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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335359/recruitment-of-additional-corticospinal-pathways-in-the-human-brain-with-state-dependent-paired-associative-stimulation
#1
Dominic Kraus, Georgios Naros, Robert Guggenberger, Maria Teresa Leão, Ulf Ziemann, Alireza Gharabaghi
Standard brain stimulation protocols modify human motor cortex excitability by modulating the gain of the activated corticospinal pathways. However, the restoration of motor function following lesions of the corticospinal tract requires also the recruitment of additional neurons to increase the net corticospinal output. For this purpose, we investigated a novel protocol based on brain state-dependent paired associative stimulation.Motor imagery (MI)-related electroencephalography was recorded in healthy males and females for brain state-dependent control of both cortical and peripheral stimulation in a brain-machine interface environment...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334615/hemodynamic-and-metabolic-responses-to-self-paced-and-ramp-graded-exercise-testing-protocols
#2
Nicholas M Beltz, Fabiano Amorim, Ann L Gibson, Jeffrey M Janot, Len Kravitz, Christine M Mermier, Nathan Cole, Terence A Moriarty, Tony P Nunez, Sam Trigg, Lance Dalleck
PURPOSE: Recent examinations have shown lower maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) during traditional ramp (RAMP) compared to self-paced (SPV) graded exercise testing (GXT) attributed to differences in cardiac ouput. The current study examined the differences in hemodyamic and metabolic responses between RAMP and SPV during treadmill exercise. METHODS: Sixteen recreationally trained men (23.7±3.0 yrs) completed two separate treadmill GXT protocols. SPV consisted of five 2-min stages (10 min total) of increasing speed clamped by the Borg RPE6-20 scale...
January 15, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334582/carbohydrate-mouth-rinsing-does-not-prevent-the-decline-in-maximal-strength-following-fatiguing-exercise
#3
Christopher D Black, Daniel J Schubert, Marcin K Szczyglowski, Joshua D Wren
Carbohydrate (CHO) rinsing has been shown to attenuate the decline of maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) following fatiguing exercise-perhaps via a central mechanism. This study sought to determine the effect of a CHO rinse on MVC, voluntary activation, and contractile properties following fatiguing exercise. Thirteen adults participated in a double-blind, cross-over study. MVC of the dominant knee extensors was assessed and voluntary activation (%VA) was determined using twitch-interpolation. Participants then held 50% of MVC until volitional fatigue followed by a 20s rinse with a solution of 8% maltodextrin (CHO) or placebo (PLA)...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334005/physiological-correlations-with-short-medium-and-long-cycling-time-trial-performance
#4
Fernando K Borszcz, Artur F Tramontin, Kristopher M de Souza, Lorival J Carminatti, Vitor P Costa
PURPOSE: Several studies have demonstrated that physiological variables predict cycling endurance performance. However, it is still unclear whether the predictors will change over different performance durations. The aim of this study was to assess the correlations between physiological variables and cycling time trials with different durations. METHODS: Twenty trained male cyclists (maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max] = 60.5 ± 5.6 mL/kg/min) performed 4 separate experimental trials during a 2-week period...
January 15, 2018: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331662/exposure-to-natural-environments-and-photographs-of-natural-environments-promotes-more-positive-body-image
#5
Viren Swami, David Barron, Adrian Furnham
Five studies were conducted to understand the impact of nature exposure on body image. In three studies using different designs and outcome measures, British university students were exposed to photographs of natural or built environments. Results indicated that exposure to images of natural, but not built, environments resulted in improved state body image. In Study 4, British community participants went on a walk in a natural or built environment, with results indicating that the walk in a natural environment resulted in significantly higher state body appreciation, whereas the walk in a built environment resulted in significantly lower scores...
January 11, 2018: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329039/an-investigation-into-the-drivers-of-avolition-in-schizophrenia
#6
Gaurav Suri, Lindsey M Lavaysse, Gerald Young, Craig Moodie, Alen Tersakyan, James J Gross, David E Gard
Over a century of research has documented that avolition is a core symptom in schizophrenia. However, the drivers of avolition remain unclear. Conceptually, there are at least two potential mutually compatible drivers that could cause avolition in schizophrenia. First, people with schizophrenia might have differences in preferences that result in less goal-directed behavior than non-clinical populations (preference-differences). Second, people with schizophrenia might have difficulty translating their preferences into manifest behavior at rates similar to non-clinical populations (psychological-inertia)...
January 6, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326195/why-do-gps-leave-direct-patient-care-and-what-might-help-to-retain-them-a-qualitative-study-of-gps-in-south-west-england
#7
Anna Sansom, Rohini Terry, Emily Fletcher, Chris Salisbury, Linda Long, Suzanne H Richards, Alex Aylward, Jo Welsman, Laura Sims, John L Campbell, Sarah G Dean
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors influencing general practitioners' (GPs') decisions about whether or not to remain in direct patient care in general practice and what might help to retain them in that role. DESIGN: Qualitative, in-depth, individual interviews exploring factors related to GPs leaving, remaining in and returning to direct patient care. SETTING: South West England, UK. PARTICIPANTS: 41 GPs: 7 retired; 8 intending to take early retirement; 11 who were on or intending to take a career break; 9 aged under 50 years who had left or were intending to leave direct patient care and 6 who were not intending to leave or to take a career break...
January 10, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326097/turning-good-intentions-into-actions-by-using-the-health-action-process-approach-to-predict-adherence-to-internet-based-depression-prevention-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Anna-Carlotta Zarski, Matthias Berking, Dorota Reis, Dirk Lehr, Claudia Buntrock, Ralf Schwarzer, David Daniel Ebert
BACKGROUND: Many individuals engaging in Internet-based interventions fail to complete these treatments as intended. The processes responsible for treatment adherence in Internet-based interventions are still poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent adherence in an Internet-based intervention can be predicted by motivational and volitional factors outlined in the health action process approach (HAPA). METHODS: This study investigated motivational and volitional factors included in HAPA in a randomized controlled trial to predict treatment adherence of N=101 individuals with subclinical depression in the intervention group of a depression prevention intervention (GET...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324506/a-pilot-mixed-methods-evaluation-of-ms-inform-a-self-directed-fatigue-management-resource-for-individuals-with-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Nadine Akbar, Karen Turpin, Julie Petrin, Penny Smyth, Marcia Finlayson
Fatigue management interventions for individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) often feature structured programmes requiring repeated, in-person attendance that is not possible for all individuals. We sought to determine whether MS INFoRm, a self-directed fatigue management resource for individuals with MS, was worth further, more rigorous evaluation. Our indicators of worthiness were actual use of the resource by participants over 3 months, reductions in fatigue impact and increases in self-efficacy, and participant reports of changes in fatigue management knowledge and behaviours...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322317/probabilistic-versus-pure-volitional-orienting-a-monocular-difference
#10
William Saban, Raymond M Klein, Shai Gabay
Human volitional orienting is typically assessed using Posner's endogenous cuing task. As a volitional process, the literature has long emphasized the role of neocortical structures in this higher cognitive function. Based on recent data, we explored the possibility that subcortical channels may have a functional role in volitional orienting as measured by a Posner cuing task in which a nonspatial feature of a centrally presented cue is predictively related to the location of the target. In addition, we have compared this typical cuing task to a "purer" version, which does not involve the probability manipulation...
January 10, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315750/an-examination-of-social-comparison-and-suicide-ideation-through-the-lens-of-the-integrated-motivational-volitional-model-of-suicidal-behavior
#11
Karen Wetherall, Kathryn A Robb, Rory C O'Connor
We aimed to investigate whether negative social comparisons are associated with key components of the integrated motivational-volitional (IMV) model of suicidal behavior. Specifically, we investigated the relationship between negative social comparisons, suicide ideation, defeat, entrapment, socially prescribed perfectionism, and resilience. Adult participants (N = 422) completed an online survey comprised of a range of psychological measures. An initial regression analysis indicated that negative social comparisons were associated with suicide ideation...
January 6, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313000/feeder-approach-between-trials-is-increased-by-uncertainty-and-affects-subsequent-choices
#12
Aaron J Gruber, Rajat Thapa, Sienna H Randolph
Animals quickly learn to approach sources of food. Here, we report on a form of approach in which rats made volitional orofacial contact with inactive feeders between trials of a self-paced operant task. This extraneous feeder sampling (EFS) was never reinforced and therefore imposed an opportunity and effort cost. EFS decreased during initial training but persisted thereafter. The relative rate of EFS to operant responding increased with novel changes to the operant chamber, reward devaluation by prefeeding, or lesions to the dorsolateral striatum...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306453/a-caffeine-containing-weight-loss-supplement-augments-hemodynamic-responses-after-exercise
#13
S R Buchanan, M Karabulut
BACKGROUND: Since the effects of supplements can be potentially harmful and/or ineffective to obtain desired positive benefits, there is a need to investigate supplementation to understand the responses of physiological systems, to educate consumers, and to provide feedback for businesses creating these supplements. The purpose of the current study was to test hemodynamic responses of a weight loss supplement and determine its effects on hemodynamic variables. METHODS: 31 participants underwent a randomized, double-blind, crossover study design and received a placebo or supplement on two separate days...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305917/motor-imagery-of-voluntary-muscle-relaxation-of-the-foot-induces-a-temporal-reduction-of-corticospinal-excitability-in-the-hand
#14
Kouki Kato, Kazuyuki Kanosue
The object of this study was to clarify how the motor imagery of foot muscle relaxation influences corticospinal excitability for the ipsilateral hand. Twelve participants volitionally relaxed their right foot from a dorsiflexed position (actual relaxation), or imaged the same movement (imagery relaxation) in response to an auditory cue. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was delivered to the hand area of the left primary motor cortex at different time intervals after an auditory cue. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the right extensor carpi radialis (ECR) and flexor carpi radialis (FCR)...
January 3, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298691/volition-adaptive-control-for-gait-training-using-wearable-exoskeleton-preliminary-tests-with-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury-individuals
#15
Vijaykumar Rajasekaran, Eduardo López-Larraz, Fernando Trincado-Alonso, Joan Aranda, Luis Montesano, Antonio J Del-Ama, Jose L Pons
BACKGROUND: Gait training for individuals with neurological disorders is challenging in providing the suitable assistance and more adaptive behaviour towards user needs. The user specific adaptation can be defined based on the user interaction with the orthosis and by monitoring the user intentions. In this paper, an adaptive control model, commanded by the user intention, is evaluated using a lower limb exoskeleton with incomplete spinal cord injury individuals (SCI). METHODS: A user intention based adaptive control model has been developed and evaluated with 4 incomplete SCI individuals across 3 sessions of training per individual...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298436/anterior-cingulate-cortex-input-to-the-claustrum-is-required-for-top-down-action-control
#16
Michael G White, Matthew Panicker, Chaoqi Mu, Ashley M Carter, Bradley M Roberts, Poorna A Dharmasri, Brian N Mathur
Cognitive abilities, such as volitional attention, operate under top-down, executive frontal cortical control of hierarchically lower structures. The circuit mechanisms underlying this process are unresolved. The claustrum possesses interconnectivity with many cortical areas and, thus, is hypothesized to orchestrate the cortical mantle for top-down control. Whether the claustrum receives top-down input and how this input may be processed by the claustrum have yet to be formally tested, however. We reveal that a rich anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) input to the claustrum encodes a preparatory top-down information signal on a five-choice response assay that is necessary for optimal task performance...
January 2, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288908/the-role-of-military-footwear-and-workload-on-ground-reaction-forces-during-a-simulated-lateral-ankle-sprain-mechanism
#17
Jeffrey D Simpson, Hunter DeBusk, Christopher Hill, Adam Knight, Harish Chander
BACKGROUND: Ankle sprains are a common orthopedic injury in military populations, which may be attributed to occupational demands and footwear. Minimalist military boots have become popular, but their influence on ground reaction force (GRF) attenuation capabilities during an ankle inversion perturbation are unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine potential differences in GRFs during an ankle inversion perturbation in a standard issue (STN) and minimalist military boot (MIN) before and after a simulated military workload...
November 22, 2017: Foot
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286458/surgical-training-for-the-implantation-of-neocortical-microelectrode-arrays-using-a-formaldehyde-fixed-human-cadaver-model
#18
Pierre Mégevand, Alain Woodtli, Aude Yulzari, G Rees Cosgrove, Shahan Momjian, Bojan V Stimec, Marco V Corniola, Jean H D Fasel
This protocol describes a procedure to assist surgeons in training for the implantation of microelectrode arrays into the neocortex of the human brain. Recent technological progress has enabled the fabrication of microelectrode arrays that allow recording the activity of multiple individual neurons in the neocortex of the human brain. These arrays have the potential to bring unique insight onto the neuronal correlates of cerebral function in health and disease. Furthermore, the identification and decoding of volitional neuronal activity opens the possibility to establish brain-computer interfaces, and thus might help restore lost neurological functions...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285408/a-technique-for-sequential-progressive-clipping-for-a-giant-thrombosed-distal-anterior-cerebral-artery-aneurysm-technical-note
#19
Yosuke Sato, Madjid Samii
Background: Giant thrombosed aneurysms often present with thickened walls and a hard thrombus, including in the near-neck aneurysmal sac. These usually make it difficult to achieve complete neck clipping with preservation of local branch patency. Here, we demonstrate a simple but safe and effective technique to overcome these problems in a patient with a 6-cm giant thrombosed distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysm. Case Description: A 77-year-old-man suffered from loss of volitional activity due to the frontal mass effect...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285022/recommendations-for-the-surgical-treatment-of-endometriosis-part-1-ovarian-endometrioma
#20
Ertan Saridogan, Christian M Becker, Anis Feki, Grigoris F Grimbizis, Lone Hummelshoj, Joerg Keckstein, Michelle Nisolle, Vasilios Tanos, Uwe A Ulrich, Nathalie Vermeulen, Rudy Leon De Wilde
Study question: What does this document on the surgical treatment of endometriosis jointly prepared by the European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy (ESGE), ESHRE, and the World Endometriosis Society (WES) provide? Summary answer: This document provides recommendations covering technical aspects of different methods of surgery for endometriomas in women of reproductive age. What is already known: Endometriomas (ovarian endometriotic cysts) are a commonly diagnosed form of endometriosis, owing to the relative ease and accuracy of ultrasound diagnosis...
2017: Gynecological Surgery
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