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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643221/post-exercise-blood-flow-restriction-attenuates-hyperemia-similarly-in-males-and-females
#1
Scott J Dankel, J Grant Mouser, Matthew B Jessee, Kevin T Mattocks, Samuel L Buckner, Jeremy P Loenneke
PURPOSE: Our laboratory recently demonstrated that post-exercise blood flow restriction attenuated muscle hypertrophy only in females, which we hypothesized may be due to alterations in post-exercise blood flow. The aim of this study is to test our previous hypothesis that sex differences in blood flow would exist when employing the same protocol. METHODS: Twenty-two untrained individuals (12 females; 10 males) performed two exercise sessions, each involving one set of elbow flexion exercise to volitional failure on the right arm...
June 22, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643134/randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-volitional-help-sheet-to-encourage-weight-loss-in-the-middle-east
#2
Christopher J Armitage, Soud Alganem, Paul Norman
In the Middle East, the prevalence of overweight/obesity is 80%; however, no studies have yet tested the efficacy of interventions to promote weight loss. The aim of the present study was to test the ability of implementation intentions formed using a volitional help sheet to support weight loss among people who were overweight/obese. Participants (N = 216) enrolling in a weight loss program in Kuwait were randomly allocated either to form implementation intentions using a volitional help sheet (intervention group) or to use the volitional help sheet to think about critical situations and appropriate responses but not form implementation intentions (control group)...
June 23, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642851/sarcopenia-neurological-point-of-view
#3
REVIEW
Young Nam Kwon, Sung Sang Yoon
Sarcopenia is an age-related geriatric syndrome which is characterized by the gradual loss of muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle quality. There are a lot of neurologic insults on sarcopenia at various levels from the brain to the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) to generate a volitional task. Dopaminergic downregulation, inadequate motor programming and motor coordination impairment lead to decline of supraspinal drive. Motor unit reorganization and inflammatory changes in motor neuron decrease conduction velocity and amplitude of compound muscle action potential...
May 2017: Journal of Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641065/motivations-and-contents-of-parent-child-value-transmission
#4
Daniela Barni, Silvia Donato, Rosa Rosnati, Francesca Danioni
This study focused on parents' motivations to transmit values to their adolescent children. According to Self-Determination Theory, controlled motivations (i.e., external and introjected)-which refer to doing something because it leads to approval or rewards-and autonomous motivations (i.e., identified and integrated)-which refer to doing something because it is perceived as inherently worthy-were examined. 325 Italian parental couples, with one child aged between 14 and 18 years, filled out a self-report questionnaire...
July 2017: Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641063/launching-adoptees-into-adulthood-mothers-and-fathers-promotion-of-volitional-functioning
#5
Sonia Ranieri, Laura Ferrari, Daniela Barni, Rosa Rosnati
In the psychological literature, there is growing evidence that parental support of children's volitional functioning is one of the most prominent protective factors during adolescence and the transition to adulthood. According to the Self-Determination Theory, children cope best with developmental tasks when they acquire a sense of self-governance and self-endorsed functioning. In the field of adoption research, however, the parental promotion of volitional functioning (PVF) and its relation to the adopted child's development are still underinvestigated...
July 2017: Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641061/positive-parenting-as-responsible-care-risks-protective-factors-and-intervention-evaluation
#6
Silvia Donato, Anna Bertoni
In this themed issue of the Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, the first four contributions provide knowledge on factors that can support or hinder positive parenting throughout children's lives. In particular, the first article examined the spillover of work stressors on parenting behaviors and the role of spousal support as a moderator of stress spillover. The second contribution examines the association between parents' promotion of volitional functioning and adopted children's sense of strength of family bonds and belonging to the adoptive family...
July 2017: Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635194/volitional-rehabilitative-assessments-in-patients-admitted-in-a-post-intensive-care-step-down-unit-a-feasibility-study
#7
Mara Paneroni, Francesco D' Abrosca, Georges Fokom, Laura Comini, Michele Vitacca
A high variability in functional tests and activities used during the pulmonary rehabilitation has been observed in post-intensive care unit (ICU) patients, and the best battery of tests to adopt has not been described yet. We tested in patients admitted in a post-ICU Step Down Unit the ability to perform the more frequent functional volitional tests. The relations of each single volitional test with general disability and dyspnea at discharge were also evaluated. Ten volitional tests including: bedside spirometry test (ST: FEV1%, FVC%), maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), Peak Expiratory Flow during Cough (PCEF), Quadriceps Muscle Strength (QMS), latissimus Dorsi and teres Major Strength (DMS), Brachial biceps Muscle Strength (BMS), effort tolerance measured by sit-to-stand test, Takahashi test and 6-Min Walking Test (6MWT), were evaluated in post-ICU patients at entry and discharge from in-hospital rehabilitation...
May 18, 2017: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635131/characterization-of-pharyngeal-peristaltic-pressure-variability-during-volitional-swallowing-in-healthy-individuals
#8
G Balasubramanian, T Sharma, M Kern, L Mei, P Sanvanson, R Shaker
BACKGROUND: Recent technological advances incorporated in high resolution manometry have justifiably heightened interest in manometric evaluation of the pharynx. Despite this interest, from both physiologic and clinical perspective there remain a number of unanswered questions regarding the magnitude of variability of pharyngeal pressure phenomena. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterize in healthy individuals the inter-subject and recording-site specific variability of pharyngeal peristaltic pressure phenomena...
June 20, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632524/callosal-motor-impersistence-a-novel-disconnection-syndrome
#9
Hee Jin Kim, Dongyeop Kim, Da-Heen Won, Juhee Chin, Kwang Ho Lee, Sang Won Seo, Kenneth M Heilman, Duk L Na
Motor impersistence, an inability to sustain a certain position or movement, is a motor-intentional disorder, caused more often by right than left hemisphere lesions. Since the right hemisphere is dominant for mediating motor persistence, callosal lesions that disconnect the left hemisphere from the right may induce impersistence of the right upper and lower limbs. After an undiagnosed left callosal infarction, a 65-year-old right-handed man suddenly developed a transient loss of volitional movement of his left leg...
June 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632522/relationship-of-reaction-time-to-perception-of-a-stimulus-and-volitionally-delayed-response
#10
Kimford J Meador, Alan Boyd, David W Loring
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Initiation of response in a simple reaction time (RT) task may precede conscious perception of the stimulus. Since volitionally delayed responses may require conscious perception of the stimulus before response initiation, it has been hypothesized that volitionally delayed responses will markedly delay RT. METHODS: We conducted two experiments with separate groups of healthy volunteers (n=16; n=13) who performed computerized simple and choice RT tasks...
June 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631835/suprameatal-urethrolysis-with-martius-flap-for-refractory-bladder-outflow-obstruction-following-stress-incontinence-surgery-in-females
#11
Janine L Oliver, Shlomo Raz
AIMS: To present our technique of suprameatal urethrolysis with Martius flap (SMUM) and outcomes of this procedure for refractory female bladder outflow obstruction (BOO). METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed to identify female patients who underwent SMUM between January 2010 and August 2016 after failed transvaginal urethrolysis (TVU) for BOO due to prior stress urinary incontinence (SUI) surgery. The primary outcome measure was surgical success defined as patient ability to void volitionally without need for catheterization or additional surgery for BOO...
June 20, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630468/neurofeedback-learning-modifies-the-incidence-rate-of-alpha-spindles-but-not-their-duration-and-amplitude
#12
Alexei Ossadtchi, Tatiana Shamaeva, Elizaveta Okorokova, Victoria Moiseeva, Mikhail A Lebedev
Although the first experiments on alpha-neurofeedback date back nearly six decades ago, when Joseph Kamiya reported successful operant conditioning of alpha-rhythm in humans, the effectiveness of this paradigm in various experimental and clinical settings is still a matter of debate. Here, we investigated the changes in EEG patterns during a continuously administered neurofeedback of P4 alpha activity. Two days of neurofeedback training were sufficient for a significant increase in the alpha power to occur...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612098/measurement-of-the-maximum-frequency-of-electroglottographic-fluctuations-in-the-expiration-phase-of-volitional-cough-as-a-functional-test-for-cough-efficiency
#13
Toshihiko Iwahashi, Makoto Ogawa, Kiyohito Hosokawa, Chieri Kato, Hidenori Inohara
The hypotheses of the present study were that the maximum frequency of fluctuation of electroglottographic (EGG) signals in the expiration phase of volitional cough (VC) reflects the cough efficiency and that this EGG parameter is affected by impaired laryngeal closure, expiratory effort strength, and gender. For 20 normal healthy adults and 20 patients diagnosed with unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP), each participant was fitted with EGG electrodes on the neck, had a transnasal laryngo-fiberscope inserted, and was asked to perform weak/strong VC tasks while EGG signals and a high-speed digital image of the larynx were recorded...
June 13, 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611360/learning-and-timing-of-voluntary-blink-responses-match-eyeblink-conditioning
#14
Anders Rasmussen, Dan-Anders Jirenhed
Can humans produce well-timed blink responses to a neutral stimulus voluntarily, without receiving any blink-eliciting, unconditional, stimulus? And if they can, to what degree does classical eyeblink conditioning depend on volition? Here we show that voluntary blink responses learned in two paradigms that did not involve any unconditional blink-eliciting stimuli, display timing that is as good, or better than, the timing of blink responses learned in a standard eyeblink conditioning paradigm. The exceptional timing accuracy likely stems from the fact that, in contrast to previous studies, we challenged our participants to blink in a timed manner, and not merely to blink so as to avoid the corneal air puff...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599828/a-doppler-echocardiographic-study-of-the-myocardial-inotropic-response-to-peak-semisupine-exercise-in-healthy-children-development-of-a-simplified-index-of%C3%A2-myocardial%C3%A2-reserve
#15
Anita T Cote, D Kathryn Duff, Carolina A Escudero, Astrid M De Souza, Lindsey D Williams, Raman Gill, M Terri Zadorsky, Kevin C Harris, James E Potts, George G S Sandor
BACKGROUND: Stress echocardiography has been advocated for the detection of abnormal myocardial function and unmasking diminished myocardial reserve in pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to create a simplified index of myocardial reserve, derived from the myocardial inotropic response to peak semisupine exercise in healthy children, and illustrate its applicability in a sample of pediatric oncology patients. METHODS: In this prospective analysis, children (7-18 years of age) with normal cardiac structure and function performed semisupine stress echocardiography to volitional fatigue...
June 6, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591803/temporally-segmented-directionality-in-the-motor-cortex
#16
S B Suway, J Orellana, A J C McMorland, G W Fraser, Z Liu, M Velliste, S M Chase, R E Kass, A B Schwartz
Developing models of the dynamic and complex patterns of information processing that take place during behavior is a major thrust of systems neuroscience. An underlying assumption of many models is that the same set of rules applies across different conditions. This has been the case for directional tuning during volitional movement; a single cosine function has been remarkably robust for describing the encoding of movement direction in different types of neurons, in many locations of the nervous system, and even across species...
June 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582699/association-of-prenatal-cocaine-exposure-childhood-maltreatment-and-responses-to-stress-in-adolescence
#17
Meeyoung O Min, Sonia Minnes, June-Yung Kim, Miyoung Yoon, Lynn T Singer
BACKGROUND: Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) may alter responses to stress. Children with PCE tend to grow up in suboptimal caregiving environments, conducive to child maltreatment (CM). Guided by the diathesis-stress model, the present study examined differences in self-reported responses to stress and coping in adolescents with and without PCE and explored whether childhood maltreatment (CM) moderated the effects of PCE. METHODS: Adolescents (N=363; 184 PCE, 179 non-cocaine exposed (NCE)), primarily African-American and of low socioeconomic status, were prospectively enrolled in a longitudinal study at birth...
May 26, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580720/learned-control-of-inter-hemispheric-connectivity-effects-on-bimanual-motor-performance
#18
Diljit Singh Kajal, Christoph Braun, Jürgen Mellinger, Matthew D Sacchet, Sergio Ruiz, Eberhard Fetz, Niels Birbaumer, Ranganatha Sitaram
Bimanual movements involve the interactions between both primary motor cortices. These interactions are assumed to involve phase-locked oscillatory brain activity referred to as inter-hemispheric functional coupling. So far, inter-hemispheric functional coupling has been investigated as a function of motor performance. These studies report mostly a negative correlation between the performance in motor tasks and the strength of functional coupling. However, correlation might not reflect a causal relationship...
June 5, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573943/applying-the-integrated-behavior-change-model-to-understanding-physical-activity-among-older-adults-a-qualitative-study
#19
Urska Arnautovska, Frances O'Callaghan, Kyra Hamilton
We explored older adults' experiences of physical activity (PA) and related decision-making processes underlying PA. Twenty Australians (Mage = 73.8 years) participated in semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis, and identified themes were matched deductively within motivational, volitional, and implicit processes of the integrated behavior change model for PA. Motivational influences such as participants' time orientation toward health and perceptions of what PA should be like were frequently featured in participants' narratives...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560818/emotion-regulation-deficits-in-regular-marijuana-users
#20
Kaeli Zimmermann, Christina Walz, Raissa T Derckx, Keith M Kendrick, Bernd Weber, Bruce Dore, Kevin N Ochsner, René Hurlemann, Benjamin Becker
Effective regulation of negative affective states has been associated with mental health. Impaired regulation of negative affect represents a risk factor for dysfunctional coping mechanisms such as drug use and thus could contribute to the initiation and development of problematic substance use. This study investigated behavioral and neural indices of emotion regulation in regular marijuana users (n = 23) and demographically matched nonusing controls (n = 20) by means of an fMRI cognitive emotion regulation (reappraisal) paradigm...
May 31, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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