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noninvasive vascular imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441370/conventional-modalities-and-novel-emerging-imaging-techniques-for-musculoskeletal-tumors
#1
Meera Raghavan
BACKGROUND: Imaging of musculoskeletal tumors requires a multimodality approach and includes radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Topics related to primary bone and soft-tissue tumors are reviewed. The fundamental imaging principles are discussed as well as the applications of emerging imaging modalities. RESULTS: MRI is the preferred technique for the evaluation of musculoskeletal tumors, whereas other imaging modalities play a complementary role...
April 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432570/vascular-and-endothelial-function-in-youth-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#2
REVIEW
Amy S Shah, Elaine M Urbina
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to discuss the burden of type 2 diabetes in youth and summarize the studies that have utilized noninvasive techniques to assess early vascular disease in youth with type 2 diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Noninvasive imaging modalities provide researchers with tools to investigate the vasculature in adolescents with type 2 diabetes. The data published to date consistently show adolescents with type 2 diabetes have greater vascular thickness and stiffness and worse endothelial function compared to their obese and lean peers...
June 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415600/the-value-of-mri-in-evaluating-the-efficacy-and-complications-with-the-treatment-of-intra-arterial-chemotherapy-for-retinoblastoma
#3
Shuxian Chen, Xunda Ji, Ming Liu, Zhengrong Xia, Hui Zheng, Qiufeng Yin, He Wang, Yuhua Li
Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignant tumor of childhood. Intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) is a recently popularized technique used for the treatment of retinoblastoma, to decrease mortality, increase preservation of the eye, and prevent blindness. Along with the extensive use of IAC, it is important to apply noninvasive examination methods to assess the activity of the tumor and the risk factors for disease dissemination without histopathological confirmation. There are few studies that have assessed the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluating the efficacy and complications of IAC for retinoblastoma...
March 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413807/from-brain-to-blood-vessels-and-back-a-noninvasive-optical-imaging-approach
#4
REVIEW
Gabriele Gratton, Antonio M Chiarelli, Monica Fabiani
The seminal work of Grinvald et al. has paved the way for the use of intrinsic optical signals measured with reflection methods for the analysis of brain function. Although this work has focused on the absorption signal associated with deoxygenation, due to its detailed mapping ability and good signal-to-noise ratio, Grinvald's group has also described other intrinsic signals related to increased blood flow, scattering effects directly related to neural activation, and pulsation effects related to arterial function...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403072/retinal-microvascular-alterations-related-to-diabetes-assessed-by-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#5
Julien Gozlan, Pierre Ingrand, Olivier Lichtwitz, Agathe Cazet-Supervielle, Léa Benoudis, Michele Boissonnot, Samy Hadjadj, Nicolas Leveziel
Fluorescein angiography has been so far the gold-standard test to assess diabetic macular ischemia (DMI), a cause of irreversible visual impairment in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to investigate foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and perifoveal microcirculation changes in eyes with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), a new and noninvasive vascular imaging technique.Cross-sectional study including eyes of diabetic patients with NPDR.All patients underwent medical history, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement, slit-lamp and fundus examination, multicolor imaging, SD-OCT, and swept-source OCT...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390769/vascular-applications-of-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-imaging
#6
REVIEW
Kunal S Mehta, Jake J Lee, Ashraf A Taha, Efthymios Avgerinos, Rabih A Chaer
OBJECTIVE: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging is a powerful noninvasive modality offering numerous potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications in vascular medicine. CEUS imaging uses microbubble contrast agents composed of an encapsulating shell surrounding a gaseous core. These microbubbles act as nearly perfect intravascular reflectors of ultrasound energy and may be used to enhance the overall contrast and quality of ultrasound images. The purpose of this narrative review is to survey the current literature regarding CEUS imaging and discuss its diagnostic and therapeutic roles in current vascular and selected nonvascular applications...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385257/multimodality-imaging-in-individuals-with%C3%A2-anomalous-coronary-arteries
#7
REVIEW
Christoph Gräni, Ronny R Buechel, Philipp A Kaufmann, Raymond Y Kwong
Anomalous coronary arteries (ACA) represent a congenital disorder with an anomalous location of the coronary ostium and/or vascular course. Although most individuals with ACA are asymptomatic and remain undiagnosed, some ACA variants are clinically significant leading to symptoms and even adverse cardiac events. Currently, disease prevalence, pathophysiological mechanisms, risks of sudden cardiac death, and the optimal assessment and treatment strategies among subtypes of ACA remain largely unknown. Consequently, there is a lack of guidelines regarding imaging, sport restriction, and treatment options in individuals with ACA at all ages...
April 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384676/microscope-integrated-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-the-operating-room-in-young-children-with-retinal-vascular-disease
#8
Xi Chen, Christian Viehland, Oscar M Carrasco-Zevallos, Brenton Keller, Lejla Vajzovic, Joseph A Izatt, Cynthia A Toth
Importance: Intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) has gained traction as an important adjunct for clinical decision making during vitreoretinal surgery, and OCT angiography (OCTA) has provided novel insights in clinical evaluation of retinal diseases. To date, these two technologies have not been applied in combination to evaluate retinal vascular disease in the operating suite. Objective: To conduct microscope-integrated, swept-source OCTA (MIOCTA) in children with retinal vascular disease...
April 6, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381537/type-i-collagen-targeted-pet-probe-for-pulmonary-fibrosis-detection-and-staging-in-preclinical-models
#9
Pauline Désogère, Luis F Tapias, Lida P Hariri, Nicholas J Rotile, Tyson A Rietz, Clemens K Probst, Francesco Blasi, Helen Day, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Paul Weinreb, Shelia M Violette, Bryan C Fuchs, Andrew M Tager, Michael Lanuti, Peter Caravan
Pulmonary fibrosis is scarring of the lungs that can arise from radiation injury, drug toxicity, environmental or genetic causes, and for unknown reasons [idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)]. Overexpression of collagen is a hallmark of organ fibrosis. We describe a peptide-based positron emission tomography (PET) probe ((68)Ga-CBP8) that targets collagen type I. We evaluated (68)Ga-CBP8 in vivo in the bleomycin-induced mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis. (68)Ga-CBP8 showed high specificity for pulmonary fibrosis and high target/background ratios in diseased animals...
April 5, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370146/reproducibility-of-2-dimensional-shear-wave-elastography-assessment-of-the-liver-a-direct-comparison-with-point-shear-wave-elastography-in-healthy-volunteers
#10
Cheng Fang, Eleni Konstantatou, Odyssefs Romanos, Gibran T Yusuf, Daniel J Quinlan, Paul S Sidhu
OBJECTIVES: Two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) imaging for the noninvasive assessment of tissue stiffness was assessed for reproducibility in healthy volunteers in quantifying liver elasticity, compared with an established point shear wave elastography (p-SWE) technique also known as virtual touch quantification (VTQ) (SIEMENS). METHODS: Eleven healthy volunteers were examined by four experienced operators on two occasions, separated by two weeks (sessions A and B)...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362632/estimation-of-arterial-input-by-a-noninvasive-image-derived-method-in-brain-h-sub-2-sub-sup-15-sup-o-pet-study-confirmation-of-arterial-location-using-mr-angiography
#11
Muhammad Muinul Islam, Tetsuya Tsujikawa, Tetsuya Mori, Yasushi Kiyono, Hidehiko Okazawa
A noninvasive method to estimate input function directly from H<sub>2</sub><sup>15</sup>O brain PET data for measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) was proposed in this study. The image derived input function (IDIF) method extracted the time-activity curves (TAC) of the major cerebral arteries at the skull base from the dynamic PET data. The extracted primordial IDIF showed almost the same radioactivity as the arterial input function (AIF) from sampled blood at the plateau part in the later phase, but significantly lower radioactivity in the initial arterial phase compared with that of AIF-TAC...
March 31, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362051/deep-capillary-macular-perfusion-indices-obtained-with-oct-angiography-correlate-with-degree-of-nonproliferative-diabetic-retinopathy
#12
Kumar Sambhav, Khaled K Abu-Amero, Kakarla V Chalam
PURPOSE: To evaluate the integrity of macular and temporomacular vasculature in nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) with noninvasive optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and correlate perfusion indices with degree of NPDR. METHODS: In this prospective observational cross-sectional study, 102 eyes with newly diagnosed NPDR (mild NPDR, 36; moderate NPDR, 21; severe NPDR, 13; NPDR with diabetic macular edema [DME], 32) underwent OCTA. Sixty eyes of normal subjects served as control...
March 27, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353539/coronary-artery-endothelial-dysfunction-is-present-in-hiv-positive-individuals-without-significant-coronary-artery-disease
#13
Micaela Iantorno, Michael Schär, Sahar Soleimanifard, Todd T Brown, Richard Moore, Patricia Barditch-Crovo, Matthias Stuber, Shenghan Lai, Gary Gerstenblith, Robert G Weiss, Allison G Hays
OBJECTIVE: HIV+ individuals experience an increased burden of coronary artery disease (CAD) not adequately accounted for by traditional CAD risk factors. Coronary endothelial function (CEF), a barometer of vascular health, is depressed early in atherosclerosis and predicts future events but has not been studied in HIV+ individuals. We tested whether CEF is impaired in HIV+ subjects without CAD as compared to an HIV- population matched for cardiac risk factors. DESIGN/METHODS: In this observational study, CEF was measured noninvasively by quantifying isometric handgrip exercise (IHE)-induced changes in coronary vasoreactivity with MRI in 18 participants with HIV but no CAD (HIV+CAD-, based on prior imaging), 36 age- and cardiac risk factor-matched healthy participants with neither HIV nor CAD (HIV-CAD-), 41 subjects with no HIV but with known CAD (HIV-CAD+) and 17 subjects with both HIV and CAD (HIV+CAD+)...
March 28, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332442/ultrasound-imaging-in-the-diagnosis-of-large-vessel-vasculitis
#14
Michael Czihal, Christian Lottspeich, Ulrich Hoffmann
Nowadays noninvasive vascular imaging has an important role in the diagnostic work-up of the large vessel vasculitides (LVV), most importantly giant cell arteritis (GCA) and Takayasu arteritis. Among the imaging modalities available, ultrasound (US) has several important advantages, including low costs, rapid and repetitive availability without exposure to radiation, and high spatial resolution for assessment of large and medium-sized arteries. Therefore, US can be regarded the first line imaging method in suspected LVV...
March 23, 2017: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330415/novel-detection-of-placental-insufficiency-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-the-nonhuman-primate
#15
Jamie O Lo, Victoria H J Roberts, Matthias C Schabel, Xiaojie Wang, Terry K Morgan, Zheng Liu, Colin Studholme, Christopher D Kroenke, Antonio E Frias
The placenta is a vital organ necessary for healthy fetal development. Placental insufficiency creates an in utero environment where the fetus is at risk of insufficient oxygen or nutrient exchange. This is primarily caused by impairment of either maternal or fetal circulation or vascular thrombosis such as placental infarction. As a result of placental dysfunction, affected fetuses may be growth restricted, neurologically impaired, and at risk of increased morbidity and mortality. In a cohort of 4 pregnant Rhesus macaques, we describe antenatal detection of naturally occurring intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and aberrant fetal neurodevelopment in 1 animal...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306539/three-dimensional-power-doppler-of-the-placenta-and-its-clinical-applications
#16
Kelly Yamasato, Ivica Zalud
The aim of this review is to discuss three dimensional (3D) power Doppler of the placenta and its clinical applications. There is a strong clinical need to develop noninvasive, simple and widely available methods of evaluating in vivo placental function to assess fetal wellbeing. While conventional ultrasound is a proven tool in the evaluation of fetal structural anomalies and health, its ability to assess placental function, especially prior to the onset of fetal compromise, is the subject of ongoing investigation...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303161/a-systematic-review-of-intervention-studies-examining-nutritional-and-herbal-therapies-for-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-using-neuroimaging-methods-study-characteristics-and-intervention-efficacy
#17
REVIEW
Genevieve Z Steiner, Danielle C Mathersul, Freya MacMillan, David A Camfield, Nerida L Klupp, Sai W Seto, Yong Huang, Mark I Hohenberg, Dennis H Chang
Neuroimaging facilitates the assessment of complementary medicines (CMs) by providing a noninvasive insight into their mechanisms of action in the human brain. This is important for identifying the potential treatment options for target disease cohorts with complex pathophysiologies. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate study characteristics, intervention efficacy, and the structural and functional neuroimaging methods used in research assessing nutritional and herbal medicines for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298387/diagnosis-of-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension
#18
REVIEW
Deepa Gopalan, Marion Delcroix, Matthias Held
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is the only potentially curable form of pulmonary hypertension. Rapid and accurate diagnosis is pivotal for successful treatment. Clinical signs and symptoms can be nonspecific and risk factors such as history of venous thromboembolism may not always be present. Echocardiography is the recommended first diagnostic step. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is a complementary tool that can help to identify patients with milder abnormalities and chronic thromboembolic disease, triggering the need for further investigation...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293432/diabetic-retinopathy-and-oct-angiography-clinical-findings-and-future-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
Jose Mauricio Botto de Barros Garcia, David Leonardo Cruvinel Isaac, Marcos Avila
In diabetic retinopathy (DR), macular involvement can present as either macular edema or ischemia. Fluorescein angiography remains the gold standard in the evaluation of retinal vascular perfusion and diagnosis of macular ischemia. However, it is a costly, time-consuming technique, it requires venipuncture, and reports of anaphylaxis and death related to fluorescein injections have been documented, despite their rarity. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides a fast and non-invasive method to assess retinal structures at a microscopic level...
2017: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272284/quantitative-analysis-of-structural-alterations-in-the-choroid-of-patients-with-active-beh%C3%A3-et-uveitis
#20
Sumru Onal, Gunay Uludag, Merih Oray, Emre Mengi, Carl P Herbort, Mehmet Akman, Mustafa M Metin, Aylin Koc Akbay, Ilknur Tugal-Tutkun
PURPOSE: To quantitatively analyze in vivo morphology of subfoveal choroid during an acute attack of Behçet uveitis. METHODS: In this prospective study, 28 patients with Behçet uveitis of ≤4-year duration, and 28 control subjects underwent enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. A novel custom software was used to calculate choroidal stroma-to-choroidal vessel lumen ratio. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured at fovea and 750 μm nasal, temporal, superior, and inferior to fovea...
March 7, 2017: Retina
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