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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530505/ingestion-of-sodium-bicarbonate-nahco3-following-a-fatiguing-bout-of-exercise-accelerates-post-exercise-acid-base-balance-recovery-and-improves-subsequent-high-intensity-cycling-time-to-exhaustion
#1
Lewis A Gough, Steven Rimmer, Callum J Osler, Matthew F Higgins
This study evaluated the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on post-exercise acid-base balance recovery kinetics and subsequent high-intensity cycling time to exhaustion. In a counterbalanced, crossover design, nine healthy and active males (age: 23±2 years, height: 179±5 cm, body mass: 74±9 kg, peak mean minute power (WPEAK) 256±45 W, peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2PEAK) 46±8 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) performed a graded incremental exercise test, two familiarisation and two experimental trials. Experimental trials consisted of cycling to volitional exhaustion (TLIM1) at 100% WPEAK on two occasions (TLIM1 and TLIM2) interspersed by a 90 min passive recovery period...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529487/cardiac-baroreflex-variability-and-resetting-during-sustained-mild-effort
#2
Mair Zamir, Mark B Badrov, T Dylan Olver, J Kevin Shoemaker
This exploratory study assessed the pattern of closed-loop baroreflex resetting using multi-logistic-curve analysis. Operating point gain and ranges of RR-interval (RRI) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) are derived to examine how these relate to sympathetic activation. Sustained low-intensity isometric handgrip exercise, with a period of post-exercise circulatory occlusion (PECO), provided a model to study baroreflex resetting because the progression toward fatigue at constant tension induces a continuous increase in volitional contribution to neuro-cardiovascular control...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529059/a-review-of-human-neuroimaging-investigations-involved-with-central-autonomic-regulation-of-baroreflex-mediated-cardiovascular-control
#3
Derek S Kimmerly
Effective regulation of central blood volume and arterial pressure is critical for optimal cardiovascular homeostasis. Inadequate regulation of mean arterial pressure has important pathophysiological implications including syncope, end organ damage, and stroke. Such regulation requires appropriate central integration of barosensory afferents and reflex autonomic control of the heart and blood vessels. The neural pathways involved with the baroreflex include brainstem nuclei that receive modulatory input from higher brain centres...
May 15, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523481/mild-depression-in-low-back-pain-the-interaction-of-thought-suppression-and-stress-plays-a-role-especially-in-female-patients
#4
Konietzny Kerstin, Chehadi Omar, Streitlein-Böhme Irmgard, Rusche Herbert, Willburger Roland, Hasenbring Monika Ilona
PURPOSE: Mild depression has been shown as a precursor and as a consequence of low back pain, even in early phases of acute or subacute pain. Chronic daily life stress as well as dysfunctional pain-related cognitions such as thought suppression (TS) seem to play a role in the pain-depression cycle; however, the mechanisms of these associations are less understood. Experimentally induced TS, conceived as the attempt to directly suppress sensations such as pain, has been shown to paradoxically cause a delayed and non-volitional return of the suppressed thoughts and sensations and to increase affective distress...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515696/the-reliability-and-validity-of-a-four-minute-running-time-trial-in-assessing-formula-see-text-max-and-performance
#5
Kerry McGawley
Introduction: Traditional graded-exercise tests to volitional exhaustion (GXTs) are limited by the need to establish starting workloads, stage durations, and step increments. Short-duration time-trials (TTs) may be easier to implement and more ecologically valid in terms of real-world athletic events. The purpose of the current study was to assess the reliability and validity of maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]max) and performance measured during a traditional GXT (STEP) and a four-minute running time-trial (RunTT)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509514/lay-public-s-use-of-a-support-group-for-general-dental-problems
#6
K K Walker, R D Jackson
OBJECTIVE: To categorize and tabulate layperson inquiries made to an Internet dental health support site to identify oral conditions and associated behaviors of concern. METHODS: A retrospective tabulation of wall postings was made from an established dental health support website hosted by WebMD over a 2-year period (April 2013-April 2015). A mixed method approach of content and thematic analysis was used. Content analysis identified content of oral health concerns, while thematic analysis using grounded theory identified themes and beliefs concerning associated behaviors...
September 2016: Community Dental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506146/the-impact-of-shoulder-abduction-loading-on-volitional-hand-opening-and-grasping-in-chronic-hemiparetic-stroke
#7
Yiyun Lan, Jun Yao, Julius P A Dewald
BACKGROUND: Up to 60% of individuals with moderate to severe chronic hemiparetic stroke experience excessive involuntary wrist/finger flexion that constrains functional hand movements including hand opening. It's not known how stroke-induced brain injury impacts volitional hand opening and grasping forces as a result of the expression of abnormal coupling between shoulder abduction and wrist/finger flexion or the flexion synergy. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to understand how shoulder abduction loading affects volitional hand opening and grasping forces in individuals with moderate to severe chronic hemiparetic stroke...
June 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503833/moral-enhancement-meets-normative-and-empirical-reality-assessing-the-practical-feasibility-of-moral-enhancement-neurotechnologies
#8
Veljko Dubljević, Eric Racine
Moral enhancement refers to the possibility of making individuals and societies better from a moral standpoint. A fierce debate has emerged about the ethical aspects of moral enhancement, notably because steering moral enhancement in a particular direction involves choosing amongst a wide array of competing options, and these options entail deciding which moral theory or attributes of the moral agent would benefit from enhancement. Furthermore, the ability and effectiveness of different neurotechnologies to enhance morality have not been carefully examined...
June 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503157/a-review-of-self-regulated-learning-six-models-and-four-directions-for-research
#9
REVIEW
Ernesto Panadero
Self-regulated learning (SRL) includes the cognitive, metacognitive, behavioral, motivational, and emotional/affective aspects of learning. It is, therefore, an extraordinary umbrella under which a considerable number of variables that influence learning (e.g., self-efficacy, volition, cognitive strategies) are studied within a comprehensive and holistic approach. For that reason, SRL has become one of the most important areas of research within educational psychology. In this paper, six models of SRL are analyzed and compared; that is, Zimmerman; Boekaerts; Winne and Hadwin; Pintrich; Efklides; and Hadwin, Järvelä and Miller...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498844/windowed-persistent-homology-a-topological-signal-processing-algorithm-applied-to-clinical-obesity-data
#10
Craig Biwer, Amy Rothberg, Heidi IglayReger, Harm Derksen, Charles F Burant, Kayvan Najarian
Overweight and obesity are highly prevalent in the population of the United States, affecting roughly 2/3 of Americans. These diseases, along with their associated conditions, are a major burden on the healthcare industry in terms of both dollars spent and effort expended. Volitional weight loss is attempted by many, but weight regain is common. The ability to predict which patients will lose weight and successfully maintain the loss versus those prone to regain weight would help ease this burden by allowing clinicians the ability to skip treatments likely to be ineffective...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497008/the-positivity-offset-theory-of-anhedonia-in-schizophrenia
#11
Gregory P Strauss, Katherine H Frost, Bern G Lee, James M Gold
Prior studies have concluded that schizophrenia patients are not anhedonic because they do not report reduced experience of positive emotion to pleasant stimuli. The current study challenged this view by applying quantitative methods validated in the Evaluative Space Model of emotional experience to test the hypothesis that schizophrenia patients evidence a reduction in the normative "positivity offset" (i.e., the tendency to experience higher levels of positive than negative emotional output when stimulus input is absent or weak)...
March 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490278/the-perceived-experience-of-children-bereaved-by-parental-suicide
#12
Jennifer K Schreiber, Diana C Sands, John R Jordan
Children whose parent died by suicide are a vulnerable and underserved population. This phenomenon will be described, as well as implications for practice and research. "Double Whammy," a conceptualization of the overall experience of this marginalized group, emerged through two in-depth interviews from a phenomenological qualitative study with professionals who facilitate support groups for children bereaved by parental suicide. It was corroborated with current literature and practice experiences of the authors and their colleagues...
June 2017: Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482363/acute-hematological-and-inflammatory-responses-to-high-intensity-exercise-tests-impact-of-duration-and-mode-of-exercise
#13
L G Minuzzi, H M Carvalho, D T Brunelli, F Rosado, C R Cavaglieri, C E Gonçalves, J M Gaspar, L M Rama, A M Teixeira
The purpose of this study was to investigate the hematological and inflammatory responses to 4 maximal high-intensity protocols, considering energy expenditure in each test. 9 healthy volunteers performed 4 high-intensity exercise tests of short [Wingate (WANT); Repeated-sprints (RSA)] and long durations [Continuous VO2 test (VCONT); intermittent VO2 test (VINT)] in a cycle-ergometer, until exhaustion. Hematological parameters and IL-6, IL-10 and creatine kinase (CK) levels were determined before (PRE), POST, 30 min, 1, 2, 12 and 24 h after the end of the protocols...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481032/volitional-saccade-performance-in-a-large-sample-of-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-unaffected-first-degree-relatives
#14
Katharina Bey, Lisa Kloft, Leonhard Lennertz, Rosa Grützmann, Stephan Heinzel, Christian Kaufmann, Julia Klawohn, Anja Riesel, Inga Meyhöfer, Norbert Kathmann, Michael Wagner
Recent evidence indicates that patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) as well as their unaffected first-degree relatives show deficits in the volitional control of saccades, suggesting that volitional saccade performance may constitute an endophenotype of OCD. Here, we aimed to replicate and extend these findings in a large, independent sample. One hundred and fifteen patients with OCD, 103 healthy comparison subjects without a family history of OCD, and 31 unaffected first-degree relatives of OCD patients were examined using structured clinical interviews and performed a volitional saccade task as well as a prosaccade task...
May 8, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479403/normal-aging-slows-spontaneous-switching-in-auditory-and-visual-bistability
#15
Hirohito M Kondo, Takanori Kochiyama
Age-related changes in auditory and visual perception have an impact on the quality of life. It has been debated how perceptual organization is influenced by advancing age. From the neurochemical perspective, we investigated age effects on auditory and visual bistability. In perceptual bistability, a sequence of sensory inputs induces spontaneous switching between different perceptual objects. We used different modality tasks of auditory streaming and visual plaids. Young and middle-aged participants (20-60years) were instructed to indicate by a button press whenever their perception changed from one stable state to the other...
May 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478995/acting-without-being-in-control-exploring-volition-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-impulsive-compulsive-behaviours
#16
Lucia Ricciardi, Patrick Haggard, Lieke de Boer, Chiara Sorbera, Max-Philipp Stenner, Francesca Morgante, Mark J Edwards
BACKGROUND: Several aspects of volitional control of action may be relevant in the pathophysiology of impulsive-compulsive behaviours (ICB) in Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to explore multiple aspects of action control, assessing reward-related behaviour, inhibition (externally and internally triggered) and sense of agency in PD patients, with and without ICB compared to healthy subjects. METHODS: Nineteen PD patients with ICB (PD-ICB), 19 PD without ICB (PD-no-ICB) and 19 healthy controls (HC) underwent a battery of tests including: Intentional Binding task which measures sense of agency; Stop Signal Reaction Time (SSRT) measuring capacity for reactive inhibition; the Marble task, assessing intentional inhibition; Balloon Analog Risk Task for reward sensitivity...
April 20, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476095/effect-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-swallowing-apraxia-and-cortical-excitability-in-stroke-patients
#17
Ying Yuan, Jie Wang, Dongyu Wu, Xiaobo Huang, Weiqun Song
BACKGROUND: Swallowing apraxia is characterized by impaired volitional swallowing but relatively preserved reflexive swallowing. Few studies are available on the effectiveness of behavioral therapy and management of the condition. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on swallowing apraxia and cortical activation in stroke patients. METHODS: The study included three inpatients (age 48-70 years; 1 male, 2 females; duration of stroke, 35-55 d) with post-stroke swallowing apraxia and six age-matched healthy subjects (age 45-65 years; 3 males, 3 females)...
May 5, 2017: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471041/an-investigation-into-the-relationship-between-heart-rate-variability-and-the-ventilatory-threshold-in-healthy-moderately-trained-males
#18
Andrew Grannell, Giuseppe De Vito
BACKGROUND: During incremental exercise, heart rate variability (HRV) has been shown to display distinct stabilization and inflection points, which have been used to indirectly detect the ventilatory threshold (VT). METHODS: Ten moderately trained males (26·5 ± 5·9 years: VO2peak 48·7 ± 4·1 ml min(-1 ) kg(-1) ) performed an incremental test on a cycle ergometer until volitional exhaustion with both R-R intervals and respiratory indices recorded. HRV was quantified using both nonlinear (Poincare plot; short-term variability SD1) and spectral analysis of the R-R intervals (high-frequency component; HFp)...
May 4, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467303/beta-band-oscillations-in-motor-cortex-reflect-neural-population-signals-that-delay-movement-onset
#19
Preeya Khanna, Jose M Carmena
Motor cortical beta oscillations have been reported for decades, yet their behavioral correlates remain disputed. Some studies link beta oscillations to changes in underlying neural activity, but the specific behavioral manifestations of these reported changes remain elusive. To investigate how changes in population neural activity, beta oscillations, and behavior are linked, we recorded multi-scale neural activity from motor cortex while three macaques performed a novel neurofeedback task. Subjects volitionally brought their beta power to an instructed state and subsequently executed an arm reach...
May 3, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463902/practicing-the-test-produces-strength-equivalent-to-higher-volume-training
#20
Kevin T Mattocks, Samuel L Buckner, Matthew B Jessee, Scott J Dankel, J Grant Mouser, Jeremy P Loenneke
PURPOSE: To determine if muscle growth is important for increasing muscle strength or if changes in strength can be entirely explained from practicing the strength test. METHODS: Thirty-eight untrained individuals performed knee extension and chest press exercise for 8 weeks. Individuals were randomly assigned to either a high-volume training group (HYPER) or a group just performing the one repetition maximum (1RM) strength test (TEST). The HYPER group performed 4 sets to volitional failure (~8-12RM) while the TEST group performed up to 5 attempts to lift as much weight as possible one time each visit...
May 2, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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