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Manashita Borah, Binoy Krishna Roy
This paper presents an interesting phenomenon unobserved so far in literature to the best of the authors' knowledge in fractional-order chaotic systems (FOCSs). It is the rotational phenomenon of fractional-order coexisting attractors. Another significant feature of the newly proposed FOCS is that two 2-wing chaotic attractors coexist in its fractional-order dynamics i.e. α<1. But once the system attains integer-order, the two attractors merge and evolve into a single 4-wing attractor. Furthermore, the authors have drawn its comparison with various well-known FOCSs to prove its superior features...
February 15, 2017: ISA Transactions
Ali Mohseni, Shahriar Gharibzadeh, Fatemeh Bakouie
Synchronization is an important global phenomenon which could be found in a wide range of complex systems such as brain or electronic devices. However, in some circumstances the synchronized states are not desirable for the system and should be suppressed. For example, excessively synchronized activities in the brain network could be the root of neuronal disorders like epileptic seizures. According to the controllability theory of the complex networks, a minimum set of driver nodes has the ability to control the entire system...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Steven R Sellers, Weining Man, Shervin Sahba, Marian Florescu
The interaction of a material with light is intimately related to its wavelength-scale structure. Simple connections between structure and optical response empower us with essential intuition to engineer complex optical functionalities. Here we develop local self-uniformity (LSU) as a measure of a random network's internal structural similarity, ranking networks on a continuous scale from crystalline, through glassy intermediate states, to chaotic configurations. We demonstrate that complete photonic bandgap structures possess substantial LSU and validate LSU's importance in gap formation through design of amorphous gyroid structures...
February 17, 2017: Nature Communications
Zhen Chen, Xianbin Liu
Noise-induced escape from the domain of attraction of a nonhyperbolic chaotic attractor in a periodically excited nonlinear oscillator is further investigated. Deviations are found to be amplified at the primary homoclinic tangency from which the optimal force begins to fluctuate dramatically. Escaping trajectories turn out to possess several modes to pass through the saddle cycle on the basin boundary, and each mode corresponds to a certain type of value of the action plot, respectively. A subset of the pattern of fluctuational paths from the chaotic attractor is obtained, showing the existence of complicated singularities...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
Yuri Maistrenko, Serhiy Brezetsky, Patrycja Jaros, Roman Levchenko, Tomasz Kapitaniak
We demonstrate that chimera behavior can be observed in small networks consisting of three identical oscillators, with mutual all-to-all coupling. Three different types of chimeras, characterized by the coexistence of two coherent oscillators and one incoherent oscillator (i.e., rotating with another frequency) have been identified, where the oscillators show periodic (two types) and chaotic (one type) behaviors. Typical bifurcations at the transitions from full synchronization to chimera states and between different types of chimeras have been described...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
Jiawen Deng, Alvis Mazon Tan, Peter Hänggi, Jiangbin Gong
Work is one of the most basic notions in statistical mechanics, with work fluctuation theorems being one central topic in nanoscale thermodynamics. With Hamiltonian chaos commonly thought to provide a foundation for classical statistical mechanics, here we present general salient results regarding how (classical) Hamiltonian chaos generically impacts on nonequilibrium work fluctuations. For isolated chaotic systems prepared with a microcanonical distribution, work fluctuations are minimized and vanish altogether in adiabatic work protocols...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
Rosario González-Férez, Manuel Iñarrea, J Pablo Salas, Peter Schmelcher
We explore the classical dynamics of two interacting rotating dipoles that are fixed in the space and exposed to an external homogeneous electric field. Kinetic energy transfer mechanisms between the dipoles are investigated by varying both the amount of initial excess kinetic energy of one of them and the strength of the electric field. In the field-free case, and depending on the initial excess energy, an abrupt transition between equipartition and nonequipartition regimes is encountered. The study of the phase space structure of the system as well as the formulation of the Hamiltonian in an appropriate coordinate frame provide a thorough understanding of this sharp transition...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
Udaysinh T Bhosale, M S Santhanam
Quantum correlations reflect the quantumness of a system and are useful resources for quantum information and computational processes. Measures of quantum correlations do not have a classical analog and yet are influenced by classical dynamics. In this work, by modeling the quantum kicked top as a multiqubit system, the effect of classical bifurcations on measures of quantum correlations such as the quantum discord, geometric discord, and Meyer and Wallach Q measure is studied. The quantum correlation measures change rapidly in the vicinity of a classical bifurcation point...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
Zhizhen Yin, Helun Song, Yaohui Zhang, Miguel Ruiz-García, Manuel Carretero, Luis L Bonilla, Klaus Biermann, Holger T Grahn
Noise-enhanced chaos in a doped, weakly coupled GaAs/Al_{0.45}Ga_{0.55}As superlattice has been observed at room temperature in experiments as well as in the results of the simulation of nonlinear transport based on a discrete tunneling model. When external noise is added, both the measured and simulated current-versus-time traces contain irregularly spaced spikes for particular applied voltages, which separate a regime of periodic current oscillations from a region of no current oscillations at all. In the voltage region without current oscillations, the electric-field profile consist of a low-field domain near the emitter contact separated by a domain wall consisting of a charge accumulation layer from a high-field regime closer to the collector contact...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
Joshua Haworth, Anastasia Kyvelidou, Wayne Fisher, Nicholas Stergiou
Children with autism spectrum disorder tend to have little interest in the presence, actions, and motives of other persons. In addition, these children tend to present with a limited and overly redundant movement repertoire, often expressing hyperfixation and aversion to novelty. We explore whether this is related to a more fundamental lack of appreciation for various temporal dynamics, including periodic, chaotic, and aperiodic motion structures. Seven children with ASD (age, gender, and height matched with children without ASD) were asked to stand and watch the motion of a visual stimulus displayed on a large (55″) video monitor...
December 2016: Journal of Motor Learning and Development
Chunying Fang, Haifeng Li, Lin Ma, Mancai Zhang
Pathological speech usually refers to speech distortion resulting from illness or other biological insults. The assessment of pathological speech plays an important role in assisting the experts, while automatic evaluation of speech intelligibility is difficult because it is usually nonstationary and mutational. In this paper, we carry out an independent innovation of feature extraction and reduction, and we describe a multigranularity combined feature scheme which is optimized by the hierarchical visual method...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Noam Chomsky
Inquiry into the evolution of some biological system evidently can proceed only as far as its nature is understood. Lacking such understanding, its manifestations are likely to appear to be chaotic, highly variable, and lacking significant general properties; and, accordingly, study of its evolution cannot be seriously undertaken. These truisms hold of the study of the human faculty of language FL just as for other biological systems. As discussed below, FL appears to be a shared human capacity in essentials, with options of variation of a kind to which we return...
February 7, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Huanan Li, Suwun Suwunnarat, Ragnar Fleischmann, Holger Schanz, Tsampikos Kottos
We employ random matrix theory in order to investigate coherent perfect absorption (CPA) in lossy systems with complex internal dynamics. The loss strength γ_{CPA} and energy E_{CPA}, for which a CPA occurs, are expressed in terms of the eigenmodes of the isolated cavity-thus carrying over the information about the chaotic nature of the target-and their coupling to a finite number of scattering channels. Our results are tested against numerical calculations using complex networks of resonators and chaotic graphs as CPA cavities...
January 27, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Signe S Risom, Ann-Dorthe Zwisler, Pernille P Johansen, Kirstine L Sibilitz, Jane Lindschou, Christian Gluud, Rod S Taylor, Jesper H Svendsen, Selina K Berg
BACKGROUND: Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation may benefit adults with atrial fibrillation or those who had been treated for atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation is caused by multiple micro re-entry circuits within the atrial tissue, which result in chaotic rapid activity in the atria. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of exercise-based rehabilitation programmes, alone or with another intervention, compared with no-exercise training controls in adults who currently have AF, or have been treated for AF...
February 9, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Guillaume Mortamet, Nadia Roumeliotis, Florence Vinit, Caroline Simonds, Laurent Dupic, Philippe Hubert
Hospital clowning is a programme in healthcare facilities involving visits from specially trained actors. In the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU), clowning may appear inappropriate and less intuitive. The patient could appear too ill and/or sedated, the environment too crowded or chaotic and the parents too stressed. Relying on our experience with professionally trained clowns both in France and Canada, the purpose of this article is to offer a model for hospital clowning and to suggest standards of practice for the implementation of clowning in PICUs...
February 8, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Alexandra Pérez-Serra, Oscar Campuzano, Ramon Brugada
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atrial fibrillation is an important cause of morbidity in the aging population. The mechanisms responsible for the triggering and maintenance of the chaotic atrial rhythm are still poorly understood. In this review, we will focus on the genetic aspects of atrial fibrillation, to understand causality, with special emphasis on recent studies published in the field. RECENT FINDINGS: Diseases such as hypertension, valvular heart disease, and heart failure may induce atrial fibrillation, which increases the risk of stroke and sudden cardiac death...
February 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Pier Luigi Gentili, Maria Sole Giubila, B Mark Heron
This work demonstrates the computational power of a hydrodynamic photochemical oscillator based on a photochromic naphthopyran, generating aperiodic time series. The chaotic character of the time series is tested by calculating its largest Lyapunov exponent and the correlation dimension of its attractor after building its phase space through the Takens' theorem. Then, the chaotic dynamic is shown to be suitable to implement all the fundamental Boolean two-inputs-one-output logic gates. Finally, the strategy to implement Fuzzy logic systems (FLSs) based on the time series is described...
February 3, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Limeng Zhang, Biwei Pan, Guangcan Chen, Dan Lu, Lingjuan Zhao
We experimentally demonstrate a compact, long-range, high-resolution chaotic correlation optical time-domain reflectometry based on a monolithic integrated chaotic laser (MICL). The MICL can directly generate a broadband chaotic signal covering a RF frequency range of over 40 GHz. Multi-reflection events can be precisely located in a detection range of ∼47  km with a range-independent resolution of 2.6 mm.
February 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Yonggang Su, Chen Tang, Biyuan Li, Xia Chen, Wenjun Xu, Yuanxue Cai
We propose an optical color image encryption system based on the single-lens Fourier transform, the Fresnel transform, and the chaotic random phase masks (CRPMs). The proposed encryption system contains only one optical lens, which makes it more efficient and concise to implement. The introduction of the Fresnel transform makes the first phase mask of the proposed system also act as the main secret key when the input image is a non-negative amplitude-only map. The two CRPMs generated by dual two-dimensional chaotic maps can provide more security to the proposed system...
January 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Yang Li, Makito Oku, Guoguang He, Kazuyuki Aihara
In this study, a method is proposed that eliminates spiral waves in a locally connected chaotic neural network (CNN) under some simplified conditions, using a dynamic phase space constraint (DPSC) as a control method. In this method, a control signal is constructed from the feedback internal states of the neurons to detect phase singularities based on their amplitude reduction, before modulating a threshold value to truncate the refractory internal states of the neurons and terminate the spirals. Simulations showed that with appropriate parameter settings, the network was directed from a spiral wave state into either a plane wave (PW) state or a synchronized oscillation (SO) state, where the control vanished automatically and left the original CNN model unaltered...
January 16, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
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