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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781580/neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-compared-to-volitional-exercise-in-improving-muscle-function-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-randomized-pilot-study
#1
Sara R Piva, Samannaaz S Khoja, Frederico G S Toledo, Mary Chester Wasko, G Kelley Fitzgerald, Bret H Goodpaster, Clair N Smith, Anthony Delitto
OBJECTIVES: To compare the feasibility and effectiveness of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) with high-intensity volitional resistance training in improving muscle structure and function, and physical function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We also described pre- and post-intervention values of myocyte characteristics. METHODS: Two-group single-blinded pilot randomized study in adults with RA. Participants were assigned to 36 sessions over 16 weeks of NMES (n=31) or volitional training (n=28)...
May 21, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779705/an-investigation-into-the-use-of-ultrasound-as-a-surrogate-measure-of-diaphragm-function
#2
Samantha Holtzhausen, Marianne Unger, Alison Lupton-Smith, Susan Hanekom
PURPOSE: Sonographic assessment of the diaphragm may be a surrogate for interpretation of diaphragm function in mechanically ventilated patients. This study aimed to determine the correlation between respiratory muscle function and diaphragm thickness in a healthy population. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted. Diaphragm thickness was determined by sonographic measurement. Respiratory muscle strength, fatigue and endurance was determined using a mouth pressure manometer...
May 17, 2018: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775681/asymmetric-evolutionary-game-dynamics-based-on-individuals-own-volition
#3
Qiao-Qiao He, Tian-Jiao Feng, Yi Tao, Boyu Zhang, Ting Ji
For the pairwise interactions, the evolution of individual behavior should involve two major factors: one is what you will do in an interaction with a given opponent, and another is what type of opponents you prefer to interact with. In this study, we developed a two-phenotype iterated bimatrix replicator dynamics model based on individuals' own volition, where, different from the classic iterated game model, we assume that (i) for all interaction pairs, the maximum expected interaction time is same and it is limited even if two individuals in an interaction pair would like to keep their interaction; and (ii) all individuals are able to unilaterally break off the interactions with their opponents according to their own volition...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770553/pilot-randomized-trial-of-a-volitional-help-sheet-based-tool-to-increase-leisure-time-physical-activity-in-breast-cancer-survivors
#4
Janine Chapman, Chloe Fletcher, Ingrid Flight, Carlene Wilson
OBJECTIVES: To develop and test a volitional help sheet-based tool to improve physical activity in breast cancer survivors compared to a standard self-generated implementation intention intervention. DESIGN: Pilot randomized trial conducted online over 3 months. METHODS: Participants were randomized to an online volitional help sheet (n = 50) or implementation intention (n = 51) intervention. Measures were taken at baseline, 1 and 3 months...
May 16, 2018: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766262/in-defense-of-lady-windermere-syndrome
#5
EDITORIAL
Jerome M Reich
Defense of Lady Windermere Syndrome (LWS) provides a critical analysis of its proposed pathogenesis, evidence supporting a causal role of volitional cough suppression, pathogenesis of M. avium complex (MAC) superimposition, a defense of the eponym, and cites a possible contribution of LWS to the bronchiectasis population.
May 15, 2018: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765635/poor-neuro-motor-tuning-of-the-human-larynx-a-comparison-of-sung-and-whistled-pitch-imitation
#6
Michel Belyk, Joseph F Johnson, Sonja A Kotz
Vocal imitation is a hallmark of human communication that underlies the capacity to learn to speak and sing. Even so, poor vocal imitation abilities are surprisingly common in the general population and even expert vocalists cannot match the precision of a musical instrument. Although humans have evolved a greater degree of control over the laryngeal muscles that govern voice production, this ability may be underdeveloped compared with control over the articulatory muscles, such as the tongue and lips, volitional control of which emerged earlier in primate evolution...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755988/bite-forces-and-their-measurement-in-dogs-and-cats
#7
REVIEW
Se Eun Kim, Boaz Arzi, Tanya C Garcia, Frank J M Verstraete
Bite force is generated by the interaction of the masticatory muscles, the mandibles and maxillae, the temporomandibular joints (TMJs), and the teeth. Several methods to measure bite forces in dogs and cats have been described. Direct in vivo measurement of a bite in dogs has been done; however, bite forces were highly variable due to animal volition, situation, or specific measurement technique. Bite force has been measured in vivo from anesthetized dogs by electrical stimulation of jaw adductor muscles, but this may not be reflective of volitional bite force during natural activity...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750340/health-care-practitioners-perceptions-of-psychogenic-nonepileptic-seizures-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-and-quantitative-studies
#8
Gregg H Rawlings, Markus Reuber
A recent systematic synthesis of qualitative research demonstrated that patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) often experience unsatisfactory encounters with health care practitioners (HCPs). It is important to understand such interactions from the perspective of those responsible for delivering care. This systematic review aimed to examine the attitudes and perceptions of HCPs toward PNES. A systematic search of 3 databases (Web of Science, PubMed, and CINAHL) was conducted in November 2017...
May 11, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740302/improved-volitional-recall-of-motor-imagery-related-brain-activation-patterns-using-real-time-functional-mri-based-neurofeedback
#9
Epifanio Bagarinao, Akihiro Yoshida, Mika Ueno, Kazunori Terabe, Shohei Kato, Haruo Isoda, Toshiharu Nakai
Motor imagery (MI), a covert cognitive process where an action is mentally simulated but not actually performed, could be used as an effective neurorehabilitation tool for motor function improvement or recovery. Recent approaches employing brain-computer/brain-machine interfaces to provide online feedback of the MI during rehabilitation training have promising rehabilitation outcomes. In this study, we examined whether participants could volitionally recall MI-related brain activation patterns when guided using neurofeedback (NF) during training...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734987/insomnia-and-nightmares-as-markers-of-risk-for-suicidal-ideation-in-young-people-investigating-the-role-of-defeat-and-entrapment
#10
Kirsten Russell, Susan Rasmussen, Simon C Hunter
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Although converging evidence has identified sleep problems as robust predictors of suicidal ideation in young people, the psychological processes driving these associations are not yet known. The current study aimed to test predictions, informed by the Integrated Motivational-Volitional (IMV) Model of Suicidal Behavior, concerning the role of feelings of defeat and entrapment within the sleep-suicide relationship. METHODS: Volunteers aged 15 to 17 years (n = 1,045) from Scottish secondary schools completed an anonymous self-report survey assessing insomnia symptoms, nightmares, suicidal ideation, depressive symptomology, and feelings of defeat and entrapment...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733882/basal-ganglia-and-beyond-the-interplay-between-motor-and-cognitive-aspects-in-parkinson-s-disease-rehabilitation
#11
REVIEW
Davide Ferrazzoli, Paola Ortelli, Graziella Madeo, Nir Giladi, Giselle M Petzinger, Giuseppe Frazzitta
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by motor and cognitive dysfunctions, affecting the motor behaviour. We summarize evidence that the interplay between motor and cognitive approaches is crucial in PD rehabilitation. Rehabilitation is complementary to pharmacological therapy and effective in reducing the PD disturbances, probably acting by inducing neuroplastic effects. The motor behaviour results from a complex integration between cortical and subcortical areas, underlying the motor, cognitive and motivational aspects of movement...
May 4, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733045/experiences-and-perceptions-of-facilitators-of-the-works
#12
Jade Curtin, Danielle Hitch
BACKGROUND: Some people who have a mental illness may require vocational rehabilitation and support to assist their participation in activity and employment. The WORKS is a vocational rehabilitation group intervention program, co-facilitated by Peer-Support Workers and Occupational Therapists. These facilitators provide support and guidance to people with a mental illness through practical activities and goal development. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the lived experiences and perceptions of facilitators of The WORKS...
2018: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732046/semg-signal-acquisition-strategy-towards-hand-fes-control
#13
Cinthya Lourdes Toledo-Peral, Josefina Gutiérrez-Martínez, Jorge Airy Mercado-Gutiérrez, Ana Isabel Martín-Vignon-Whaley, Arturo Vera-Hernández, Lorenzo Leija-Salas
Due to damage of the nervous system, patients experience impediments in their daily life: severe fatigue, tremor or impaired hand dexterity, hemiparesis, or hemiplegia. Surface electromyography (sEMG) signal analysis is used to identify motion; however, standardization of electrode placement and classification of sEMG patterns are major challenges. This paper describes a technique used to acquire sEMG signals for five hand motion patterns from six able-bodied subjects using an array of recording and stimulation electrodes placed on the forearm and its effects over functional electrical stimulation (FES) and volitional sEMG combinations, in order to eventually control a sEMG-driven FES neuroprosthesis for upper limb rehabilitation...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729755/editorial-commentary-volition-fear-and-faith-elbow-arthroscopy-and-nerve-injury
#14
EDITORIAL
Taylor Brown
We strive to understand and present accurate risk assessment of transient and major nerve injuries to maintain our patients' faith as we choose to proceed with elbow arthroscopy. Our arthroscopic training, experience, and volume as well as patient obesity, osteoarthritis, and joint contracture should guide our decisions of which complex cases to expose our patients.
May 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727365/evaluating-muscle-mass-in-survivors-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-a-1-year-multicenter-longitudinal-study
#15
Kitty S Chan, Marina Mourtzakis, Lisa Aronson Friedman, Victor D Dinglas, Catherine L Hough, E Wesley Ely, Peter E Morris, Ramona O Hopkins, Dale M Needham
OBJECTIVES: Rapid muscle wasting occurs during acute respiratory failure, resulting in muscle weakness and functional impairments. This study examines survivors' body composition in the year after acute respiratory distress syndrome and tests associations of patient characteristics, hospital exposures, and survivors' strength and physical functioning with whole body percent lean mass. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with 6- and 12-month follow-up. SETTING: National study enrolling patients from five study centers...
May 4, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725755/moderately-heavy-exercise-produces-lower-cardiovascular-rpe-and-discomfort-compared-to-lower-load-exercise-with-and-without-blood-flow-restriction
#16
Zachary W Bell, Samuel L Buckner, Matthew B Jessee, J Grant Mouser, Kevin T Mattocks, Scott J Dankel, Takashi Abe, Jeremy P Loenneke
PURPOSE: To determine the acute cardiovascular and perceptual responses of low-load exercise with or without blood flow restriction and compare those responses to that of moderately heavy exercise. METHODS: Twenty-two participants completed unilateral elbow flexion exercise with a moderately heavy-load- [70% one-repetition maximum (1RM); 70/0] and with three low-load conditions (15% 1RM) in combination with 0% (15/0), 40%, (15/40) and 80% (15/80) arterial occlusion pressure...
May 3, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725704/substituting-anticipatory-locomotor-adjustments-online-is-time-constrained
#17
Bradford J McFadyen, Félix Fiset, Caroline Charette
Two crucial, multi-articular strategies for anticipatory locomotor adjustments (ALA) are knee flexor generation to step over obstacles and hip flexor generation to step up. While lower limb control can be adapted online to modify an already planned obstacle avoidance, or to avoid the sudden appearance of an obstacle, it is not known whether a planned ALA can be substituted by different one online. The present objective was to study such ALA substitutions at two specific timepoints: the final planning stage and the initiation of ALA execution...
May 3, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722059/insanity-findings-and-evaluation-practices-a-state-wide-review-of-court-ordered-reports
#18
Brett O Gardner, Daniel C Murrie, Angela N Torres
Evaluations of legal sanity are some of the most complex and consequential mental health evaluations that forensic clinicians perform for the courts. Thus, there is strong reason to monitor the wide-scale process and conclusions of sanity evaluations. In this study, we review 1,111 court-ordered sanity evaluation reports submitted by 74 evaluators in Virginia from the first year after the state initiated an oversight system that allowed for such comprehensive review. Overall, the base rate of insanity findings was 16...
May 2, 2018: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718916/assessing-the-significance-of-palaeolithic-engraved-cortexes-a-case-study-from-the-mousterian-site-of-kiik-koba-crimea
#19
Ana Majkić, Francesco d'Errico, Vadim Stepanchuk
Twenty-Seven Lower and Middle Paleolithic sites from Europe and the Middle East are reported in the literature to have yielded incised stones. At eleven of these sites incisions are present on flint cortexes. Even when it is possible to demonstrate that the engravings are ancient and human made, it is often difficult to distinguish incisions resulting from functional activities such as butchery or use as a cutting board, from those produced deliberately, and even more difficult to identify the scope of the latter...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709787/voluntary-muscle-activation-and-evoked-volitional-wave-responses-as-a-function-of-torque
#20
Robert E Hight, Alwyn T Quarshie, Christopher D Black
INTRODUCTION: This study employed a unique stimulation paradigm which allowed for the simultaneous assessment of voluntary activation levels (VA) via twitch-interpolation, and the evoked V-wave responses of the plantar flexors during submaximal and maximal contractions. Test-retest reliability was also examined. METHODS: Fourteen participants repeated a stimulation protocol over four visits to assess VA and evoked V-wave amplitude across torque levels ranging from 20% to 100% MVC...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
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