Read by QxMD icon Read


Conor Raleigh, Bernard Donne, Neil Fleming
We compared lactate threshold (TLac ) with non-invasive markers of an aerobic-anaerobic transition; namely, ventilatory (VT) and tissue saturation index (TSIT ) thresholds. While identification of a breakpoint in blood lactate concentration ([BLa]) is common for determination of an aerobic-anaerobic transition, non-invasive measures, VT and NIRS, have also received attention as a means of determining this critical exercise intensity. We hypothesised that one or other of these non-invasive measures would have a strong association with TLac ...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Timothy J McDermott, Mackenzie S Mills, Alex I Wiesman, Yu-Ping Wang, Julia M Stephen, Vince D Calhoun, Tony W Wilson
Numerous studies connect beta oscillations in the motor cortices to volitional movement, and beta is known to be aberrant in multiple movement disorders. However, the dynamic interplay between these beta oscillations, motor performance, and spontaneous beta power (e.g., during rest) in the motor cortices remains unknown. This study utilized magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate these three parameters and their lifespan trajectory in 57 healthy participants aged 9-75 years old. Movement-related beta activity was imaged using a beamforming approach, and voxel time series data were extracted from the peak voxels in the primary motor cortices...
March 2, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Sander L Koole, Caroline Schlinkert, Tobias Maldei, Nicola Baumann
One of the enduring missions of personality science is to unravel what it takes to become a fully functioning person. In the present article, the authors address this matter from the perspectives of self-determination theory (SDT) and personality systems interactions (PSI) theory. SDT a) is rooted in humanistic psychology; b) has emphasized a first-person perspective on motivation and personality; c) posits that the person, supported by the social environment, naturally moves towards growth through the satisfaction of basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Personality
Jonathan D Wiles, Katrina Taylor, Damian Coleman, Rajan Sharma, Jamie M O'Driscoll
Few studies have investigated the relative safety of prescribing isometric exercise (IE) to reduce resting blood pressure (BP). This study aimed to ascertain the safety of the hemodynamic response during an IE wall squat protocol.Twenty-six hypertensive (BP of 120-139 mm Hg systolic and/or 80-90 mm Hg diastolic) males (45 ± 8 years; 1.78 ± 0.07 m; 89.7 ± 12.3 kg; mean ± SD), visited the laboratory on 2 separate occasions. Heart rate (HR) and BP were measured at rest and continuously throughout exercise...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Mathew Hill, Christopher Talbot, Michael Puddiford, Michael Price
PURPOSE: This study compared cardiorespiratory and perceptual responses to exercise using self-regulated and imposed power outputs distributed between the arms and legs. METHODS: Ten males (age 21.7 ± 3.4 years) initially undertook incremental arm-crank ergometry (ACE) and cycle ergometry (CYC) tests to volitional exhaustion to determine peak power output (Wpeak ). Two subsequent tests involved 20-min combined arm-leg ergometry (ALE) trials, using imposed and self-regulated protocols, both of which aimed to elicit an exercising heart rate of 160 beats min-1 ...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Ryan M Neely, Aaron C Koralek, Vivek R Athalye, Rui M Costa, Jose M Carmena
Animals acquire behaviors through instrumental conditioning. Brain-machine interfaces have used instrumental conditioning to reinforce patterns of neural activity directly, especially in frontal and motor cortices, which are a rich source of signals for voluntary action. However, evidence suggests that activity in primary sensory cortices may also reflect internally driven processes, instead of purely encoding antecedent stimuli. Here, we show that rats and mice can learn to produce arbitrary patterns of neural activity in their primary visual cortex to control an auditory cursor and obtain reward...
February 22, 2018: Neuron
Ji Chen, Peter S Lum
BACKGROUND: Robotic devices for neurorehabilitation of movement impairments in persons with stroke have been studied extensively. However, the vast majority of these devices only allow practice of stereotyped components of simulated functional tasks in the clinic. Previously we developed SpringWear, a wearable, spring operated, upper extremity exoskeleton capable of assisting movements during real-life functional activities, potentially in the home. SpringWear assists shoulder flexion, elbow extension and forearm supination/pronation...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
William H Alexander, Joshua W Brown
The frontal lobes are essential for human volition and goal-directed behavior, yet their function remains unclear. While various models have highlighted working memory, reinforcement learning, and cognitive control as key functions, a single framework for interpreting the range of effects observed in prefrontal cortex has yet to emerge. Here we show that a simple computational motif based on predictive coding can be stacked hierarchically to learn and perform arbitrarily complex goal-directed behavior. The resulting Hierarchical Error Representation (HER) model simulates a wide array of findings from fMRI, ERP, single-units, and neuropsychological studies of both lateral and medial prefrontal cortex...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tiziana Zalla, Magali Seassau, Fabienne Cazalis, Doriane Gras, Marion Leboyer
In this study, we examined the accuracy and dynamics of visually guided saccades in 20 adults with autism spectrum disorder, as compared to 20 typically developed adults using the Step/Overlap/Gap paradigms. Performances in participants with autistic spectrum disorder were characterized by preserved Gap/Overlap effect, but reduced gain and peak velocity, as well as a greater trial-to-trial variability in task performance, as compared to the control group. While visual orienting and attentional engagement were relatively preserved in individuals with autistic spectrum disorder, overall these findings provide evidence that abnormal oculomotor behavior in autistic spectrum disorder reflects an altered sensorimotor control due to cerebellar abnormalities, rather than a deficit in the volitional control of eye movements...
February 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Kirby Sainsbury, Emma P Halmos, Simon Knowles, Barbara Mullan, Jason A Tye-Din
INTRODUCTION: A strict lifelong gluten free diet (GFD) is the only treatment for coeliac disease (CD). Theory-based research has focused predominantly on initiation, rational, and motivational processes in predicting adherence. The aim of this study was to evaluate an expanded collection of theoretical constructs specifically relevant to the maintenance of behaviour change, in the understanding and prediction of GFD adherence. METHODS: Respondents with CD (N = 5573) completed measures of GFD adherence, psychological distress, intentions, self-efficacy, and the maintenance-relevant constructs of self-regulation, habit, temptation and intentional and unintentional lapses (cognitive and behavioural consequences of lowered or fluctuating psychological resources and self-control), motivation, social and environmental support, and goal priority, conflict, and facilitation...
February 24, 2018: Appetite
Zhongting Chen, Jeffrey Allen Saunders
When picking up an object, we tend to grasp at contact points that allow a stable grip. Recent studies have demonstrated that appropriate grasp points can be selected during an ongoing movement in response to unexpected perturbations of the target object. In this study, we tested whether such online grip adjustments are automatic responses or can be controlled volitionally. Subjects performed virtual grasping movements toward target 2D shapes that sometimes changed shape or orientation during movement. Unlike in previous studies, the conditions and task requirements discouraged any online adjustments toward the perturbed shapes...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Karla Fabiana Goessler, Roselien Buys, Dieter VanderTrappen, Lise Vanhumbeeck, Veronique Ann Cornelissen
Aerobic endurance exercise (AEX) is an effective treatment in the prevention and management of high blood pressure (BP). Growing evidence suggests potential benefits from isometric handgrip (IHG) exercise, which may promote similar or even larger reductions in BP than AEX. We compared the effects of home-based AEX and home-based IHG on BP. Sixty healthy individuals (31 men; mean age, 33.1 years; mean BP, 126.9 ± 1.6/84.7 ± 1.1 mm Hg) were randomized to IHG, AEX, or a control group. Both exercise interventions were performed in the home environment...
February 2, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
Brittany J Johnson, Dorota Zarnowiecki, Gilly A Hendrie, Rebecca K Golley
AIM: Children's intake of discretionary choices is excessive. This study aimed to develop a questionnaire measuring parents' attitudes and beliefs towards limiting provision of discretionary choices, using the Health Action Process Approach model. METHODS: The questionnaire items were informed by the Health Action Process Approach model, which extends the Theory of Planned Behaviour to include both motivational (intention) and volitional (post-intention) factors that influence behaviour change...
February 21, 2018: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
M Bassolino, M Franza, J Bello Ruiz, M Pinardi, T Schmidlin, M A Stephan, M Solca, A Serino, O Blanke
Previous evidence highlighted the multisensory-motor origin of embodiment - i.e., the experience of having a body and of being in control of it- and the possibility of experimentally manipulating it. For instance, an illusory feeling of embodiment towards a fake hand can be triggered by providing synchronous visuo-tactile stimulation to the hand of participants and to a fake hand or by asking participants to move their hand and observe a fake hand moving accordingly (rubber hand illusion, RHI). Here we tested whether it is possible to manipulate embodiment not through stimulation of the participant's hand, but by directly tapping into the brain's hand representation via non-invasive brain stimulation...
February 20, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Nitin Seth, Heather A Simmons, Farah Masood, William A Graham, Douglas L Rosene, Susan V Westmoreland, Sheila M Cummings, Basia Gwardjan, Ervin Sejdic, Amber F Hoggatt, Dane R Schalk, Hussein A Abdullah, John B Sledge, Shanker Nesathurai
Here we present the results of experiments involving cynomolgus macaques, in which a model of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) was created by using a balloon catheter inserted into the epidural space. Prior to the creation of the lesion, we inserted an EMG recording device to facilitate measurement of tail movement and muscle activity before and after TSCI. This model is unique in that the impairment is limited to the tail: the subjects do not experience limb weakness, bladder impairment, or bowel dysfunction...
February 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Christopher S Elliott, Kai B Dallas, Dimitar Zlatev, Craig V Comiter, James Crew, Kazuko Shem
INTRODUCTION: For many with spinal cord injury (SCI), a return of volitional bladder voiding is considered more important than regaining motor function. Recently a predictive model using only composite bilateral lower extremity motor (LEM) scores for levels L2-S1 (range 0-50) was put forth by the European Multicenter Spinal Cord Injury (EMSCI) study group that showed exceptional predictive power with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.912. We sought to further validate the EMSCI model using a national SCI cohort...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Urology
Gin S Malhi, Tim Outhred, Pritha Das, Grace Morris, Amber Hamilton, Zola Mannie
INTRODUCTION: Suicide is a multicausal human behavior, with devastating and immensely distressing consequences. Its prevalence is estimated to be 20-30 times greater in patients with bipolar disorders than in the general population. The burden of suicide and its high prevalence in bipolar disorders make it imperative that our current understanding be improved to facilitate prediction of suicide and its prevention. In this review, we provide a new perspective on the process of suicide in bipolar disorder, in the form of a novel integrated model that is derived from extant knowledge and recent evidence...
February 19, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
J E Jakobsgaard, M Christiansen, P Sieljacks, J Wang, T Groennebaek, F de Paoli, K Vissing
This study ascertains the ability of bodyweight blood flow-restricted (BFR) exercise training to promote skeletal muscle adaptations of significance for muscle accretion and metabolism. Six healthy young individuals (three males and three females) performed six weeks of bodyweight BFR training. Each session consisted of five sets of sit-to-stand BFR exercise to volitional failure with 30-second inter-set recovery. Prior to, and at least 72 h after training, muscle biopsies were taken from m. vastus lateralis to assess changes in fibre type-specific cross-sectional area (CSA), satellite cell (SC) and myonuclei content and capillarization, as well as mitochondrial protein expression...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Kristen L Jakubowski, Andrew C Smith, James M Elliott, Sabrina S M Lee
Purpose: Following a motor incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI), there is decreased volitional activation and changes in composition, architecture, and stiffness of affected muscles. We investigated the relationship between muscle properties and volitional activation. Methods: The relationship between central activation ratio (CAR), maximum volitional torque (MVT), and muscle properties was assessed in the gastrocnemius of 6 participants with iSCI. Results: No significant relationship was found between CAR and muscle properties, while a significant relationship was found between CAR and MVT...
2018: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
Julian Maier, Adam Naber, Max Ortiz-Catalan
Real-time inference of human motor volition has great potential for the intuitive control of robotic devices. Toward this end, myoelectric pattern recognition (MPR) has shown promise in the control of prosthetic limbs. Interfering noise and susceptibility to motion artifacts have hindered the use of MPR outside controlled environments, and thus represent an obstacle for clinical use. Advanced signal processing techniques have been previously proposed to improve the robustness of MPR systems. However, the investigation of such techniques have been limited to offline implementations with long time windows, which makes real-time use unattainable...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"