It is well recognized that ligand binding to a receptor protein induces a wide range of structural changes. An interesting question is, how central residues function during conformational changes triggered during ligand binding? The aim of this study is to comprehend at what extent central residues change during ligand binding to receptor proteins...
April 13, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
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