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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429501/formation-of-macromolecules-in-wheat-gluten-starch-mixtures-during-twin-screw-extrusion-effect-of-different-additives
#1
Kaiqiang Wang, Cheng Li, Bingzhi Wang, Wen Yang, Shuizhong Luo, Yanyan Zhao, Shaotong Jiang, Dongdong Mu, Zhi Zheng
BACKGROUND: Wheat gluten comprises a good quality and inexpensive vegetable protein with an ideal amino acid composition. To expand the potential application of wheat gluten in the food industry, the effect of different additives on the physicochemical and structural properties of wheat gluten/starch mixtures during twin-screw extrusion was investigated. RESULTS: Macromolecules were observed to form in wheat gluten/starch mixtures during twin-screw extrusion, which may be ascribed to the formation of new disulfide bonds and non-covalent interactions, as well as Maillard reaction products...
April 21, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428069/assessment-of-non-derivatized-%C3%AE-n-methylamino-l-alanine-bmaa-neurotoxin-in-free-form-in-urine-of-patients-with-nonspecific-neurological-symptoms
#2
L Bláhová, J Kohoutek, E Kadlecová, L Kozáková, L Bláha
The beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is a non-proteinogenic amino acid discussed to be produced by cyanobacteria forming harmful blooms. Since BMAA is suspected etiological agent in neurodegenerative diseases, there is a need to study and validate whether and in what concentrations can BMAA be present in human tissues. The aim of the present study was to validate analytical and extraction procedures for quantification of non-derivatized BMAA in the urine using liquid chromatography and commercial ELISA Kit...
April 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412901/an-analysis-of-central-residues-between-ligand-bound-and-ligand-free-protein-structures-based-on-network-approach
#3
Amala Arumugam, Arnold Emerson Isacc
Depiction of protein structures as networks of interacting residues have enabled us to understand the structure and function of the protein. Previous investigations on closeness centrality have identified protein functional sites from three- dimensional structures. It is well recognized that ligand binding to a receptor protein induces a wide range of structural changes. An interesting question is, how the central residues are functioning during conformational changes triggered by the ligand binding? The aim of this study is to analyze at what extent the central residues are changing upon ligand binding to receptor proteins...
April 13, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411602/mapping-the-conformational-free-energy-of-aspartic-acid-in-the-gas-phase-and-in-aqueous-solution
#4
Federico Comitani, Kevin Rossi, Michele Ceriotti, M Eugenia Sanz, Carla Molteni
The conformational free energy landscape of aspartic acid, a proteogenic amino acid involved in a wide variety of biological functions, was investigated as an example of the complexity that multiple rotatable bonds produce even in relatively simple molecules. To efficiently explore such a landscape, this molecule was studied in the neutral and zwitterionic forms, in the gas phase and in water solution, by means of molecular dynamics and the enhanced sampling method metadynamics with classical force-fields. Multi-dimensional free energy landscapes were reduced to bi-dimensional maps through the non-linear dimensionality reduction algorithm sketch-map to identify the energetically stable conformers and their interconnection paths...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401991/supramolecular-amino-acid-based-hydrogels-probing-the-contribution-of-additive-molecules-using-nmr-spectroscopy
#5
Susana M Ramalhete, Karol P Nartwoski, Nichola Sarathchandra, Jamie S Foster, Andrew N Round, Jesús Angulo, Gareth O Lloyd, Yaroslav Z Khimyak
Supramolecular hydrogels are composed of self-assembled solid networks that restrict the flow of water. L-phenylalanine is the smallest molecule reported to date to form gel networks in water, and it is of particular interest due to its crystalline gel state. Single and multi-component hydrogels of L-phenylalanine are used herein as model materials to develop an NMR-based analytical approach to gain insight into the mechanisms of supramolecular gelation. Structure and composition of the gel fibres were probed using PXRD, solid-state NMR experiments and microscopic techniques...
April 12, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395954/influence-of-membrane-composition-on-the-binding-and-folding-of-a-membrane-lytic-peptide-from-the-non-enveloped-flock-house-virus
#6
Shivangi Nangia, Eric R May
Using a combination of coarse-grained and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations we have investigated the membrane binding and folding properties of the membrane lytic peptide of Flock House virus (FHV). FHV is an animal virus and an excellent model system for studying cell entry mechanisms in non-enveloped viruses. FHV undergoes a maturation event where the 44 C-terminal amino acids are cleaved from the major capsid protein, forming the membrane lytic (γ) peptides. Under acidic conditions, γ is released from the capsid interior allowing the peptides to bind and disrupt membranes...
April 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394452/organocatalytic-nucleophilic-addition-of-hydrazones-to-imines-synthesis-of-enantioenriched-vicinal-diamines
#7
Yang Wang, Qian Wang, Jieping Zhu
In the presence of a catalytic amount of chiral phosphoric acid, nucleophilic addition of N-monosubstituted hydrazones to N-Boc imines affords differentially protected vicinal diamines in the form of β-amino N,N'-dialkyldiazenes in excellent yields with high chemo-, diastereo-, and enantioselectivity. This catalytic asymmetric aza-Mannich reaction represents the first example in which N-alkyl hydrazones serve as α-azo carbanion equivalents to provide vicinal diamines with control of the two contiguous stereocenters...
April 10, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393563/lipid-nanoparticle-based-co-delivery-of-epirubicin-and-bcl-2-sirna-for-enhanced-intracellular-drug-release-and-reversing-multidrug-resistance
#8
Miao Yu, Shangcong Han, Zhongai Kou, Jialing Dai, Jiao Liu, Chen Wei, Yitong Li, Lutao Jiang, Yong Sun
At present, combined therapy has become an effective strategy for the treatment of cancer. Co-delivery of the chemotherapeutic drugs and siRNA can more effectively inhibit tumor growth by nano drug delivery systems (NDDSs). Here, we prepared and evaluated a multifunctional envelope-type nano device (MEND). This MEND was a kind of composite lipid-nanoparticles possessing both the properties of liposomes and nanoparticles. In this study, an acid-cleavable ketal containing poly (β-amino ester) (KPAE) was used to bind siBCL-2 and the KPAE/siBCL-2 complexes were further coated by epirubicin (EPI) containing lipid to form EPI/siBCL-2 dual loaded lipid-nanoparticles...
April 10, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391694/molecular-characterization-and-variation-of-the-celiac-disease-epitope-domains-among-%C3%AE-gliadin-genes-in-aegilops-tauschii
#9
YuGe Li, HuiHui Liang, Sheng-Long Bai, Yun Zhou, Guiling Sun, Ya-Rui Su, An-Li Gao, DaLe Zhang, SuoPing Li
To explore the distribution and quantity of toxic epitopes in α-gliadins from Aegilops tauschii, a total of 133 complete α-gliadin coding sequences were obtained, including 69 pseudogenes with at least one premature stop codon and 64 genes with complete open reading frames (ORFs). Plenty of deletions and single amino acid substitutions were found in the 4 celiac disease (CD) toxic epitope domains through multiple alignments, in which the sequence of DQ2.5-glia-α2 demonstrated the most significant changes...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388287/in-silico-analysis-of-non-synonymous-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-human-dazl-gene-associated-with-male-infertility
#10
Mili Nailwal, Jenabhai B Chauhan
In living systems the most frequent type of genetic mutation is the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) or missense mutations arise in coding regions of a particular gene. nsSNPs result in a single amino acid substitution which may have effects on the structure and/or function of proteins. Spermatogenesis is a complex process where haploid spermatozoa are formed. The deleted in azoospermia like (DAZL) gene has a relationship with male infertility and dysfunction of DAZL may decrease the sperm count which leads to oligozoospermia or azoospermia...
April 7, 2017: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386071/tbirk-is-a-signature-sequence-free-potassium-channel-from-trypanosoma-brucei-locating-to-acidocalcisomes
#11
Michael E Steinmann, Remo S Schmidt, Peter Bütikofer, Pascal Mäser, Erwin Sigel
Potassium channels from prokaryotes and eukaryotes are usually recognized by a typical amino acid sequence TXTGY(F)G representing the ionic selectivity filter. Using a screening approach with ion channel family profiles but without the above motif, we identified a gene in Trypanosoma brucei that exhibits homology to inward rectifying potassium channels. We report here cloning of this ion channel named TbIRK. The protein is localized to acidocalcisomes in procyclic and in bloodstream form parasites. Functional properties of this channel were established after expression in Xenopus oocytes...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382496/molecular-evolutionary-constraints-that-determine-the-avirulence-state-of-clostridium-botulinum-c2-toxin
#12
A Prisilla, R Prathiviraj, P Chellapandi
Clostridium botulinum (group-III) is an anaerobic bacterium producing C2 toxin along with botulinum neurotoxins. C2 toxin is belonged to binary toxin A family in bacterial ADP-ribosylation superfamily. A structural and functional diversity of binary toxin A family was inferred from different evolutionary constraints to determine the avirulence state of C2 toxin. Evolutionary genetic analyses revealed evidence of C2 toxin cluster evolution through horizontal gene transfer from the phage or plasmid origins, site-specific insertion by gene divergence, and homologous recombination event...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352998/an-external-substrate-free-blue-white-screening-system-in-escherichia-coli
#13
Zhoujie Xie, Zhao Zhang, Zhenju Cao, Meng Chen, Pengwei Li, Weifeng Liu, Hua Qin, Xuejin Zhao, Yong Tao, Yihua Chen
Since the lacZα-based blue/white screening system was introduced to molecular biology, several different visual reporter systems were developed and used for various purposes in Escherichia coli. A common limit to the existent visual reporter systems is that an extracellular chromogenic substrate has to be added for the visible pigment production. In this study, we developed a new blue/white screening system based on a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase encoded by idgS from Streptomyces and a phosphopantetheinyl transferase encoded by sfp from Bacillus...
March 28, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349343/characterization-and-evaluation-of-a-peptide-based-sirna-delivery-system-in-vitro
#14
Baoling Chen, Kimoon Yoo, Wen Xu, Ran Pan, Xiao Xia Han, P Chen
Since its inception more than a decade ago, gene silencing mediated by double-stranded small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been widely investigated as a potential therapeutic approach for a variety of diseases. However, the use of siRNA is hampered by its rapid degradation and poor cellular uptake in vitro and in vivo. Recently, peptide-based carriers have been applied to siRNA delivery, as an alternative to the traditional delivery systems. Here, a histidine-containing amphipathic amino acid pairing peptide, C6M3, which can form complexes with siRNA, was used as a new siRNA delivery system...
March 27, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330564/proteomic-analysis-of-stipe-explants-reveals-differentially-expressed-proteins-involved-in-early-direct-somatic-embryogenesis-of-the-tree-fern-cyathea-delgadii-sternb
#15
Lucyna Domżalska, Sylwia Kędracka-Krok, Urszula Jankowska, Małgorzata Grzyb, Mirosław Sobczak, Jan J Rybczyński, Anna Mikuła
Using cyto-morphological analysis of somatic embryogenesis (SE) in the tree fern Cyathea delgadii as a guide, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis in stipe explants undergoing direct SE. Plant material was cultured on hormone-free medium supplemented with 2% sucrose. Phenol extracted proteins were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry was performed for protein identification. A total number of 114 differentially regulated proteins was identified during early SE, i...
May 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330241/purification-characterization-gene-cloning-and-expression-of-gh-10-xylanase-penicillium-citrinum-isolate-hzn13
#16
Zabin K Bagewadi, Sikandar I Mulla, Harichandra Z Ninnekar
An extracellular thermostable xylanase (Xyl-IIb) produced by Penicillium citrinum isolate HZN13 was purified to homogeneity using DEAE-Sepharose, Sephadex G-100 and Bio-Gel P-60 chromatography with specific activity of 6272.7 U/mg and 19.6-fold purification. The purification revealed the occurrence of multiple forms of xylanases (Xyl-I, Xyl-IIa, Xyl-IIb and Xyl-III). The molecular mass of highly purified Xyl-IIb was ~31 kDa with SDS-PAGE. The enzyme was cellulase-free, thermostable (55-75 °C) and acidophilic (3...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320885/identification-of-the-lyso-form-n-acyl-intramolecular-transferase-in-low-gc-firmicutes
#17
Krista M Armbruster, Timothy C Meredith
Bacterial lipoproteins are embedded in the cell membrane of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria where they serve numerous functions central to cell envelope physiology. Lipoproteins are tethered to the membrane by an N-acyl-S-(mono/di)-acyl-glyceryl-cysteine anchor that is variably acylated depending on genera. In several low-GC Gram-positive Firmicutes, a monoacyl-glyceryl-cysteine with an N-terminal fatty acid (known as the lyso form) has been reported, though how it is formed is unknown. Here, through an intergenic complementation rescue assay in Escherichia coli, we report the identification of a common orthologous transmembrane protein in both Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus cereus capable of forming lyso-form lipoproteins...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300263/size-specific-emission-in-peptide-capped-gold-quantum-clusters-with-tunable-photoswitching-behavior
#18
Abhishek Baral, Kingshuk Basu, Sirshendu Ghosh, Kalishankar Bhattacharyya, Subhasish Roy, Ayan Datta, Arindam Banerjee
Three different types of fluorescent gold clusters (namely blue, green and red emitting) have been prepared from a gold precursor (chloroauric acid) under moderate conditions in aqueous medium. A cysteine containing dipeptide has been used for the formation of these quantum clusters as this peptide molecule contains a thiol group in the side chain to cap these nascently formed clusters and the free amino and carboxylic moieties assist in water solubility. Thus, the clusters are also environmentally friendly as the capped peptide is made up of only naturally occurring protein amino acids...
March 16, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296402/synthesis-of-diastereoenriched-oxazolo-5-4-b-indoles-via-catalyst-free-multicomponent-bicyclizations
#19
Lu Wang, Li-Xia Shi, Lu Liu, Zhuo-Xuan Li, Ting Xu, Wen-Juan Hao, Guigen Li, Shu-Jiang Tu, Bo Jiang
A new and highly eco-friendly approach to diverse and functionalized oxazolo[5,4-b]indoles with good yield and high diastereoselectivity (up to >99:1) has been disclosed from simple and readily available arylglyoxals with cyclic enaminones and amino acids. These microwave-assisted transformations in environmentally compatible ethanol resulted in continuous multiple bond-forming events including C-C, C-N, and C-O bonds, enabling catalyst-free multicomponent bicyclizations to rapidly build up functional N,O-heterocycles...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286649/protein-hydrolysates-in-animal-nutrition-industrial-production-bioactive-peptides-and-functional-significance
#20
REVIEW
Yongqing Hou, Zhenlong Wu, Zhaolai Dai, Genhu Wang, Guoyao Wu
Recent years have witnessed growing interest in the role of peptides in animal nutrition. Chemical, enzymatic, or microbial hydrolysis of proteins in animal by-products or plant-source feedstuffs before feeding is an attractive means of generating high-quality small or large peptides that have both nutritional and physiological or regulatory functions in livestock, poultry and fish. These peptides may also be formed from ingested proteins in the gastrointestinal tract, but the types of resultant peptides can vary greatly with the physiological conditions of the animals and the composition of the diets...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
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