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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211795/a-murine-model-of-a-novel-surgical-architecture-for-proprioceptive-muscle-feedback-and-its-potential-application-to-control-of-advanced-limb-prostheses
#1
Tyler R Clites, Matthew Carty, Shriya Srinivasan, Anthony Zorzos, Hugh Herr
<i>Objective:</i> Proprioceptive mechanisms play a critical role in both reflexive and volitional lower extremity control. Significant strides have been made in the development of bionic limbs that are capable of bi-directional communication with the peripheral nervous system, but none of these systems have been capable of providing physiologically-relevant muscle-based proprioceptive feedback through natural neural pathways. In this study, we present the Agonist-antagonist Myoplastic Interface (AMI), a surgical approach with the capacity to provide graded kinesthetic feedback from a prosthesis through mechanical activation of native mechanoreceptors within residual agonist-antagonist muscle pairs...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194516/physical-activity-in-outpatients-with-mental-disorders-status-measurement-and-social-cognitive-determinants-of-health-behavior-change
#2
Moritz B Petzold, Sophie Bischoff, Janina Rogoll, Jens Plag, Christina Terán, Ralf Brand, Andreas Ströhle
INTRODUCTION: Physical activity (PA) can play an important role in improving the mental and physical health in patients with mental disorders but is not well studied in this population. The aim of this study was to assess the status of PA in outpatients with mental disorders, compare the convergence of self-rating and accelerometer measurement and examine the influence of social cognitive variables from the Motivation-Volition (MoVo) model and clinical measures on PA. METHODS: Eighty-four patients were recruited from three psychiatric outpatient clinics and local psychiatrists (Distribution of ICD-10-Diagnoses: F3...
February 13, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179737/updates-in-nutrition-support-for-critically-ill-adult-patients
#3
Diana Wells Mulherin, Sarah V Cogle
Specialized nutrition support is often employed in critically ill patients who are unable to maintain volitional intake. The Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) recently updated guidelines for the provision of nutrition support in critically ill patients. The purpose of this review is to summarize key changes from the previous guidelines as they relate to recently published literature, which will aid the hospital pharmacist in optimizing nutrition support therapies in the critical care setting...
January 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179195/multiplexed-mri-methods-for-rapid-estimation-of-global-cerebral-metabolic-rate-of-oxygen-consumption
#4
Hyunyeol Lee, Michael C Langham, Ana E Rodriguez-Soto, Felix W Wehrli
The global cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), which reflects metabolic activity of the brain under various physiologic conditions, can be quantified using a method, referred to as 'OxFlow', which simultaneously measures hemoglobin oxygen saturation in a draining vein (Yv) and total cerebral blood flow (tCBF). Conventional OxFlow (Conv-OxFlow) entails four interleaves incorporated in a single pulse sequence - two for phase-contrast based measurement of tCBF in the supplying arteries of the neck, and two to measure the intra- to extravascular phase difference in the superior sagittal sinus to derive Yv [Jain et al...
February 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177737/peak-oxygen-uptake-in-a-sprint-interval-testing-protocol-vs-maximal-oxygen-uptake-in-an-incremental-testing-protocol-and-their-relationship-with-cross-country-mountain-biking-performance
#5
Rafał Hebisz, Paulina Hebisz, Marek Zatoń, Kamil Michalik
The literature finds that the exercise capacity of cyclists is typically assessed using incremental and endurance exercise tests. The aim of the present study was to confirm whether peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) attained in a sprint interval testing protocol correlated with cycling performance and whether it corresponds to maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) determined by an incremental testing protocol. A sample of 28 trained mountain bike cyclists executed three performance tests: a) incremental testing protocol (ITP) in which the participant cycled to volitional exhaustion, b) sprint interval testing protocol (SITP) composed of four 30-s maximal intensity cycling bouts interspersed with 90-s recovery periods, c) competition in a simulated MTB race...
December 12, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176415/visceral-fat-is-associated-with-the-racial-differences-in-liver-fat-between-black-and-white-adolescent-boys-with-obesity
#6
SoJung Lee, Jennifer L Kuk
OBJECTIVE: We examined whether racial differences in liver fat are associated with the differences in abdominal fat distribution or cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). METHODS: Participants included 57 black and white obese boys (12-18 years). Total and abdominal fat was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. CRF was measured using a maximal graded treadmill test with the use of standard open-circuit spirometry techniques until volitional fatigue...
February 8, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169576/applying-the-integrated-behavior-change-model-to-understanding-physical-activity-among-older-adults-a-qualitative-study
#7
Urska Arnautovska, Frances O'Callaghan, Kyra Hamilton
We explored older adults' experiences of physical activity (PA) and related decision-making processes underlying PA. Twenty Australians (Mage= 73.8 years) participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis and identified themes were matched deductively within motivational, volitional, and implicit processes of the integrated behavior change model for PA. Motivational influences such as participants' time orientation towards health and perceptions of what PA should be like were frequently featured in participants' narratives...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168705/the-role-of-dentate-nuclei-in-human-oculomotor-control-insights-from-cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis
#8
Francesca Rosini, Elena Pretegiani, Andrea Mignarri, Lance M Optican, Valeria Serchi, Nicola De Stefano, Marco Battaglini, Lucia Monti, Maria T Dotti, Antonio Federico, Alessandra Rufa
It is well known that the medial cerebellum controls saccadic speed and accuracy. In contrast, the role of the lateral cerebellum (cerebellar hemispheres and dentate nuclei, DN) is less understood. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a lipid storage disorder due to mutations in CYP27A1, typically characterized by DN damage. CTX thus provides a unique opportunity to study DN in human oculomotor control. We analyzed horizontal and vertical visually-guided saccades and horizontal antisaccades of 19 CTX patients...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162841/adherence-to-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-medication-during-the-transition-to-college
#9
Megan R Schaefer, Alana Resmini Rawlinson, Scott T Wagoner, Steven K Shapiro, Jan Kavookjian, Wendy N Gray
PURPOSE: The present study explores the medication self-management experiences of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during their transition to young adulthood in college. METHODS: Participants were college freshmen with ADHD prescribed daily medication for their condition. Ten individual interviews were conducted using a semistructured interview script. Measures related to ADHD medication management were also completed. Qualitative data were analyzed via directed content analysis and quantitative data via descriptive statistics...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160750/repetitive-peripheral-magnetic-neurostimulation-of-multifidus-muscles-combined-with-motor-training-influences-spine-motor-control-and-chronic-low-back-pain
#10
Hugo Massé-Alarie, Louis-David Beaulieu, Richard Preuss, Cyril Schneider
OBJECTIVE: The study tested whether combining repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (RPMS) and motor training of the superficial multifidus muscle (MF) better improved the corticomotor control of spine than training alone in chronic low back pain (CLBP). METHODS: Twenty-one participants with CLBP were randomly allocated to [RPMS+training] and [Sham+training] groups for three sessions (S1-S3) over a week where MF was stimulated before training (volitional contraction)...
March 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155591/impact-of-an-implanted-neuroprosthesis-on-community-ambulation-in-incomplete-sci
#11
Lisa M Lombardo, Rudolf Kobetic, Gilles Pinault, Kevin M Foglyano, Stephanie N Bailey, Stephen Selkirk, Ronald J Triolo
OBJECTIVE: Test the effect of a multi-joint control with implanted electrical stimulation on walking after spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN: Single subject research design with repeated measures Setting: Hospital-based biomechanics laboratory and user assessment of community use. PARTICIPANTS: Female with C6 AIS C SCI 30 years post injury. INTERVENTIONS: Lower extremity muscle activation with an implanted pulse generator and gait training...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153947/corp-measurement-of-the-maximum-oxygen-uptake-vo2max-vo2peak-is-no-longer-acceptable
#12
David C Poole, Andrew M Jones
The maximum rate of VO2 uptake (i.e., VO2max), as measured during large muscle mass exercise such as cycling or running, is widely considered to be the gold standard measurement of integrated cardiopulmonary-muscle oxidative function. The development of rapid-response gas analyzers, enabling measurement of breath-by-breath pulmonary gas exchange, has led to replacement of the discontinuous progressive maximal exercise test (that produced an unambiguous VO2-work rate plateau definitive for VO2max) with the rapidly-incremented or ramp testing protocol...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149347/application-of-a-physiological-strain-index-in-evaluating-responses-to-exercise-stress-a-comparison-between-endurance-and-high-intensity-intermittent-trained-athletes
#13
Ilona Pokora, Aleksandra Żebrowska
The study evaluated differences in response to exercise stress between endurance and high-intensity intermittent trained athletes in a thermoneutral environment using a physiological strain index (PSI). Thirty-two subjects participated in a running exercise under normal (23°C, 50% RH) conditions. The group included nine endurance trained athletes (middle-distance runners - MD), twelve high-intensity intermittent trained athletes (soccer players - HIIT) and eleven students who constituted a control group. The exercise started at a speed of 4 km·h(-1) which was increased every 3 min by 2 km·h(-1) to volitional exhaustion...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139169/validation-of-a-behavioral-approach-for-measuring-saccades-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Travis H Turner, Jenna B Renfroe, Amy Duppstadt-Delambo, Vanessa K Hinson
Speed and control of saccades are related to disease progression and cognitive functioning in Parkinson's disease (PD). Traditional eye-tracking complexities encumber application for individual evaluations and clinical trials. The authors examined psychometric properties of standalone tasks for reflexive prosaccade latency, volitional saccade initiation, and saccade inhibition (antisaccade) in a heterogeneous sample of 65 PD patients. Demographics had minimal impact on task performance. Thirty-day test-retest reliability estimates for behavioral tasks were acceptable and similar to traditional eye tracking...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131758/volitional-regulation-of-brain-responses-to-food-stimuli-in-overweight-and-obese-subjects-a-real-time-fmri-feedback-study
#15
Maartje S Spetter, Rahim Malekshahi, Niels Birbaumer, Michael Lührs, Albert H van der Veer, Klaus Scheffler, Sophia Spuckti, Hubert Preissl, Ralf Veit, Manfred Hallschmid
Obese subjects who achieve weight loss show increased functional connectivity between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), key areas of executive control and reward processing. We investigated the potential of real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) neurofeedback training to achieve healthier food choices by enhancing self-control of the interplay between these brain areas. We trained eight male individuals with overweight or obesity (age: 31.8 ± 4...
January 25, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130466/antisaccades-in-parkinson-disease-a-new-marker-of-postural-control
#16
Claire Ewenczyk, Salma Mesmoudi, Cécile Gallea, Marie-Laure Welter, Bertrand Gaymard, Adèle Demain, Lydia Yahia Cherif, Bertrand Degos, Habib Benali, Pierre Pouget, Cyril Poupon, Stéphane Lehericy, Sophie Rivaud-Péchoux, Marie Vidailhet
OBJECTIVE: To describe the relation between gaze and posture/gait control in Parkinson disease (PD) and to determine the role of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) and cortex-MLR connection in saccadic behavior because this structure is a major area involved in both gait/postural control and gaze control networks. METHODS: We recruited 30 patients with PD with or without altered postural control and 25 age-matched healthy controls (HCs). We assessed gait, balance, and neuropsychological status and separately recorded gait initiation and eye movements (visually guided saccades and volitional antisaccades)...
January 27, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129064/pace-yourself-intraindividual-variability-in-context-use-revealed-by-self-paced-event-related-brain-potentials
#17
Brennan R Payne, Kara D Federmeier
Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) have revealed multiple mechanisms by which contextual constraints impact language processing. At the same time, little work has examined the trial-to-trial dynamics of context use in the brain. In the current study, we probed intraindividual variability in behavioral and neural indices of context processing during reading. In a concurrent self-paced reading and ERP paradigm, participants read sentences that were either strongly or weakly constraining completed with an expected or unexpected target word...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120500/median-and-ulnar-nerve-injuries-reduce-volitional-forelimb-strength-in-rats
#18
Eric C Meyers, Rafael Granja, Bleyda R Solorzano, Mario Romero-Ortega, Michael P Kilgard, Robert L Rennaker, Seth Hays
Introduction Peripheral nerve injuries (PNI) are among the leading causes of physical disability in the United States. The majority of injuries occur in the upper extremities, and functional recovery is often limited. Robust animal models are critical first steps for developing effective therapies to restore function after PNI. Methods We developed an automated behavioral assay that provides quantitative measurements of volitional forelimb strength in rats. Multiple forelimb PNI models involving the median and ulnar nerves were used to assess forelimb function for up to 13 weeks post-injury...
January 24, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120373/painful-sex-dyspareunia-in-women-prevalence-and-associated-factors-in-a-british-population-probability-survey
#19
K R Mitchell, R Geary, C A Graham, J Datta, K Wellings, P Sonnenberg, N Field, D Nunns, J Bancroft, K G Jones, A M Johnson, C H Mercer
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of painful sex among women in Britain, and to explore associated sexual, relationship and health factors that should be considered in assessment. DESIGN: Multi-stage, clustered and stratified population probability sample survey, using computer-assisted self-interview. Sample frame was the British Postcode Address File. SETTING: Participants interviewed at home between 2010 and 2012. SAMPLE: A total of 15 162 adults aged 16-74 years (8869 women)...
January 25, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116878/effect-of-prior-warm-up-duration-on-the-determination-of-the-time-limit-at-the-peak-speed-in-untrained-men
#20
Victor H DA Cruz, Cecília S Peserico, Fabiana A Machado
BACKGROUND: The peak speed (Vpeak) and its time limit (tlim) are variables used to prescribe training loads and the intervals durations during interval training, respectively. The aim of this study was to test different warm-up durations (5, 10 and 15 min), adapted from the protocol proposed by Billat et al.1, to determine the tlim in untrained men. METHODS: Fifteen untrained men were submitted to the following laboratory evaluations: A) an incremental running exercise test on a treadmill running starting with a speed of 8 km·h-1, after a warm-up of walking at 6 km·h-1 for three minutes, and increased by 1 km·h-1 between each successive 3-minute stage until volitional exhaustion to determine Vpeak; B) three rectangular tests, performed in randomized order, with warm-up durations of 5, 10, and 15 minutes at 60% of Vpeak to determine the tlim5, tlim10 e and tlim15; after the warm-up the tests were performed at the speed of the individual Vpeak until volitional exhaustion...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
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