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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937782/cold-water-immersion-cooling-rates-in-football-linemen-and-cross-country-runners-with-exercise-induced-hyperthermia
#1
Sandra Fowkes Godek, Katherine E Morrison, Gregory Scullin
CONTEXT:   Ideal and acceptable cooling rates in hyperthermic athletes have been established in average-sized participants. Football linemen (FBs) have a small body surface area (BSA) to mass ratio compared with smaller athletes, which hinders heat dissipation. OBJECTIVE:   To determine cooling rates using cold-water immersion in hyperthermic FBs and cross-country runners (CCs). DESIGN:   Cohort study. SETTING:   Controlled university laboratory...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935904/functional-neural-networks-of-honesty-and-dishonesty-in-children-evidence-from-graph-theory-analysis
#2
Xiao Pan Ding, Si Jia Wu, Jiangang Liu, Genyue Fu, Kang Lee
The present study examined how different brain regions interact with each other during spontaneous honest vs. dishonest communication. More specifically, we took a complex network approach based on the graph-theory to analyze neural response data when children are spontaneously engaged in honest or dishonest acts. Fifty-nine right-handed children between 7 and 12 years of age participated in the study. They lied or told the truth out of their own volition. We found that lying decreased both the global and local efficiencies of children's functional neural network...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903968/what-factors-are-associated-with-reporting-lacking-interest-in-sex-and-how-do-these-vary-by-gender-findings-from-the-third-british-national-survey-of-sexual-attitudes-and-lifestyles
#3
Cynthia A Graham, Catherine H Mercer, Clare Tanton, Kyle G Jones, Anne M Johnson, Kaye Wellings, Kirstin R Mitchell
OBJECTIVES: To investigate factors associated with reporting lacking interest in sex and how these vary by gender. SETTING: British general population. DESIGN: Complex survey analyses of data collected for a cross-sectional probability sample survey, undertaken 2010-2012, specifically logistic regression to calculate age-adjusted OR (AOR) to identify associated factors. PARTICIPANTS: 4839 men and 6669 women aged 16-74 years who reported ≥1 sexual partner (opposite-sex or same-sex) in the past year for the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3)...
September 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901558/-things-aren-t-so-bad-preschoolers-overpredict-the-emotional-intensity-of-negative-outcomes
#4
Leia Kopp, Cristina M Atance, Sean Pearce
Adults often overpredict the emotional intensity of future events, but little is known about whether this 'intensity bias' is present in early childhood. We asked 48 3- to 5-year-olds to (1) predict and (2) report their emotions concerning two desirable (receiving four stickers, scoring up to two points in a ball toss) and two undesirable (receiving one sticker, scoring no points) outcomes. Children showed the intensity bias by overpredicting how negatively they would feel if they received one sticker, but not for scoring no points...
September 13, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899231/neuron-type-specific-utility-in-a-brain-machine-interface-a-pilot-study
#5
Martha G Garcia-Garcia, Austin J Bergquist, Hector Vargas-Perez, Mary K Nagai, Jose Zariffa, Cesar Marquez-Chin, Milos R Popovic
Context Firing rates of single cortical neurons can be volitionally modulated through biofeedback (i.e. operant conditioning), and this information can be transformed to control external devices (i.e. brain-machine interfaces; BMIs). However, not all neurons respond to operant conditioning in BMI implementation. Establishing criteria that predict neuron utility will assist translation of BMI research to clinical applications. Findings Single cortical neurons (n=7) were recorded extracellularly from primary motor cortex of a Long-Evans rat...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890182/transient-heart-rate-acceleration-in-association-with-spontaneous-eyeblinks
#6
Tamami Nakano, Chiho Kuriyama
The reason why people spontaneously blink several times more frequently than is necessary for ocular lubrication has been a mystery. However, spontaneous eyeblinks selectively occur at attentional breakpoints of information processing, suggesting the involvement of spontaneous eyeblink in attentional disengagement from external stimuli. Physiological activity also changes considerably according to attention state. Heart rate decreases when attention is directed at stimuli, while it increases as attention is released...
September 7, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889225/effects-of-blood-flow-restriction-during-moderate-intensity-eccentric-knee-extensions
#7
Michael Behringer, Lars Heinke, Jannik Leyendecker, Joachim Mester
We investigated if blood flow restriction (BFR, cuff pressure 20 mmHG below individual occlusion pressure) increases metabolic stress, hormonal response, release of muscle damage markers, and muscle swelling induced by moderate-intensity eccentric contractions. In a randomized, matched-pair design, 20 male subjects (25.3 ± 3.3 years) performed four sets of unilateral eccentric knee extensions (75% 1RM) to volitional failure with (IG) or without (CG) femoral BFR. Despite significant differences of performed repetitions between IG (85...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873320/influence-of-rhodiola-rosea-on-the-heat-acclimation-process-in-young-healthy-men
#8
Saima Timpmann, Anthony C Hackney, Maria Tamm, Kairi Kreegipuu, Eve Unt, Vahur Ööpik
The adaptogen <i>Rhodiola rosea</i> (RR) may mitigate stress responses and have beneficial effects on endurance capacity (EC) and mental performance. Heat acclimation (HA) improves EC in the heat, but the potential impact of RR on the HA process is unknown. Therefore, our intent was to determine would RR impact positively on the efficacy of the HA process. Twenty male subjects (age 22.5 ± 3.0 years) completed two EC tests involving walking (6 km·h <sup>-1</sup>) until volitional exhaustion in a climate chamber (air temperature, 42°C; relative humidity, 18%) before (H1) and after (H2) an 8-day HA period...
September 5, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872110/a-protocol-for-the-administration-of-real-time-fmri-neurofeedback-training
#9
Matthew S Sherwood, Emily E Diller, Elizabeth Ey, Subhashini Ganapathy, Jeremy T Nelson, Jason G Parker
Neurologic disorders are characterized by abnormal cellular-, molecular-, and circuit-level functions in the brain. New methods to induce and control neuroplastic processes and correct abnormal function, or even shift functions from damaged tissue to physiologically healthy brain regions, hold the potential to dramatically improve overall health. Of the current neuroplastic interventions in development, neurofeedback training (NFT) from functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has the advantages of being completely non-invasive, non-pharmacologic, and spatially localized to target brain regions, as well as having no known side effects...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864849/maximal-exercise-increases-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cell-frequency-and-number-in-healthy-young-men
#10
Erik D Hanson, Eli Danson, Catriona V Nguyen-Robertson, Jackson J Fyfe, Nigel K Stepto, David B Bartlett, Samy Sakkal
PURPOSE: Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells have properties of the innate and acquired immune systems. While the response to vigorous exercise has been established for most leukocytes, MAIT cells have not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose was to determine if MAIT cell lymphocytosis occurs with acute maximal aerobic exercise and if this response is influenced by exercise duration, cardiovascular fitness, or body composition. METHODS: Twenty healthy young males with moderate fitness levels performed an extended graded exercise test until volitional fatigue...
September 1, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839242/using-feedback-control-to-reduce-limb-impedance-during-forceful-contractions
#11
Xiao Hu, Daniel Ludvig, Wendy M Murray, Eric J Perreault
Little is known about the ability to precisely regulate forces or torques during unexpected disturbances, as required during numerous tasks. Effective force regulation implies small changes in force responding to externally imposed displacements, a behavior characterized by low limb impedance. This task can be challenging, since the intrinsic impedance of muscles increases when generating volitional forces. The purpose of this study was to examine the ability to voluntarily reduce limb impedance during force regulation, and the neural mechanisms associated with that ability...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838793/the-impact-of-glottal-configuration-on-speech-breathing
#12
Elizabeth S Heller Murray, Carolyn M Michener, Laura Enflo, Gabriel J Cler, Cara E Stepp
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether changes in respiratory patterns occurred in response to volitional changes in glottal configuration. METHODS: Twelve vocally healthy participants read a passage while wearing the Inductotrace respiratory inductive plethysmograph, which measures the excursions of the rib cage and abdomen. Participants read the passage 5 times in a typical speaking voice (baseline phase), 10 times in an experimental voice, which was similar to a breathy vocal quality (experimental phase), and 5 times again in a typical speaking voice (return phase)...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836922/a-neutral-control-condition-for-hypnosis-experiments-wiki-text
#13
Katalin Varga, Zoltán Kekecs, P S Myhre, Emese Józsa
A new control condition called Wiki is introduced. Key themes of each test suggestion of the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C, were matched by a corresponding extract from Wikipedia.org. The authors compared phenomenological reports of participants across 4 conditions: hypnosis split into high and low hypnotizable subgroups, music, and Wiki condition, using the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory. High hypnotizables undergoing hypnosis reported higher altered experience and altered states of awareness than individuals in the Wiki condition, supporting the authors' hypothesis that the Wiki condition does not evoke an altered state of consciousness (internal dialogue, volitional control, and self-awareness did not differ)...
October 2017: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835525/ventilation-inhibits-sympathetic-action-potential-recruitment-even-during-severe-chemoreflex-stress
#14
Mark B Badrov, Otto F Barak, Tanja Mijacika, Leena N Shoemaker, Lindsay J Borrell, Mihajlo Lojpur, Ivan Drvis, Zeljko Dujic, J Kevin Shoemaker
This study investigated the influence of ventilation on sympathetic action potential (AP) discharge patterns during varying levels of high chemoreflex stress. In seven trained breath-hold divers (33±12 yrs), we measured muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at baseline, during preparatory rebreathing (RBR), and during i) functional residual capacity apnea (FRCApnea) and ii) continued RBR. Data from RBR were analyzed at matched (i.e., to FRCApnea) hemoglobin saturation (HbSat) levels (RBRMatched) or more severe levels (RBREnd)...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835409/towards-a-three-dimensional-framework-of-centrally-regulated-and-goal-directed-exercise-behaviour-a-narrative-review
#15
REVIEW
Andreas Venhorst, Dominic Micklewright, Timothy D Noakes
The Central Governor Model (CGM) ignited a paradigm shift from concepts of catastrophic failure towards central regulation of exercise performance. However, the CGM has focused on the central integration of afferent feedback in homeostatic control. Accordingly, it neglected the important role of volitional self-regulatory control and the integration of affective components inherently attached to all physiological cues. Another limitation is the large reliance on the Gestalt phenomenon of perceived exertion...
August 23, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834248/high-doses-of-anti-inflammatory-drugs-compromise-muscle-strength-and-hypertrophic-adaptations-to-resistance-training-in-young-adults
#16
Mats Lilja, Mirko Mandić, William Apró, Michael Melin, Karl Olsson, Staffan Rosenborg, Thomas Gustafsson, Tommy R Lundberg
AIMS: This study tested the hypothesis that high doses of anti-inflammatory drugs would attenuate the adaptive response to resistance training compared with low doses. METHODS: Healthy men and women (aged 18-35 years) were randomly assigned to daily consumption of ibuprofen (IBU; 1200 mg; n=15) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; 75 mg; n=16) for 8 weeks. During this period, subjects completed supervised knee-extensor resistance training where one leg was subjected to training with maximal volitional effort in each repetition using a flywheel ergometer (FW), while the other leg performed conventional (work-matched across groups) weight-stack training (WS)...
August 21, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827605/neuroprosthetic-enabled-control-of-graded-arm-muscle-contraction-in-a-paralyzed-human
#17
David A Friedenberg, Michael A Schwemmer, Andrew J Landgraf, Nicholas V Annetta, Marcia A Bockbrader, Chad E Bouton, Mingming Zhang, Ali R Rezai, W Jerry Mysiw, Herbert S Bresler, Gaurav Sharma
Neuroprosthetics that combine a brain computer interface (BCI) with functional electrical stimulation (FES) can restore voluntary control of a patients' own paralyzed limbs. To date, human studies have demonstrated an "all-or-none" type of control for a fixed number of pre-determined states, like hand-open and hand-closed. To be practical for everyday use, a BCI-FES system should enable smooth control of limb movements through a continuum of states and generate situationally appropriate, graded muscle contractions...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821950/the-effects-of-supramaximal-versus-submaximal-intensity-eccentric-training-when-performed-until-volitional-fatigue
#18
Joel R Krentz, Philip D Chilibeck, Jonathan P Farthing
PURPOSE: Our purpose was to compare supramaximal versus submaximal intensity eccentric training performed until volitional fatigue. METHODS: Thirty-two young adults (19 males) were randomized into one of three groups: (1) ECC110 performed eccentric (ECC) only contractions at 110% of concentric (CON) 1-repetition maximum (1RM); (2) ECC80 performed ECC only contractions at 80% of CON 1RM; (3) a control group. Training progressed from 3 to 6 sets of unilateral ECC training of the elbow flexors over 8 weeks, with each set performed until volitional fatigue...
August 18, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819132/treatment-associated-changes-of-functional-connectivity-of-midbrain-brainstem-nuclei-in-major-depressive-disorder
#19
Gerd Wagner, Feliberto de la Cruz, Stefanie Köhler, Karl-Jürgen Bär
Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies demonstrated an abnormally coordinated network functioning in Major Depression Disorder (MDD) during rest. The main monoamine-producing nuclei within midbrain/brainstem are functionally integrated within these specific networks. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of these nuclei in 45 MDD patients and differences between patients receiving two different classes of antidepressant drugs. Patients showed reduced RSFC from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and stronger RSFC to the left amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813966/exergaming-with-a-pediatric-exoskeleton-facilitating-rehabilitation-and-research-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#20
Thomas C Bulea, Zachary F Lerner, Andrew J Gravunder, Diane L Damiano
Effective rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy (CP) requires intensive task-specific exercise but many in this population lack the motor capabilities to complete the desired training tasks. Providing robotic assistance is a potential solution yet the effects of this assistance are unclear. We combined a novel exoskeleton and exercise video game (exergame) to create a new rehabilitation paradigm for children with CP. We incorporated high density electroencephalography (EEG) to assess cortical activity...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
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