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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223032/dna-replication-and-associated-repair-pathways-are-involved-in-the-mutagenesis-of-methylated-cytosine
#1
Marketa Tomkova, Michael McClellan, Skirmantas Kriaucionis, Benjamin Schuster-Böckler
Transitions of cytosine to thymine in CpG dinucleotides are the most frequent type of mutations observed in cancer. This increased mutability is commonly explained by the presence of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and its spontaneous hydrolytic deamination into thymine. Here, we describe observations that question whether spontaneous deamination alone causes the elevated mutagenicity of 5mC. Tumours with somatic mutations in DNA mismatch-repair genes or in the proofreading domain of DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) exhibit more 5mC to T transitions than would be expected, given the kinetics of hydrolytic deamination...
November 24, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222690/risk-factor-of-contralateral-radiculopathy-following-microendoscopy-assisted-minimally-invasive-transforaminal-lumbar-interbody-fusion
#2
Yang Yang, Zhong-Yu Liu, Liang-Ming Zhang, Jian-Wen Dong, Pei-Gen Xie, Rui-Qiang Chen, Bu Yang, Chang Liu, Bin Liu, Li-Min Rong
PURPOSE: Microendoscopy-assisted minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) is an advantageous method for treating lumbar degenerative disease; however, some patients show contralateral radiculopathy postoperatively. This study aims to investigate its risk factor. METHODS: A total of 130 cases who underwent microendoscopy-assisted MIS-TLIF at L4-5 level were divided into symptomatic and asymptomatic groups according to the presence of postoperative contralateral radiculopathy...
December 8, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222531/effects-of-aging-on-interference-during-pronoun-resolution
#3
Jana Reifegerste, Claudia Felser
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of healthy aging on the ability to suppress grammatically illicit antecedents during pronoun resolution. Method: In 2 reading-based acceptability-judgment experiments, younger and older speakers of German read sentences containing an object pronoun and 2 potential antecedent noun phrases, only 1 of which was a grammatically licit antecedent. Using a gender-mismatch paradigm, we compared to what extent younger and older speakers were sensitive to feature (mis)matches between the pronoun and either of the 2 antecedents...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222508/crispr-cpf1-mediates-efficient-homology-directed-repair-and-temperature-controlled-genome-editing
#4
Miguel A Moreno-Mateos, Juan P Fernandez, Romain Rouet, Charles E Vejnar, Maura A Lane, Emily Mis, Mustafa K Khokha, Jennifer A Doudna, Antonio J Giraldez
Cpf1 is a novel class of CRISPR-Cas DNA endonucleases, with a wide range of activity across different eukaryotic systems. Yet, the underlying determinants of this variability are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that LbCpf1, but not AsCpf1, ribonucleoprotein complexes allow efficient mutagenesis in zebrafish and Xenopus. We show that temperature modulates Cpf1 activity by controlling its ability to access genomic DNA. This effect is stronger on AsCpf1, explaining its lower efficiency in ectothermic organisms...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221507/-mis-perceptions-of-inequality
#5
REVIEW
Oliver P Hauser, Michael I Norton
Laypeople's beliefs about the current distribution of outcomes such as income and wealth in their country influence their attitudes toward issues ranging from taxation to healthcare - but how accurate are these beliefs? We review the burgeoning literature on (mis)perceptions of inequality. First, we show that people on average misperceive current levels of inequality, typically underestimating the extent of inequality in their country. Second, we delineate potential causes of these misperceptions, including people's overreliance on cues from their local environment, leading to their erroneous beliefs about both the overall distributions of wealth and income and their place in those distributions...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220316/edge-based-defocus-blur-estimation-with-adaptive-scale-selection
#6
Ali Karaali, Claudio Rosito Jung
Objects that do not lie at the focal distance of a digital camera generate defocused regions in the captured image. This paper presents a new edge-based method for spatially varying defocus blur estimation using a single image based on reblurred gradient magnitudes. The proposed approach initially computes a scale-consistent edge map of the input image and selects a local reblurring scale aiming to cope with noise, edge mis-localization, and interfering edges. An initial blur estimate is computed at the detected scale-consistent edge points and a novel connected edge filter is proposed to smooth the sparse blur map based on pixel connectivity within detected edge contours...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217690/re-positioning-of-somatic-golgi-apparatus-is-essential-for-the-dendritic-establishment-of-adult-born-hippocampal-neurons
#7
Sneha Rao, Gregory W Kirschen, Joanna Szczurkowska, Adrian Di Antonio, Jia Wang, Shaoyu Ge, Maya Shelly
New dentate granule cells are continuously generated, and integrate into the pre-existing hippocampal network in the adult brain. How an adult-born neuron with initially simple spindle-like morphology develops into a complex dentate granule cell (DGC), consisting of a single apical dendrite with further branches, remains largely unknown. Here, using retroviruses to birth-date and manipulate newborn neurons, we examined initial dendritic formation, and possible underlying mechanisms. We found that GFP-expressing newborn cells began to establish a DGC-like morphology at around 7 days after birth, with a primary dendrite pointing to the molecular layer, but at this stage, with several neurites in the neurogenic zone...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217523/detecting-recent-positive-selection-with-a-single-locus-test-bi-partitioning-the-coalescent-tree
#8
Zongfeng Yang, Junrui Li, Thomas Wiehe, Haipeng Li
Many population genomic studies have been conducted in the past to search for traces of recent events of positive selection. These traces, however, can be obscured by temporal variation of population size or other demographic factors. To reduce the confounding impact of demography, the coalescent tree topology has been used as an additional source of information for detecting recent positive selection in a population or a species. Based on the branching pattern at the root, we partition the hypothetical coalescent tree, inferred from a sequence sample, into two subtrees...
December 7, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216575/tuning-the-schottky-rectification-in-graphene-hexagonal-boron-nitride-molybdenum-disulfide-heterostructure
#9
Biao Liu, Yu-Qing Zhao, Zhuo-Liang Yu, Lin-Zhi Wang, Meng-Qiu Cai
It was still a great challenge to design high performance of rectification characteristic for the rectifier diode. Lately, a new approach was proposed experimentally to tune the Schottky barrier height (SBH) by inserting an ultrathin insulated tunneling layer to form metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) heterostructures. However, the electronic properties touching off the high performance of these heterostructures and the possibility of designing more efficient applications for the rectifier diode were not presently clear...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216303/three-dimensional-self-gated-cardiac-mr-imaging-for-the-evaluation-of-myocardial-infarction-in-mouse-model-on-a-3t-clinical-mr-system
#10
Xiaoyong Zhang, Bensheng Qiu, Zijun Wei, Fei Yan, Caiyun Shi, Shi Su, Xin Liu, Jim X Ji, Guoxi Xie
PURPOSE: To develop and assess a three-dimensional (3D) self-gated technique for the evaluation of myocardial infarction (MI) in mouse model without the use of external electrocardiogram (ECG) trigger and respiratory motion sensor on a 3T clinical MR system. METHODS: A 3D T1-weighted GRE sequence with stack-of-stars sampling trajectories was developed and performed on six mice with MIs that were injected with a gadolinium-based contrast agent at a 3T clinical MR system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215757/hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-activity-is-a-major-determinant-of-renal-sympathetic-discharge-in-conscious-wistar-rats
#11
F D McBryde, B H Liu, E V Roloff, S Kasparov, J F R Paton
The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) plays a crucial role in cardiovascular and neuroendocrine regulation. Application of nitric oxide donors to the PVN stimulates GABAergic transmission, and may suppress sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to lower arterial pressure. However, the role of endogenous nitric oxide within PVN in regulating renal SNA chronically remains to be established in conscious animals. To address this, we used our previously established lentiviral vectors to selectively knock down neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the PVN of conscious Wistar rats...
December 7, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215500/feasibility-and-accuracy-of-thoracolumbar-minimally-invasive-pedicle-screw-placement-with-augmented-reality-navigation-technology
#12
Adrian Elmi Terander, Rami Nachabe, Halldor Skulason, Kyrre Pedersen, Michael Söderman, John Racadio, Drazenko Babic, Paul Gerdhem, Erik Edström
STUDY DESIGN: Cadaveric laboratory study. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and accuracy of minimally invasive thoracolumbar pedicle screw placement using augmented reality (AR) surgical navigation SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Minimally invasive spine (MIS) surgery has increasingly become the method of choice for a wide variety of spine pathologies. Navigation technology based on AR has been shown to be feasible, accurate and safe in open procedures. AR technology may also be used for MIS surgery...
December 5, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214968/the-therapeutic-mis-conception-an-examination-of-its-normative-assumptions-and-a-call-for-its-revision
#13
Debra J H Mathews, Joseph J Fins, Eric Racine
Dissecting Bioethics, edited by Tuija Takala and Matti Hayry, welcomes contributions on the conceptual and theoretical dimensions of bioethics. The department is dedicated to the idea that words defined by bioethicists and others should not be allowed to imprison people's actual concerns, emotions, and thoughts. Papers that expose the many meanings of a concept, describe the different readings of a moral doctrine, or provide an alternative angle to seemingly self-evident issues are particularly appreciated...
January 2018: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214748/alterations-in-the-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-regulation-of-muscle-regeneration-in-healthy-ageing-and-the-influence-of-sarcopenia
#14
Joanna Brzeszczyńska, Angelika Meyer, Robin McGregor, Alain Schilb, Simone Degen, Valentina Tadini, Neil Johns, Ramon Langen, Annemie Schols, David J Glass, Ronenn Roubenoff, James A Ross, Kenneth C H Fearon, Carolyn A Greig, Carsten Jacobi
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is defined as the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. While all humans lose muscle with age, 2-5% of elderly adults develop functional consequences (disabilities). The aim of this study was to investigate muscle myogenesis in healthy elderly adults, with or without sarcopenia, compared with middle-aged controls using both in vivo and in vitro approaches to explore potential biomarker or causative molecular pathways associated with sarcopenic versus non-sarcopenic skeletal muscle phenotypes during ageing...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212689/minimally-invasive-surgery-for-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-correction-of-deformity-and-peri-operative-morbidity-in-70-consecutive-patients
#15
C de Bodman, F Miyanji, B Borner, P-Y Zambelli, G Racloz, R Dayer
AIMS: The aim of this study was to report a retrospective, consecutive series of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) who were treated with posterior minimally invasive surgery (MIS) with a mean follow-up of two years (sd 1.4; 0.9 to 0 3.7). Our objectives were to measure the correction of the deformity and record the peri-operative morbidity. Special attention was paid to the operating time (ORT), estimated blood loss (EBL), length of stay (LOS) and further complications...
December 2017: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212096/-stroke-mimics-and-stroke-chameleons-differential-diagnosis-of-stroke
#16
Frank Erbguth
The analysis of misdiagnosis of stroke has become increasingly relevant because of the time pressure in the thrombolytic treatment of ischemic strokes. Within the narrow time window of thrombolysis, a false-positive stroke diagnosis can lead to a faulty and potentially dangerous thrombolysis. The terms "Stroke Mimic" (SM = false-positive stroke diagnosis) and "Stroke Chameleon" (SC = false-negative stroke diagnosis) have been introduced for misdiagnosis in this field. The rate of SM decreases during the treatment phases from approximately 50 % in the preclinical situation to approximately 2-10 % in the Stroke Unit indicating thrombolytic therapy...
December 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209987/genetic-investigation-of-polymorphic-ogg1-and-mutyh-genes-towards-increased-susceptibility-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-and-its-impact-on-overall-survival-of-lung-cancer-patients-treated-with-platinum-based-chemotherapy
#17
Amrita Singh, Navneet Singh, Digambar Behera, Siddharth Sharma
Genes OGG1 and MUTYH are the two primary genes in Base excision repair pathway. OGG1 hydrolyzes the sugar phosphate backbone and remove the damaged base creating abasic site. MUTYH complements OGG1 as it particularly remove adenine mispaired with 8-oxo-G. Both OGG1 and MUTYH act as a check for the mis-incorporation of bases may be due to damages incurred on DNA. DNA isolation for 326 lung cancer cases and 330 controls was followed by genotyping making use of PCR-RFLP. Logistic regression was done to analyze the risk towards lung cancer...
December 5, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208181/potential-biomarkers-for-the-diagnosis-of-respiratory-tract-infection-and-lungs-cancer
#18
Khushbukhat Khan, Muhammad Adeel Aslam, Fatima Tuz Zahra, Hamid Basheer, Muhammad Bilal, Aleena Sumrin
Major hurdle faced by many physicians in treating various respiratory tract infections and lung carcinomas is their late or mis-diagnosis. In most respiratory tract infections the manner of infection is not completely understood. Similarly, various lung carcinomas are diagnosed at advance stages at which not only the treatment possibilities are narrowed but the chances of survival are also reduced. So, for the sake of better treatment, the quick and improved diagnostic strategies are suggested. Protein biomarkers fully fit the description in this regard as they have shown great potential in specific diagnosis of many respiratory diseases and also have shown capability in timely pin pointing different stages of lung carcinomas...
November 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205769/highly-dexterous-2-module-soft-robot-for-intra-organ-navigation-in-minimally-invasive-surgery
#19
Haider Abidi, Giada Gerboni, Margherita Brancadoro, Alessandro Diodato, Matteo Cianchetti, Helge Wurdemann, Kaspar Althoefer, Arianna Menciassi
BACKGROUND: For some surgical interventions, like the Total Mesorectal Excision (TME), traditional laparoscopes lack the flexibility to safely maneuver and reach difficult surgical targets. This paper answers this need through designing, fabricating and modelling a highly dexterous 2-module soft robot for minimally invasive surgery (MIS). METHODS: A soft robotic approach is proposed that uses flexible fluidic actuators (FFAs) allowing highly dexterous and inherently safe navigation...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203310/rosiglitazone-infusion-therapy-following-minimally-invasive-surgery-for-ich-evacuation-decreased-perihematomal-glutamate-content-as-well-as-bbb-permeability-in-rabbits
#20
Guofeng Wu, Yu Jiao, Junjie Wu, Riying Ren, Likun Wang, Zhouping Tang, Houguang Zhou
OBJECTIVES: To observe the effects of Rosiglitazone infusion therapy on perihematomal PPARγ, glutamate level, BBB permeability and brain edema. METHODS: A total of 50 male rabbits (2.8-3.4 kg) were randomly assigned to a normal control group (NC group), a model control group (MC group), a Rosiglitazone group (RSG group), a minimally invasive surgery group (MIS group) or a MIS combined with Rosiglitazone group (MIS+RSG group). An ICH was induced in all the animals, except for the NC group...
December 1, 2017: World Neurosurgery
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