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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778908/mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-complex-2-signaling-in-obese-women-changes-after-bariatric-surgery
#1
Marcela Augusta de Souza Pinhel, Carolina Ferreira Nicoletti, Natalia Yumi Noronha, Bruno Affonso Parenti de Oliveira, Cristiana Cortes-Oliveira, Wilson Salgado, Wilson Araujo da Silva, Doroteia Rossi Silva Souza, Julio Sergio Marchini, Carla Barbosa Nonino
OBJECTIVES: After bariatric surgery, modifications to signaling pathway networks including those of the metabolic regulator called mammalian or mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) may lead to molecular alterations related to energy source availability, systemic nutrients, and catabolic and anabolic cellular processes. This study aimed to identify gene expression changes with regard to the mTOR complex 2 subunit signaling pathway in obese patients before and after bariatric surgery...
March 21, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777230/serum-biomarkers-of-inflammation-and-adiposity-in-the-labs-cohort-associations-with-metabolic-disease-and-surgical-outcomes
#2
Robert W O'Rourke, Geoffrey S Johnson, Jonathan Q Purnell, Anita P Courcoulas, Gregory F Dakin, Luis Garcia, Marcelo Hinojosa, James E Mitchell, Alfons Pomp, Walter J Pories, Konstantinos Spaniolas, David R Flum, Abdus S Wahed, Bruce M Wolfe
BACKGROUND: The utility of serum biomarkers related to inflammation and adiposity as predictors of metabolic disease prevalence and outcomes after bariatric surgery are not well-defined. METHODS: Associations between pre- and post-operative serum levels of four biomarkers (C-reactive protein (CRP), cystatin C (CC), leptin, and ghrelin) with baseline measures of adiposity and metabolic disease prevalence (asthma, diabetes, sleep apnea), and weight loss and metabolic disease remission after bariatric surgery were studied in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) cohort...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776493/mechanisms-in-bariatric-surgery-gut-hormones-diabetes-resolution-and-weight-loss
#3
Jens Juul Holst, Sten Madsbad, Kirstine N Bojsen-Møller, Maria Saur Svane, Nils Bruun Jørgensen, Carsten Dirksen, Christoffer Martinussen
Gastric bypass surgery leads to profound changes in the secretion of gut hormones with effects on metabolism, appetite, and food intake. Here, we discuss their contributions to the improvement in glucose tolerance and the weight loss that results from the operations. We find that the improved glucose tolerance is due the following events: a negative energy balance and resulting weight loss, which improve first hepatic and later peripheral insulin sensitivity, in combination with increased postprandial insulin secretion elicited particularly by exaggerated glucagon-like peptide-1 responses...
May 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775572/gene-therapy-with-antisense-oligonucleotides-silencing-c-myc-reduces-neointima-formation-and-vessel-wall-thickness-in-a-mouse-model-of-vein-graft-disease
#4
Christina Maria Steger, Nikolaos Bonaros, Ralf Joachim Rieker, Johannes Bonatti, Thomas Schachner
Gene therapy for avoiding intimal hyperplasia of vein grafts after coronary artery bypass grafting is still discussed controversially. A promising application of gene therapy in vein grafts is the use of antisense oligonucleotides to block the expression of genes encoding cell cycle regulatory proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells. C-myc, either directly or by regulating the expression of other proteins, controls cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell survival, tissue remodeling, angiogenesis, cell metabolism, production of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and also participates in cell transformation...
May 15, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774420/lysophosphatidylcholine-as-a-predictor-of-postoperative-complications-after-colorectal-cancer-surgery
#5
Akihisa Matsuda, Marina Yamada, Satoshi Matsumoto, Nobuyuki Sakurazawa, Takeshi Yamada, Takeshi Matsutani, Masao Miyashita, Eiji Uchida
PURPOSE: Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), which is generated from phosphatidylcholine (PC) and metabolized by autotaxin (ATX), modulates immune responses via its anti-inflammatory property. We investigated the association between LPC and postoperative complications (POCs) after colorectal cancer surgery (CRC). METHODS: The subjects of this study were 43 patients who underwent surgery for CRC. Peripheral blood samples were collected preoperatively and immediately after surgery, and on postoperative days (PODs) 1, 3, 5, and 7...
May 17, 2018: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773431/preoperative-frailty-assessment-predicts-loss-of-independence-after-vascular-surgery
#6
Graham W Donald, Amir A Ghaffarian, Farid Isaac, Larry W Kraiss, Claire L Griffin, Brigitte K Smith, Mark R Sarfati, Julie L Beckstrom, Benjamin S Brooke
OBJECTIVE: Frailty, a clinical syndrome associated with loss of metabolic reserves, is prevalent among patients who present to vascular surgery clinics for evaluation. The Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) is a rapid assessment method shown to be highly specific for identifying frail patients. In this study, we sought to evaluate whether the preoperative CFS score could be used to predict loss of independence after major vascular procedures. METHODS: We identified all patients living independently at home who were prospectively assessed using the CFS before undergoing an elective major vascular surgery procedure (admitted for >24 hours) at an academic medical center between December 2015 and December 2017...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772029/prolyl-carboxypeptidase-activity-in-the-circulation-and-its-correlation-with-body-weight-and-adipose-tissue-in-lean-and-obese-subjects
#7
Kaat Kehoe, Heidi Noels, Wendy Theelen, Emilie De Hert, Shenguan Xu, An Verrijken, Thierry Arnould, Erik Fransen, Nina Hermans, Anne-Marie Lambeir, Per Venge, Luc Van Gaal, Ingrid De Meester
BACKGROUND: Prolyl carboxypeptidase (PRCP) is involved in the regulation of body weight, likely by hydrolysing alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and apelin in the hypothalamus and in the periphery. A link between PRCP protein concentrations in plasma and metabolic disorders has been reported. In this study, we investigated the distribution of circulating PRCP activity and assessed its relation with body weight and adipose tissue in obese patients and patients who significantly lost weight...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771717/prognostic-predictive-value-of-preoperative-intratumoral-2-deoxy-2-18f-fluoro-d-glucose-uptake-heterogeneity-in-patients-with-high-grade-serous-ovarian-cancer
#8
Shuai Liu, Zheng Feng, Zhaoxia Jiang, Hao Wen, Junyan Xu, Herong Pan, Yu Deng, Lei Zhang, Xingzhu Ju, Xiaojun Chen, Xiaohua Wu
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the clinical and prognostic significance of pretreatment positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) parameters, especially 2-deoxy-2-(F)fluoro-D-glucose-based heterogeneity, in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively investigated 56 patients with HGSC who underwent PET/CT before primary surgery at our hospital between January 2010 and June 2015. None of these patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy...
May 16, 2018: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770924/roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-surgery-induced-weight-loss-and-metabolic-improvements-are-similar-in-tgr5-deficient-and-wildtype-mice
#9
Zheng Hao, R Leigh Townsend, Michael B Mumphrey, Thomas W Gettys, Sangho Yu, Heike Münzberg, Christopher D Morrison, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) remains one of the most effective treatments for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Despite this, the mechanisms through which it acts are still not well understood. Bile acid signaling through the transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor TGR5 has been shown to have significant effects on metabolism and has recently been reported to be necessary for the full effects of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), a bariatric surgery with similar effects to RYGB...
May 16, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769085/contemporary-enteral-and-parenteral-nutrition-before-surgery-for-gastrointestinal-cancers-a-literature-review
#10
REVIEW
Michal Jankowski, Manuela Las-Jankowska, Massaoud Sousak, Wojciech Zegarski
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal cancers are among the most recognised oncological diseases in well-developed countries. Tumours located in the digestive tract may cause the fast occurrence of malnutrition. MAIN TEXT: The perioperative period is a special time for systemic metabolism. Thanks to published guidelines, early universal control nutritional status before treatment, patients may have a chance to get suitable nutritional intervention. Although the first line of the intervention-nutritional consultation as well as the fortification of a diet and oral nutritional support (ONS)-is not debatable, in a case of inability of undergoing an oral feeding, the choice of the way of administration in patients before a surgery may represent a serious clinical obstacle...
May 16, 2018: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764908/management-of-endocrine-disease-which-metabolic-procedure-comparing-outcomes-in-sleeve-gastrectomy-and-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#11
Adrian T Billeter, Javier de la Garza Herrera, Katharina M Scheurlen, Felix Nickel, Franck Billmann, Beat Müller-Stich
Obesity and its associated comorbidities have become one of the largest challenges for health care in the near future. Conservative therapy for obesity and related comorbidities have a very high failure rate and poor long-term results. Similarly, the conservative and medical management of the majority of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus are only able to slow down disease progression but have no causal effect on the disease process. Obesity surgery has evolved as a highly effect therapy for severe obesity achieving long-lasting weight loss...
May 15, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762697/sarcopenia-is-a-novel-predictor-of-the-need-for-rescue-therapy-in-hospitalized-ulcerative-colitis-patients
#12
Kelly C Cushing, Hamed Kordbacheh, Michael S Gee, Avinash Kambadakone, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
Background: Acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC) affects one in four patients with UC. Clinical parameters perform modestly in predicting need for rescue therapy. Sarcopenia and visceral adiposity predict natural history in Crohn's disease, but the role of such metabolic factors on ASUC outcomes is unknown. Aim: To define the effect of sarcopenia and visceral adiposity on outcomes in ASUC. Methods: We studied patients hospitalized for ASUC who underwent an abdominal CT scan during the hospitalization...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762327/nodular-tenosynovitis-of-the-temporomandibular-joint-an-entity-not-yet-described
#13
Paolo Cariati, Miguel Garcia-Martin, Miguel Perez de Perceval Tara, Maria Roman Ramos, Blas Garcia Medina
Nodular tenosynovitis usually affects the hands and it represents a benign pathology with locally aggressive behavior. Its etiology could be related to chronic inflammatory processes such as trauma, metabolic disturbance, and joint diseases. Histopathological analysis is required for a diagnosis of certainty and surgery represents the treatment of choice. There are no cases in the literature that describe a nodular tenosynovitis affecting the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) The main aim of the present report therefore, is to describe this unusual case and to show the utility of arthroscopic procedures in managing intra-articular tumors of the TMJ...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761676/planned-re-laparotomy-in-a-non-trauma-setting-a-single-center-experience
#14
Yehuda Hershkovitz, Itamar Ashkenazi, Zahar Shapira, Oded Zmora, Igor Jeroukhimov
BACKGROUND: Damage control laparotomy (DCL) is the widely accepted procedure of choice in management of severely injured trauma patient. It has been implemented in non-trauma-related surgical pathology in the last decade. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate our experience with planned re-laparotomy (PRL) in non-trauma patients and compare it to other reports. METHODS: Charts of all patients admitted to Assaf Harofeh Medical Center who underwent PRL for non-trauma-related abdominal pathology during a 6 year period were reviewed...
May 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761487/the-phytoestrogen-genistein-prevents-trabecular-bone-loss-and-affects-thyroid-follicular-cells-in-a-male-rat-model-of-osteoporosis
#15
Branko Filipović, Branka Šošić-Jurjević, Vladimir Ajdžanović, Jasmina Živanović, Milica Manojlović-Stojanoski, Nataša Nestorović, Nataša Ristić, Svetlana Trifunović, Verica Milošević
As a major phytoestrogen of soy, genistein effectively prevents bone loss in both humans and rat models of osteoporosis. However, although the bone-sparing effects of genistein are achieved directly through estrogen receptors, its mode of action on bone by modulation of other endocrine functions is not entirely clear. Thus, thyroid hormones and calcitonin (CT) have an essential influence on bone metabolism. Besides its action on bones, in this study we examined the effect of genistein on the activity of two different endocrine cell populations, thyroid follicular and C-cells...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761368/idh1-mutation-in-human-glioma-induces-chemical-alterations-that-are-amenable-to-optical-raman-spectroscopy
#16
Ortrud Uckermann, Wenmin Yao, Tareq A Juratli, Roberta Galli, Elke Leipnitz, Matthias Meinhardt, Edmund Koch, Gabriele Schackert, Gerald Steiner, Matthias Kirsch
INTRODUCTION: Mutations in the isocytrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene are early genetic events in glioma pathogenesis and cause profound metabolic changes. Because this genotype is found in virtually every tumor cell, therapies targeting mutant IDH1 protein are being developed. The intraoperative administration of those therapies would require fast technologies for the determination of IDH1 genotype. As of today, there is no such diagnostic test available. Recently, infrared spectroscopy was shown to bridge this gap...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759973/enhanced-glucose-control-following-vertical-sleeve-gastrectomy-does-not-require-a-%C3%AE-cell-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor
#17
Jonathan D Douros, Alfor G Lewis, Eric P Smith, JingJing Niu, Megan Capozzi, April Wittmann, Jonathan Campbell, Jenny Tong, Constance Wagner, Parinaz Mahbod, Randy Seeley, David A D'Alessio
Bariatric surgeries, including vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), resolve diabetes in 40-50% of patients. Studies examining the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect have centered on the role of the insulinotropic glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), in great part because of the ∼10-fold rise in its circulating levels after surgery. However, there is currently debate over the role of direct β-cell signaling by GLP-1 to mediate improved glucose tolerance following surgery. In order to assess the importance of β-cell GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) for improving glucose control after VSG, a mouse model of this procedure was developed and combined with a genetically modified mouse line allowing an inducible, β-cell specific Glp1r knockdown ( Glp1r β-cell-ko )...
May 14, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757442/effect-of-intravenous-fluid-volumes-on-the-adrenal-glucocorticoid-response-after-burn-injury-in-swine
#18
Belinda I Gómez, Celestine He, Tony Chao, Michael A Dubick, David M Burmeister
Objective: Severe thermal injury induces metabolic and physiological stress, prompting a disruption in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential confounding effects of Lactated Ringer's (LR) resuscitation on adrenal damage and cortisol production following burn. Methods: Anesthetized swine were instrumented with jugular catheters and sustained 40% TBSA burns from brass probes heated to 100ºC. Animals recovered to consciousness and received IV fluid resuscitation with LR at two different volumes: 15 mL/kg/day (Limited Volume; LV, n=6) or 2 mL/kg/%TBSA/day (Modified Brooke; MB, n=6)...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754940/radioguided-hepatic-resection-with-18-f-dopa-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-medullary-thyroid-carcinoma
#19
J López-Gómez, S Medina-Ornelas, M A Salazar-Álvarez, M Álvarez-Bojórquez, N Zaragoza-Cruz, J Melchor-Ruan, A Álvarez-Cano
INTRODUCTION: Medullary carcinoma accounts for 1-2% of all thyroid malignancies. 13-20% of patients present with distant metastasis, with 45% of the cases affecting the liver. CLINICAL CASE: A 50-year-old woman, diagnosed with medullary thyroid carcinoma, was treated with total thyroidectomy and a modified neck dissection in 1999. Two lymph node recurrences in the neck were treated with surgical resection; during surveillance, she developed elevated calcitonin levels, the recurrence site was identified with 18 F-DOPA PET/CT in the liver...
May 10, 2018: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754264/one-year-impact-of-bariatric-surgery-on-serum-anti-mullerian-hormone-levels-in-severely-obese-women
#20
Clara Vincentelli, Marie Maraninchi, René Valéro, Sophie Béliard, Flavia Maurice, Olivier Emungania, Bruno Berthet, Elise Lombard, Anne Dutour, Bénédicte Gaborit, Blandine Courbiere
INTRODUCTION: Although bariatric surgery seems to increase spontaneous fertility by improving ovulatory function in young women, its impact on ovarian reserve remains largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels in reproductive-age severely obese women after bariatric surgery (BS). METHODS: AMH levels were measured retrospectively in 39 women (mean age 34.6 ± 1.1 years, range 18-45) that underwent a sleeve gastrectomy or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) at baseline, and 6 and 12 months after BS...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
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