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Sarit Dutta, Michael D Graham
We study the dynamics of piecewise rigid sheets containing predefined crease lines in shear flow. The crease lines act like hinge joints along which the sheet may fold rigidly, i.e. without bending any other crease line. We choose the crease lines such that they tessellate the sheet into a two-dimensional array of parallelograms. Specifically, we focus on a particular arrangement of crease lines known as a Miura-pattern in the origami community. When all the hinges are fully open the sheet is planar, whereas when all are closed the sheet folds over itself to form a compact flat structure...
March 22, 2017: Soft Matter
D Bazeia, M B P N Pereira, A V Brito, B F de Oliveira, J G G S Ramos
We demonstrate the presence of chaos in stochastic simulations that are widely used to study biodiversity in nature. The investigation deals with a set of three distinct species that evolve according to the standard rules of mobility, reproduction and predation, with predation following the cyclic rules of the popular rock, paper and scissors game. The study uncovers the possibility to distinguish between time evolutions that start from slightly different initial states, guided by the Hamming distance which heuristically unveils the chaotic behavior...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Matthieu Labriffe, Cédric Annweiler, Liubov E Amirova, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Aram Ter Minassian, Louis-Marie Leiber, Olivier Beauchet, Marc-Antoine Custaud, Mickaël Dinomais
Human locomotion is a complex sensorimotor behavior whose central control remains difficult to explore using neuroimaging method due to technical constraints, notably the impossibility to walk with a scanner on the head and/or to walk for real inside current scanners. The aim of this functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study was to analyze interactions between two paradigms to investigate the brain gait control network: (1) mental imagery of gait, and (2) passive mechanical stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot with the Korvit boots...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Amy Barrie, Roy Homburg, Garry McDowell, Jeremy Brown, Charles Kingsland, Stephen Troup
This retrospective, single site observational study aimed to delineate five abnormal embryonic developmental phenotypes, assessing their prevalence, development potential and suitability for inclusion in embryo selection models for IVF. In total, 15,819 embryos from 4559 treatment cycles cultured in EmbryoScope® incubators between January 2014 and January 2016 were included. Time-lapse images were assessed retrospectively for five abnormal embryo phenotypes: direct cleavage, reverse cleavage, absent cleavage, chaotic cleavage and cell lysis...
March 1, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Jessica K Eastman, Joseph J Hope, André R R Carvalho
Environment-induced decoherence has long been recognised as being of crucial importance in the study of chaos in quantum systems. In particular, the exact form and strength of the system-environment interaction play a major role in the quantum-to-classical transition of chaotic systems. In this work we focus on the effect of varying monitoring strategies, i.e. for a given decoherence model and a fixed environmental coupling, there is still freedom on how to monitor a quantum system. We show here that there is a region between the deep quantum regime and the classical limit where the choice of the monitoring parameter allows one to control the complex behaviour of the system, leading to either the emergence or suppression of chaos...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Vitaliy E Danilchenko, Alexander V Filatov, Vladimir F Mazanko, Viktor E Iakovlev
A significant carbon diffusion mobility acceleration as a result of cyclic γ↔ε martensitic transformations in iron-manganese alloy is determined by one- and two-dimensional structure defects of ε-martensite with face-centered close-packed lattice. Such defects (dislocations, low angle sub-boundaries of dislocations, chaotic stacking faults) were formed during cyclic γ↔ε martensitic transformations. Peak carbon diffusion coefficient increase was observed under thermocycling when maximum quantity of lattice defects increase was fixed...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
Fabrizio Pittorino, Miguel Ibáñez-Berganza, Matteo di Volo, Alessandro Vezzani, Raffaella Burioni
A collective chaotic phase with power law scaling of activity events is observed in a disordered mean field network of purely excitatory leaky integrate-and-fire neurons with short-term synaptic plasticity. The dynamical phase diagram exhibits two transitions from quasisynchronous and asynchronous regimes to the nontrivial, collective, bursty regime with avalanches. In the homogeneous case without disorder, the system synchronizes and the bursty behavior is reflected into a period doubling transition to chaos for a two dimensional discrete map...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Ricardo J Teixeira, M Graça Pereira
This study analyzed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and family functioning in a sample of adult children caregivers of cancer patients and in a group of adult children of nonchronically ill parents. Participants completed measures of family functioning and PTSD symptoms. The parental cancer group was subdivided into PTSD subgroups, and significant differences, on family functioning, were found. In the parental cancer group, the predictors of PTSD symptoms were being a woman and having an enmeshed or chaotic family functioning...
August 1, 2016: Research and Theory for Nursing Practice
Robert W Bond, Stephen J Guastello, Andrea D Guastello
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by obsessions, defined as intrusive and persistent thoughts, and compulsions, defined as repetitive ritualistic behaviors that attempt to neutralize the anxiety associated with the obsessions. The present study investigated the patterns of symptoms as they occur over time in order to generate new insights about the triggers to symptoms. Fourteen adult participants who met the DSM-5 criteria for OCD completed 7-day logbooks of daily activities including the times when they engaged in compulsive rituals...
April 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Cibele V Falkenberg, Evren U Azeloglu, Mark Stothers, Thomas J Deerinck, Yibang Chen, John C He, Mark H Ellisman, James C Hone, Ravi Iyengar, Leslie M Loew
Kidney podocytes' function depends on finger-like projections (foot processes) that interdigitate with those from neighboring cells to form the glomerular filtration barrier. The integrity of the barrier depends on spatial control of dynamics of actin cytoskeleton in the foot processes. We determined how imbalances in regulation of actin cytoskeletal dynamics could result in pathological morphology. We obtained 3-D electron microscopy images of podocytes and used quantitative features to build dynamical models to investigate how regulation of actin dynamics within foot processes controls local morphology...
March 16, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
Lachlan D Smith, Murray Rudman, Daniel R Lester, Guy Metcalfe
Mixing in smoothly deforming systems is achieved by repeated stretching and folding of material, and has been widely studied. However, for the classes of materials that also admit discontinuous deformation, the theory of mixing based on the assumption of smooth deformation does not apply. Discontinuous deformation provides additional topological freedom for material transport and results in different Lagrangian coherent structures forbidden in smoothly deforming systems. We uncover the impact of discontinuous deformation on mixing rates, showing that mixing can be either enhanced or impeded depending on the local stability of the underlying smooth map...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
Felix Fritzsch, Arnd Bäcker, Roland Ketzmerick, Normann Mertig
We present a semiclassical prediction of regular-to-chaotic tunneling in systems with a mixed phase space, including the effect of a nonlinear resonance chain. We identify complex paths for direct and resonance-assisted tunneling in the phase space of an integrable approximation with one nonlinear resonance chain. We evaluate the resonance-assisted contribution analytically and give a prediction based on just a few properties of the classical phase space. For the standard map excellent agreement with numerically determined tunneling rates is observed...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
Hiroshi Gotoda, Hiroaki Kobayashi, Kenta Hayashi
We have intensively examined the dynamic behavior of flame front instability in a lean swirling premixed flame generated by a change in gravitational orientation [H. Gotoda, T. Miyano, and I. G. Shepherd, Phys. Rev. E 81, 026211 (2010)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.81.026211] from the viewpoints of complex networks, symbolic dynamics, and statistical complexity. Here, we considered the permutation entropy in combination with the surrogate data method, the permutation spectrum test, and the multiscale complexity-entropy causality plane incorporating a scale-dependent approach, none of which have been considered in the study of flame front instabilities...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
Z Liu, M Ouali, S Coulibaly, M G Clerc, M Taki, M Tlidi
Complex spatiotemporal dynamics have been a subject of recent experimental investigations in optical frequency comb microresonators and in driven fiber cavities with Kerr-type media. We show that this complex behavior has a spatiotemporal chaotic nature. We determine numerically the Lyapunov spectra, allowing us to characterize different dynamical behavior occurring in these simple devices. The Yorke-Kaplan dimension is used as an order parameter to characterize the bifurcation diagram. We identify a wide regime of parameters where the system exhibits a coexistence between the spatiotemporal chaos, the oscillatory localized structure, and the homogeneous steady state...
March 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Joëlle De Caluwé, José Romário Fernandes de Melo, Alen Tosenberger, Christian Hermans, Nathalie Verbruggen, Jean-Christophe Leloup, Didier Gonze
The circadian clock is an endogenous 24hour rhythm that helps organisms anticipate and adapt to daily and seasonal variations in environment, such as the day/night cycle or changing temperatures. The plant clock is a complex network of transcription factors that regulate each other, forming interlocked feedback loops. Most of its components are light-regulated in some way, making the system highly sensitive to changes in light conditions. Here, we explore the mechanisms by which the plant clock adapts to changing day length...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Efim B Rozenbaum, Sriram Ganeshan, Victor Galitski
It was proposed recently that the out-of-time-ordered four-point correlator (OTOC) may serve as a useful characteristic of quantum-chaotic behavior, because, in the semiclassical limit ℏ→0, its rate of exponential growth resembles the classical Lyapunov exponent. Here, we calculate the four-point correlator C(t) for the classical and quantum kicked rotor-a textbook driven chaotic system-and compare its growth rate at initial times with the standard definition of the classical Lyapunov exponent. Using both quantum and classical arguments, we show that the OTOC's growth rate and the Lyapunov exponent are, in general, distinct quantities, corresponding to the logarithm of the phase-space averaged divergence rate of classical trajectories and to the phase-space average of the logarithm, respectively...
February 24, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Joona Rissanen, Dmitry A Korobko, Igor O Zolotovsky, Mikhail Melkumov, Vladimir F Khopin, Regina Gumenyuk
Mode-locked fibre laser as a dissipative system is characterized by rich forms of soliton interaction, which take place via internal energy exchange through noisy background in the presence of dispersion and nonlinearity. The result of soliton interaction was either stationary-localized or chaotically-oscillated soliton complexes, which have been shown before as stand-alone in the cavity. Here we report on a new form of solitons complex observed in Bi-doped mode-locked fibre laser operated at 1450 nm. The solitons are arranged in two different group types contemporizing in the cavity: one pulse group propagates as bound solitons with fixed phase relation and interpulse position eventuated in 30 dB spectrum modulation depth; while the other pulses form a bunch with continuously and chaotically moving solitons...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rinku Jacob, K P Harikrishnan, R Misra, G Ambika
We propose a novel measure of degree heterogeneity, for unweighted and undirected complex networks, which requires only the degree distribution of the network for its computation. We show that the proposed measure can be applied to all types of network topology with ease and increases with the diversity of node degrees in the network. The measure is applied to compute the heterogeneity of synthetic (both random and scale free (SF)) and real-world networks with its value normalized in the interval [Formula: see text]...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Zhankui Song, Kaibiao Sun, Shuai Ling
In this paper, we investigate the synchronization problem of chaotic centrifugal flywheel governor with parameters uncertainty and lumped disturbances. A slave centrifugal flywheel governor system is considered as an underactuated following-system which a control input is designed to follow a master centrifugal flywheel governor system. To tackle lumped disturbances and uncertainty parameters, a novel synchronization control law is developed by employing sliding mode control strategy and Nussbaum gain technique...
March 6, 2017: ISA Transactions
Takahiro Kawabe, Rok Kogovšek
Human observers easily recognize complex natural phenomena, such as flowing water, which often generate highly chaotic dynamic arrays of light on the retina. It has not been clarified how the visual system discerns the source of a fluid flow. Here we show that the magnitude of image deformation caused by light refraction is a critical factor for the visual system to determine the perceptual category of fluid flows. Employing a physics engine, we created computer-rendered scenes of water and hot air flows. For each flow, we manipulated the rendering parameters (distortion factors and the index of refraction) that strongly influence the magnitude of image deformation...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
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