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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821739/ultrafast-photonic-reinforcement-learning-based-on-laser-chaos
#1
Makoto Naruse, Yuta Terashima, Atsushi Uchida, Song-Ju Kim
Reinforcement learning involves decision making in dynamic and uncertain environments and constitutes an important element of artificial intelligence (AI). In this work, we experimentally demonstrate that the ultrafast chaotic oscillatory dynamics of lasers efficiently solve the multi-armed bandit problem (MAB), which requires decision making concerning a class of difficult trade-offs called the exploration-exploitation dilemma. To solve the MAB, a certain degree of randomness is required for exploration purposes...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818232/review-of-the-endothelial-pathogenic-mechanism-of-tie2-related-venous-malformation
#2
REVIEW
Zhong Du, JiaWei Zheng, ZhiYuan Zhang, YanAn Wang
BACKGROUND: Venous malformation (VM) is a type of disease involving vascular morphogenesis in humans. Clinically, VM can be sporadic or inherited. TIE2, also known as TEK or HYK, is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily and is highly conserved among species. In 1996, an arginine-to-tryptophan substitution at position 849 (R849W) in TIE2 was found to induce hereditary VM. Additional alterations in TIE2 involved in the pathogenesis of inherited or sporadic VM have since been reported...
September 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817580/criticality-predicts-maximum-irregularity-in-recurrent-networks-of-excitatory-nodes
#3
Yahya Karimipanah, Zhengyu Ma, Ralf Wessel
A rigorous understanding of brain dynamics and function requires a conceptual bridge between multiple levels of organization, including neural spiking and network-level population activity. Mounting evidence suggests that neural networks of cerebral cortex operate at a critical regime, which is defined as a transition point between two phases of short lasting and chaotic activity. However, despite the fact that criticality brings about certain functional advantages for information processing, its supporting evidence is still far from conclusive, as it has been mostly based on power law scaling of size and durations of cascades of activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810964/a-study-on-the-tactical-safety-of-endotracheal-intubation-under-darkness
#4
Sedat Bilge, Attila Aydin, Meltem Bilge, Cemile Aydin, Erdem Cevik, Mehmet Eryilmaz
OBJECTIVE: Strict blackout discipline is extremely important for all military units. To be able to effectively determine wound characteristics and perform the necessary interventions at nighttime, vision and light restrictions can be mitigated through the use of tactical night vision goggles (NVGs). The lamp of the classical laryngoscope (CL) can be seen with the naked eye; infrared light, on the other hand, cannot be perceived without the use of NVGs. The aim of the study is to evaluate the safety of endotracheal intubation (ETI) procedures in the dark under tactically safe conditions with modified laryngoscope (ML) model...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810732/tracking-radionuclide-fractionation-in-the-first-atomic-explosion-using-stable-elements
#5
Chloe E Bonamici, Richard L Hervig, William S Kinman
Compositional analysis of post-detonation fallout is a tool for forensic identification of nuclear devices. However, the relationship between device composition and fallout composition is difficult to interpret because of the complex combination of physical mixing, nuclear reactions, and chemical fractionations that occur in the chaotic nuclear fireball. Using a combination of in situ microanalytical techniques - electron microprobe analysis and secondary ion mass spectrometry - we show that some heavy stable elements (Rb, Sr, Zr, Ba, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Dy, Lu, U, Th) in glassy fallout from the first nuclear test, Trinity, are reliable chemical proxies for radionuclides generated during the explosion...
August 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809962/nonlinear-behavior-and-fluctuation-induced-dynamics-in-the-photosensitive-belousov-zhabotinsky-reaction
#6
Valérie Voorsluijs, Ioannis G Kevrekidis, Yannick De Decker
The photosensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky (pBZ) reaction has been used extensively to study the properties of chemical oscillators. In particular, recent experiments revealed the existence of complex spatiotemporal dynamics for systems consisting of coupled micelles (V < 10(-21) L) or droplets (V ≈ [10(-8)-10(-11)] L) in which the pBZ reaction takes place. These results have been mostly understood in terms of reaction-diffusion models. However, in view of the small size of the droplets and micelles, large fluctuations of concentrations are to be expected...
August 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809684/combination-of-sharing-matrix-and-image-encryption-for-lossless-k-n-secret-image-sharing
#7
Long Bao, Shuang Yi, Yicong Zhou
This paper first introduces a (k, n)-sharing matrix S(k,n) and its generation algorithm. Mathematical analysis is provided to show its potential for secret image sharing. Combining sharing matrix with image encryption, we further propose a lossless (k, n)-secret image sharing scheme (SMIE-SIS). The chaotic image encryption is extremely sensitive to ciphertext. Little change in the ciphertext will lead to failure of noise-like decrypted results even with right key. Thus, even though sharing matrix will recover part of ciphertext information when less than k secret shares are combined, its missing information will result in a wrong key and a noise-like decryption result, keeping the secret from leakage...
August 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802892/the-spatial-dynamics-of-ecosystem-engineers
#8
Caroline Franco, José F Fontanari
The changes on abiotic features of ecosystems have rarely been taken into account by population dynamics models, which typically focus on trophic and competitive interactions between species. However, understanding the population dynamics of organisms that must modify their habitats in order to survive, the so-called ecosystem engineers, requires the explicit incorporation of abiotic interactions in the models. Here we study a model of ecosystem engineers that is discrete both in space and time, and where the engineers and their habitats are arranged in patches fixed to the sites of regular lattices...
August 9, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801562/explosive-death-induced-by-mean-field-diffusion-in-identical-oscillators
#9
Umesh Kumar Verma, Amit Sharma, Neeraj Kumar Kamal, Jürgen Kurths, Manish Dev Shrimali
We report the occurrence of an explosive death transition for the first time in an ensemble of identical limit cycle and chaotic oscillators coupled via mean-field diffusion. In both systems, the variation of the normalized amplitude with the coupling strength exhibits an abrupt and irreversible transition to death state from an oscillatory state and this first order phase transition to death state is independent of the size of the system. This transition is quite general and has been found in all the coupled systems where in-phase oscillations co-exist with a coupling dependent homogeneous steady state...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799389/dispersed-fluorescence-spectroscopy-of-the-sicn-a%C3%AC-2-%C3%AE-x%C3%AC-2-%C3%AE-system-observation-of-some-vibrational-levels-with-chaotic-characteristics
#10
Masaru Fukushima, Takashi Ishiwata
The laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrum of the à (2)Δ - X̃ (2)Π transition was obtained for SiCN generated by laser ablation under supersonic free jet expansion. The vibrational structures of the dispersed fluorescence (DF) spectra from single vibronic levels (SVL's) were analyzed with consideration of the Renner-Teller (R-T) interaction. Analysis of the pure bending (ν2) structure by a perturbation approach including R-T, anharmonicity, spin-orbit (SO), and Herzberg-Teller (H-T) interactions indicated considerably different spin splitting for the μ and κ levels of the X̃ (2)Π state of SiCN, in contrast to identical spin splitting for general species derived from the perturbation approach, where μ and κ specify the lower and upper levels, respectively, separated by R-T...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798843/an-easily-fabricated-three-dimensional-threaded-lemniscate-shaped-micromixer-for-a-wide-range-of-flow-rates
#11
Mehdi Rafeie, Marcel Welleweerd, Amin Hassanzadeh-Barforoushi, Mohsen Asadnia, Wouter Olthuis, Majid Ebrahimi Warkiani
Mixing fluid samples or reactants is a paramount function in the fields of micro total analysis system (μTAS) and microchemical processing. However, rapid and efficient fluid mixing is difficult to achieve inside microchannels because of the difficulty of diffusive mass transfer in the laminar regime of the typical microfluidic flows. It has been well recorded that the mixing efficiency can be boosted by migrating from two-dimensional (2D) to three-dimensional (3D) geometries. Although several 3D chaotic mixers have been designed, most of them offer a high mixing efficiency only in a very limited range of Reynolds numbers (Re)...
January 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798384/dynamics-of-spatiotemporal-line-defects-and-chaos-control-in-complex-excitable-systems
#12
Marcel Hörning, François Blanchard, Akihiro Isomura, Kenichi Yoshikawa
Spatiotemporal pattern formation governs dynamics and functions in various biological systems. In the heart, excitable waves can form complex oscillatory and chaotic patterns even at an abnormally higher frequency than normal heart beats, which increase the risk of fatal heart conditions by inhibiting normal blood circulation. Previous studies suggested that line defects (nodal lines) play a critical role in stabilizing those undesirable patterns. However, it remains unknown if the line defects are static or dynamically changing structures in heart tissue...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796797/chaotic-itinerancy-within-the-coupled-dynamics-between-a-physical-body-and-neural-oscillator-networks
#13
Jihoon Park, Hiroki Mori, Yuji Okuyama, Minoru Asada
Chaotic itinerancy is a phenomenon in which the state of a nonlinear dynamical system spontaneously explores and attracts certain states in a state space. From this perspective, the diverse behavior of animals and its spontaneous transitions lead to a complex coupled dynamical system, including a physical body and a brain. Herein, a series of simulations using different types of non-linear oscillator networks (i.e., regular, small-world, scale-free, random) with a musculoskeletal model (i.e., a snake-like robot) as a physical body are conducted to understand how the chaotic itinerancy of bodily behavior emerges from the coupled dynamics between the body and the brain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792931/chaotic-dynamics-in-nanoscale-nbo2-mott-memristors-for-analogue-computing
#14
Suhas Kumar, John Paul Strachan, R Stanley Williams
At present, machine learning systems use simplified neuron models that lack the rich nonlinear phenomena observed in biological systems, which display spatio-temporal cooperative dynamics. There is evidence that neurons operate in a regime called the edge of chaos that may be central to complexity, learning efficiency, adaptability and analogue (non-Boolean) computation in brains. Neural networks have exhibited enhanced computational complexity when operated at the edge of chaos, and networks of chaotic elements have been proposed for solving combinatorial or global optimization problems...
August 9, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791865/a-microfluidic-chemical-function-generator-for-probing-dynamic-cell-signaling
#15
Peng Chen, Yiran Guo, Xiaojun Feng, Shuangqian Yan, Jie Wang, Yiwei Li, Wei Du, Bi-Feng Liu
Cellular environments are inherently dynamic and generally involve complex, temporally varying signals. Reconstruction of these environments with high spatial and temporal fidelity and simultaneous imaging of intracellular dynamics in live cells remains a major challenge. In this paper, a microfluidic chemical function generator (μCFG) was proposed for probing cell dynamic signaling with high temporal resolution. By combining a hydrodynamic gating module with a chaotic advection mixing module, the μCFG was able to generate a variety of chemical waveforms, such as digital pulsatile chemical waveforms with a frequency higher than 10 Hz and analog chemical waveforms with a frequency higher than 0...
August 9, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791137/a-frequency-quantum-interpretation-of-the-surface-renewal-model-of-mass-transfer
#16
Chanchal Mondal, Siddharth G Chatterjee
The surface of a turbulent liquid is visualized as consisting of a large number of chaotic eddies or liquid elements. Assuming that surface elements of a particular age have renewal frequencies that are integral multiples of a fundamental frequency quantum, and further assuming that the renewal frequency distribution is of the Boltzmann type, performing a population balance for these elements leads to the Danckwerts surface age distribution. The basic quantum is what has been traditionally called the rate of surface renewal...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789540/statistical-properties-of-the-rovibrational-bound-levels-for-ar2kr
#17
Meng-Shan Wu, Hui-Li Han, Cui Yao, Xiao-Rong He, Jun-Yi Zhang, Ting-Yun Shi
We calculate the rovibrational bound levels with total angular momentum J = 0, 1 of (40)Ar2(84)Kr trimer using the slow variable discretization method combined with the finite-element method-discrete variable representation basis. The statistical distributions of the rovibrational levels for J(Π)=0(e), 1(e), and 1(o) symmetries are presented and the effects of the Axilrod-Teller potential term are considered. For the 0(e) and 1(e) symmetries, the Axilrod-Teller term makes the spectra become fully chaotic. However, for the 1(o) symmetry, statistical properties depend mainly on the coupling between K = 0 and K = 1 and the Axilrod-Teller term has a small effect...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777596/numerical-construction-of-the-aizenman-wehr-metastate
#18
A Billoire, L A Fernandez, A Maiorano, E Marinari, V Martin-Mayor, J Moreno-Gordo, G Parisi, F Ricci-Tersenghi, J J Ruiz-Lorenzo
Chaotic size dependence makes it extremely difficult to take the thermodynamic limit in disordered systems. Instead, the metastate, which is a distribution over thermodynamic states, might have a smooth limit. So far, studies of the metastate have been mostly mathematical. We present a numerical construction of the metastate for the d=3 Ising spin glass. We work in equilibrium, below the critical temperature. Leveraging recent rigorous results, our numerical analysis gives evidence for a dispersed metastate, supported on many thermodynamic states...
July 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764489/hysteresis-compensation-of-the-prandtl-ishlinskii-model-for-piezoelectric-actuators-using-modified-particle-swarm-optimization-with-chaotic-map
#19
Zhili Long, Rui Wang, Jiwen Fang, Xufei Dai, Zuohua Li
Piezoelectric actuators invariably exhibit hysteresis nonlinearities that tend to become significant under the open-loop condition and could cause oscillations and errors in nanometer-positioning tasks. Chaotic map modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO) is proposed and implemented to identify the Prandtl-Ishlinskii model for piezoelectric actuators. Hysteresis compensation is attained through application of an inverse Prandtl-Ishlinskii model, in which the parameters are formulated based on the original model with chaotic map MPSO...
July 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764401/analytical-study-of-funnel-type-r%C3%A3-ssler-attractor
#20
An-Liang Cheng, Yih-Yuh Chen
We investigate the behavior of a typical trajectory in a funnel type Rössler attractor. Using a suitable averaging method, we propose to describe the originally more difficult time-continuous chaotic behavior of the system using an approximate four-parameter surrogate iteration scheme. This approach has the merits of helping one see more easily how the height of the peaks and the peak-to-peak durations vary as one tunes the system parameters. Our analytical results compare favorably well with those obtained through the numerical integration of the system...
July 2017: Chaos
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